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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Russel Poskitt and Peihong Yang

This study investigates the impact of the enhanced continuous disclosure regime introduced in December 2002 on several measures of information risk in NZX‐listed stocks…

Abstract

This study investigates the impact of the enhanced continuous disclosure regime introduced in December 2002 on several measures of information risk in NZX‐listed stocks. We employ two microstructure models and an intraday data set to measure information risk in a sample of 71 stocks. Our empirical results show that the reforms enacted in December 2002 had no significant effect on either the level of information‐based trading or the adverse selection component of market spreads in our sample of NZX‐listed stocks.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2021

Ying Zhang, Xing Lu and Wikrom Prombutr

The authors investigate the extent to which online talk can influence contemporaneous and future stock trading, especially when market news is unpresented.

Abstract

Purpose

The authors investigate the extent to which online talk can influence contemporaneous and future stock trading, especially when market news is unpresented.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose an improved sentiment formula incorporating online hype, neutral sentiment and poster reputation. In addition, they conduct event study, OLS regression analyses and probit models.

Findings

First, investors tend to be more talkative in relation to firms that are (1) smaller size, (2) more growth-like, (3) with lower prices and higher short interests and (4) of higher beta. Second, the bullish tone of investors positively affects the abnormal returns of small-capitalization stocks. However, online talk has little impact on large-capitalization stocks, except that more postings boost trading liquidity. Third, online talk predicts the presence of future news regardless of firm size, with stronger predictive power found for small-capitalization stocks.

Practical implications

It is of interest to practitioners and researchers to study online talk so as to better understand the trading psychology of retail investors and the effects on the stock market. Furthermore, policymakers are interested in tracking activities on stock message boards in order to prevent security fraud and protect investors' interests.

Originality/value

The results are robust and suggest that online talk has significant impacts on stock trading exploiting an information asymmetry. This study of stock message board posting activities helps researchers to understand whether message contents contain valuable and unique content compared with information available via more traditional media channels.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Maurizio d'Amato, Nikolaj Siniak and Giulia Mastrodonato

The purpose of this study is providing a possible methodological solution to the valuation of cyclical.assets. International Valuation Standards introduce a brand new…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is providing a possible methodological solution to the valuation of cyclical.assets. International Valuation Standards introduce a brand new definition of property: the cyclical asset (International Valuation Standards Council 2017, IVS 105, p. 39 and p. 41). Among different property valuation methods, normally this kind of properties is appraised using income approach. In this group of methodology, the opinion of value is based on a proportional relationship between property value and rent. In the past years, a group of methods called cyclical capitalization has been proposed (d’Amato, 2003; d’Amato, 2013;d’Amato, 2015; d’Amato, 2017a; d’Amato 2017 b; d’Amato, 2017c). This method proposes an integration between property valuation and property market cycle.

Design/methodology/approach

Cyclical capitalization method is applied using a time series of property market rent of offices in prime location in the South Bank area in London. It consists of the determination of more than one all-risk yield to reproduce the property market cycle.

Findings

A comparison between the cyclical capitalization and two traditional capitalization rate shows how the proposed model is able to provide a stable opinion of value.

Research limitations/implications

The method may represent a contribution for the determination of the value of cyclical assets or for the mortgage lending value.

Practical implications

This paper provides the possibility to have a property valuation method less sensitive to upturn and downturn of the property market.

Social implications

The valuation based on cyclical capitalization are less sensitive to the upturn and the downturn of the market.

Originality/value

It is one of the first scientific paper addressing the problem of the determination of the value of cyclical assets.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2015

Pankaj Sinha and Shalini Agnihotri

This paper aims to investigate the effect of non-normality in returns and market capitalization of stock portfolios and stock indices on value at risk and conditional VaR…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the effect of non-normality in returns and market capitalization of stock portfolios and stock indices on value at risk and conditional VaR estimation. It is a well-documented fact that returns of stocks and stock indices are not normally distributed, as Indian financial markets are more prone to shocks caused by regulatory changes, exchange rate fluctuations, financial instability, political uncertainty and inadequate economic reforms. Further, the relationship of liquidity represented by volume traded of stocks and the market risk calculated by VaR of the firms is studied.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, VaR is estimated by fitting empirical distribution of returns, parametric method and by using GARCH(1,1) with Student’s t innovation method.

Findings

It is observed that both the stocks, stock indices and their residuals exhibit non-normality; therefore, conventional methods of VaR calculation are not accurate in real word situation. It is observed that parametric method of VaR calculation is underestimating VaR and CVaR but, VaR estimated by fitting empirical distribution of return and finding out 1-a percentile is giving better results as non-normality in returns is considered. The distributions fitted by the return series are following Logistic, Weibull and Laplace. It is also observed that VaR violations are increasing with decreasing market capitalization. Therefore, we can say that market capitalization also affects accurate VaR calculation. Further, the relationship of liquidity represented by volume traded of stocks and the market risk calculated by VaR of the firms is studied. It is observed that the decrease in liquidity increases the value at risk of the firms.

