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1 – 10 of 13
Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Robert W. Herdt and Rebecca Nelson

The products of transgenic technology have captured the attention of enthusiasts and detractors, but transgenics are just one tool of agricultural biotechnology. Other…

Abstract

The products of transgenic technology have captured the attention of enthusiasts and detractors, but transgenics are just one tool of agricultural biotechnology. Other applications enable scientists to understand biodiversity, to track genes through generations in breeding programs, and to move genes among closely related as well as unrelated organisms. These applications all have the potential to lead to substantial productivity gains.

In this chapter we provide an introduction to basic plant genetic concepts, defining molecular markers, transgenic and cisgenic techniques. We briefly summarize the status of commercialized biotechnology applications to agriculture. We consider the likely future commercialization of products like drought tolerant crops, crops designed to improve human nutrition, pharmaceuticals from transgenic plants, biofuels, and crops for environmental remediation. We identify genomic selection as a potentially powerful new technique and conclude with our reflections on the state of agricultural biotechnology.

Research at universities and other public-sector institutions, largely focused on advancing knowledge, has aroused enormous optimism about the promise of these DNA-based technologies. This in turn has led to large private-sector investments on maize, soybean, canola, and cotton, with wide adoption of the research products in about eight countries. Much has been made of the potential of biotechnology to address food needs in the low-income countries, and China, India, and Brazil have large public DNA-based crop variety development efforts. But other lower income developing countries have little capability to use these tools, even the most straightforward marker applications. Ensuring that these and other applications of biotechnology lead to products that are well adapted to local agriculture requires adaptive research capacity that is lacking in the lowest income, most food-insecure nations. We are less optimistic than many others that private research will fund these needs.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Wuletaw Tadesse, Zewdie Bishaw and Solomon Assefa

This paper aims to review the current status of wheat production, farming systems, production constraints and wheat demand-supply chain analysis; the role of international…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the current status of wheat production, farming systems, production constraints and wheat demand-supply chain analysis; the role of international and national breeding programs and their approaches in wheat genetic improvement including targeting mega environments, shuttle breeding, doubled haploids, marker-assisted selection and key location phenotyping; and future prospects and opportunities of wheat production in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA).

Design/methodology/approach

Relevant literature works have been used and cited accordingly.

Findings

Though traditionally wheat was not the leading staple crop in SSA, it is becoming an important food crop because of rapid population growth associated with increased urbanization and change in food preference for easy and fast food such as bread, biscuits, pasta, noodles and porridge. In 2013, total wheat consumption in SSA reached 25 million tons with import accounting for 17.5 million tons at a price of USD6 billion, while during the same period the region produces only 7.3 million tons on a total area of 2.9 million hectares. The low productivity (2t/ha) in the region is principally because of abiotic (drought and heat) and biotic (yellow rust, stem rust, septoria and fusarium) stresses which are increasing in intensity and frequency associated with climate change. Furthermore, increased cost of production, growing populations, increased rural-urban migration, low public and private investments, weak extension systems and policies, and low adoption rates of new technologies remain to be major challenges for wheat production in SSA. Wheat breeding in SSA is dominantly carried out by National Agricultural Research Systems, in partnership with the international research centers [International center for improvement of maize and wheat (CIMMYT) and International center for agricultural research in the dry areas (ICARDA)], to develop high yielding and widely adapted wheat genotypes with increased water-use efficiency, heat tolerance and resistance to major diseases and pests. Most of the cultivars grown in SSA are originated from the international research centers, CIMMYT and ICARDA.

Practical implications

This paper will help to promote available wheat technologies in SSA by creating awareness to wheat scientists, extension agents and policymakers.

Originality/value

This manuscript is an original review paper which has not been published in this form elsewhere.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Abstract

Details

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-758-2

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1996

Grahame Bulfield

Animal production is still a major UK industry of about £10 billion and like all aspects of agriculture faces a number of challenges. The biotechnology revolution is also…

1001

Abstract

Animal production is still a major UK industry of about £10 billion and like all aspects of agriculture faces a number of challenges. The biotechnology revolution is also sweeping through the industry with a range of major emerging technologies becoming available. Describes these technologies and discusses their potential impact on the agro‐food industry and the public. Although the issues raised appear at first sight novel, they can be regulated under the current framework available within the UK; public concern over some of the technologies is genuine but in most cases can be answered. Currently research in the UK puts this country at the forefront of these technologies and the emerging commercial opportunities must not be lost.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 98 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2017

Andreas W. Ebert

Malnutrition is widespread and affects about one-third of humanity. Increasing production and consumption of vegetables is an obvious pathway to improve dietary diversity…

Abstract

Malnutrition is widespread and affects about one-third of humanity. Increasing production and consumption of vegetables is an obvious pathway to improve dietary diversity, nutrition and health. This chapter analyses how climate change is affecting vegetable production, with a special focus on the spread of insect pests and diseases. A thorough literature review was undertaken to assess current global vegetable production, the factors that affect the spread of diseases and insect pests, the implications caused by climate change, and how some of these constraints can be overcome. This study found that climate change combined with globalization, increased human mobility, and pathogen and vector evolution has increased the spread of invasive plant pathogens and other species with high fertility and dispersal. The ability to transfer genes from wild relatives into cultivated elite varieties accelerates the development of novel vegetable varieties. World Vegetable Center breeders have embarked on breeding for multiple disease resistance against a few important pathogens of global relevance and with large evolutionary potential, such as chili anthracnose and tomato bacterial wilt. The practical implications of this are that agronomic practices that enhance microbial diversity may suppress emerging plant pathogens through biological control. Grafting can effectively control soil-borne diseases and overcome abiotic stress. Biopesticides and natural enemies either alone or in combination can play a significant role in sustainable pathogen and insect pest management in vegetable production system. This chapter highlights the importance of integrated disease and pest management and the use of diverse production systems for enhanced resilience and sustainability of highly vulnerable, uniform cropping systems.

Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

William Wilson, Sumadhur Shakya and Bruce Dahl

The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical model to value traits at different developmental phases and to determine the value of drought tolerance (DT) in wheat…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop an analytical model to value traits at different developmental phases and to determine the value of drought tolerance (DT) in wheat using GM technology.

Design/methodology/approach

A stochastic binomial real-options model of GM traits was developed to estimate the value of a DT wheat trait.

Findings

The results indicate that the value of DT wheat using GM technology is in-the-money at each development phase. The greatest value would accrue for the Prairie Gateway and Northern Great Plains regions in the USA.

Research limitations/implications

The approach is useful for valuing high-cost risky investments in technology and results provide guidance for development strategies.

Originality/value

The model is original and its applications to wheat are unique.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 75 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Clare D’Souza and Ali Quazi

The purpose of this paper is to express a general review on how best in the present time can one market genetically modified (GM) foods in the face of the controversial…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to express a general review on how best in the present time can one market genetically modified (GM) foods in the face of the controversial arguments faced globally. Despite the importance of marketing, many organizations though they understand its worth, fail to find radical strategic solutions for the problems encountered by their products. In fact most of them find that disclosing GM ingredients will prohibit consumers from buying their products, whilst, the few GM foods that were proactively marketed indicated the potential of effective marketing and successful product placement.

Design/methodology/approach

To be able to market GM foods, an understanding of customer value and problems customers envisage is discussed. The paper attempts to provide a general global perspective on consumer’s views about these issues and with the help of a conceptual model it attempts to identify some of the problems related with marketing GM foods.

Findings

The findings indicate that these products would have to be repositioned as being seen as less risky and more beneficial to consumers in the light that they can be scientifically proven.

Originality/value

This research is innovative in the sense it demonstrates an understanding of how to provide customer value for not only consumers who are the ultimate end users but also provides an insight to a broader audience such as manufacturers, agriculturalists and marketing professionals as to what are some of the contributing factors that consumers look for to make an informed choice.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 28 January 2019

Bothaina A. Al-Sheeb, A.M. Hamouda and Galal M. Abdella

The retention and success of engineering undergraduates are increasing concern for higher-education institutions. The study of success determinants are initial steps in…

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Abstract

Purpose

The retention and success of engineering undergraduates are increasing concern for higher-education institutions. The study of success determinants are initial steps in any remedial initiative targeted to enhance student success and prevent any immature withdrawals. This study provides a comprehensive approach toward the prediction of student academic performance through the lens of the knowledge, attitudes and behavioral skills (KAB) model. The purpose of this paper is to aim to improve the modeling accuracy of students’ performance by introducing two methodologies based on variable selection and dimensionality reduction.

Design/methodology/approach

The performance of the proposed methodologies was evaluated using a real data set of ten critical-to-success factors on both attitude and skill-related behaviors of 320 first-year students. The study used two models. In the first model, exploratory factor analysis is used. The second model uses regression model selection. Ridge regression is used as a second step in each model. The efficiency of each model is discussed in the Results section of this paper.

Findings

The two methods were powerful in providing small mean-squared errors and hence, in improving the prediction of student performance. The results show that the quality of both methods is sensitive to the size of the reduced model and to the magnitude of the penalization parameter.

Research limitations/implications

First, the survey could have been conducted in two parts; students needed more time than expected to complete it. Second, if the study is to be carried out for second-year students, grades of general engineering courses can be included in the model for better estimation of students’ grade point averages. Third, the study only applies to first-year and second-year students because factors covered are those that are essential for students’ survival through the first few years of study.

Practical implications

The study proposes that vulnerable students could be identified as early as possible in the academic year. These students could be encouraged to engage more in their learning process. Carrying out such measurement at the beginning of the college year can provide professional and college administration with valuable insight on students perception of their own skills and attitudes toward engineering.

Originality/value

This study employs the KAB model as a comprehensive approach to the study of success predictors. The implementation of two new methodologies to improve the prediction accuracy of student success.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Jong Woo Choi, Chengyan Yue, James Luby, Shuoli Zhao, Karina Gallardo, Vicki McCracken and Jim McFerson

Development of new cultivars requires extensive genetic knowledge, trained personnel, and significant financial resources, so it is crucial for breeders to focus on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Development of new cultivars requires extensive genetic knowledge, trained personnel, and significant financial resources, so it is crucial for breeders to focus on the attributes most preferred by the key supply chain stakeholders such as consumers and producers. The purpose of this paper is to identify which attributes generate the highest total revenue or social surplus, information that breeders can take into account as they allocate resources to focus on attributes in their breeding programs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used mail-in and online surveys to collect consumer and producer choice experiment data, and then employed mixed logit models to analyze and simulate individual producer and consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for the apple attributes.

Findings

Based on the simulation results, this study derived the supply and demand curves and the market equilibrium prices and quantities for each apple attribute. Based on the WTP analysis for both consumer and producer, this paper found the highest equilibrium price and welfare for apples come from crispness, followed by flavor.

Originality/value

The authors propose a framework to estimate the equilibrium prices and quantities of a product based on the results of choice experiments. The framework can be easily adapted to understand any countries’ producer and consumer preferences for certain products.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Leonello Trivelli, Andrea Apicella, Filippo Chiarello, Roberto Rana, Gualtiero Fantoni and Angela Tarabella

Circumstances that are have a significant impact on it. In particular, environmental sustainability related to the increase of worldwide population, and market demand for…

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Abstract

Purpose

Circumstances that are