Research limitations/implications

This methodology can further be extended to other assets’ VaR calculation like foreign exchange rates, commodities and bank loan portfolios, etc.

Practical implications

This finding can help risk managers and mutual fund managers (as they have portfolios of different assets size) in estimating VaR of portfolios with non-normal returns and different market capitalization with precision. VaR is used as tool in setting trading limits at trading desks. Therefore, if VaR is calculated which takes into account non-normality of underlying distribution of return then trading limits can be set with precision. Hence, both risk management and risk measurement through VaR can be enhanced if VaR is calculated with accuracy.

Originality/value

This paper is considering the joint issue of non-normality in returns and effect of market capitalization in VaR estimation.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Jarrod Kerr, Mei Qiu and Lawrence C. Rose

The paper aims to investigate the long‐run performance of privatised initial public offerings (IPOs) and their effects on the New Zealand share market (NZSE) and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to investigate the long‐run performance of privatised initial public offerings (IPOs) and their effects on the New Zealand share market (NZSE) and the Australian share market (ASX).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines the relationship between privatisation and share market capitalisation, liquidity and share ownership. The research also evaluates long‐run risk‐return performance of the privatised companies' portfolios.

Findings

The analysis reveals that privatisations have significantly increased share market capitalisation and have impacted on the market liquidity. In general, anyone investing in privatised companies' portfolios could have received significantly higher returns than investing in an aggregate market portfolio.

Originality/value

The findings have significant practical implications for individual and institutional investors.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Simon C. Mueller, Alex Bakhirev, Markus Böhm, Marina Schröer, Helmut Krcmar and Isabell M. Welpe

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to quantify the digital economy using a representative measurement approach and use it to analyze the USA, Germany, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to quantify the digital economy using a representative measurement approach and use it to analyze the USA, Germany, the Republic of Korea and Sweden.

Design/methodology/approach

The research approach of this paper is based on a developed methodology to identify firms of the digital economy by measuring the market capitalization of selected countries in comparison over time using financial databases.

Findings

Comparing the market capitalization of the digital economy, the USA lead both in absolute as well as in relative terms. The 11 firms with the largest market capitalization are all American. For Germany, the results show that policy measures should be undertaken to ameliorate competitiveness in the field.

Research limitations/implications

This current measurement only includes public firms. An interesting avenue for future research would be to transfer the approach to investigate private firms.

Originality/value

Previous research has focused on comparing information and communication technologies adoption and infrastructure as well as innovation hubs between countries. The authors are not aware of any paper to date which has compared market capitalization in the digital economy between countries using a representative sample. This paper offers a research approach to measure and compare the digital economy between countries. The methodology could be applied to other countries which seek to benchmark their performance and derive policy measures to be able to compete with jurisdictions leading in the digital economy.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Eduardo Saucedo and Jorge Gonzalez

Fama–French model (FFM) has been successful in helping to predict the financial markets, but investors have been interested in creating more sophisticated models to better…

Abstract

Purpose

Fama–French model (FFM) has been successful in helping to predict the financial markets, but investors have been interested in creating more sophisticated models to better predict the performance of the stock market. The objective of the extended version is to create a more robust econometric model to better predict the performance of the Mexican Stock Market.

Design/methodology/approach

The study divides the Mexican Stock Market into six different portfolios. The criteria to build those portfolios are the same one used in Fama–French (1992). The study comprises 78 stocks listed in the Mexican Stock Market that are analyzed monthly during 1997–2018. The study analyzes the period before and after the 2008–2009 financial crisis to identify whether there are important changes. The estimation applies the traditional and an extended version of the FFM that include macroeconomic variables such as country risk, economic activity, inflation rate, and exchange rate and some financial variables recommended in the literature.

Findings

Results indicate that classic FFM variables are statistically significant in most cases, but relevant macroeconomic variables such as the interest rate, exchange rate and country risk stand out for being weakly relevant in most of the portfolios. However, it is noticed that some of these macroeconomic variables became relevant for different portfolios only after the 2008–2009 crisis, especially in portfolios which include small market capitalization firms.

Research limitations/implications

The study includes the stocks listed in the Mexican Stock Market. One limitation is the small number of stocks available, which reduces the possibility of creating well diversified portfolios. This study includes 78 stocks. The stocks removed from the sample are from firms that were not listed during six consecutive months or whose market capitalization did not change in the same period. Outlier data were removed from the sample to capture in better way the general performance of the stock market.

Practical implications

The objective of the extended version is to create a more robust econometric model than the traditional model. It is expected that such estimations can be helpful to investors to make better decisions when they try to predict performance in the stock market.

Social implications

An extended version of the FFM can be helpful to investors to make better decisions when they try to predict performance in the stock market.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge there are no more studies in the literature of the Mexican financial market that apply the same methodology.

Details

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2077-1886

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Article
Publication date: 21 February 2019

Gaetano Lisi

The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrated approach that combines the two methods usually used in the real estate appraisals, namely, the income capitalisation

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrated approach that combines the two methods usually used in the real estate appraisals, namely, the income capitalisation method and the hedonic model.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to pull out the link between the income capitalisation approach and the hedonic model, the standard hedonic price function is introduced into the basic model of income capitalisation instead of the house market value. It follows that, from the partial derivative, a direct relation between hedonic prices and discount rate can be obtained. Finally, by using the close relationship between income capitalisation and direct capitalisation, a mathematical relation between hedonic prices and capitalisation rate is also obtained.

Findings

The developed method allows to estimate the capitalisation rate using only hedonic prices. Indeed, selling and hedonic prices incorporate all of the information required to correctly estimate the capitalisation rate. Furthermore, given the close relation among going-in and going-out capitalisation rates and discount rate, the proposed method could also be useful for determining both the going-out capitalisation rate and the discount rate.

Practical implications

Obviously, it is always preferable to estimate the capitalisation rate by just using comparable transactional data. Nevertheless, the method developed in this paper is especially useful when: the rental income data are missing and/or not entirely reliable; the data on rental income and house price are related to different homes; the capitalisation rate, in fact, should compare the rent and value of identical homes. In these cases, therefore, the method can be a valuable alternative to direct estimation.

Originality/value

The large and important literature on real estate economics and real estate appraisal neglects the relationship between hedonic prices and capitalisation rate, thus considering the hedonic model and the income capitalisation approach as two separate and alternative methods. This paper, instead, shows that integration is possible and relatively simple.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2013

Ihtisham Abdul Malik and Shehla Amjad

This paper aims to investigate the impact of FDI on the stock market development in Pakistan, both aggregate as well as sector wise, the reason being that no such work has…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of FDI on the stock market development in Pakistan, both aggregate as well as sector wise, the reason being that no such work has been carried out in this context.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on secondary data for the period 1985‐2011. Johansen co‐integration approach is used for determining relationship among variables for aggregate stock market development in long run. Granger causality test is also applied to check the causal relation between the variables. Correlation analysis and regression analysis has been used for examining the relationship of sector wise development, FDI and economic growth in Pakistan.

Findings

The results support the positive role of FDI in boosting the aggregate stock market development in long run. Bi‐directional causality between FDI and economic growth has been found along with the uni‐directional causality between aggregate stock market development and economic growth. For sector wise development the relationship of FDI is positive in the sectors where FDI concentration is high in recent years whereas and negative in other sectors.

Originality/value

Co‐integration coefficients showed a positive and statistically strong relationship between FDI and aggregate market capitalization thus reflecting the complementary role of FDI in the stock market development of Pakistan.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2012

Debasis Bagchi

Earlier studies establish a positive relationship between volatility index (VIX) and the stock index returns. These studies are mainly restricted to developed markets and…

Abstract

Purpose

Earlier studies establish a positive relationship between volatility index (VIX) and the stock index returns. These studies are mainly restricted to developed markets and research in this regard in emerging markets is scarce. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper studies the direct and cross‐sectional relationship of India VIX in relation to three important parameters: viz., stock beta, market to book value of equity and market capitalization. The paper constructs value weighted portfolio sorted on the basis viz., stock beta, market to book value of equity and market capitalization. The paper employs three‐factor multiple regression to find out the results.

Findings

The paper finds that India VIX has a positive and significant relationship with the returns of the value‐weighted high‐low portfolios sorted on the basis of the above parameters. The paper examines the behavior of India VIX in the presence of the above two parameters. The India VIX yields a positive and significant relationship with the above sorted portfolio returns.

Research limitations/implications

India VIX was recently introduced in November, 2007 and therefore the research is expected to suffer from small sample bias.

Practical implications

The findings suggest India VIX is a distinct risk factor capable of predicting the price discovery mechanism of the market.

Originality/value

In the rapidly expanding emerging markets the introduction of Volatility Index is a recent phenomenon. Research in this regard is scarce, particularly in the area of finding predictive ability of the Volatility Index. This research is in this direction and would definitely help the market regulators and policy‐makers with their understanding of the market and market direction. It would help them to correct the market imbalances and avert crisis, which has been recently witnessed.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

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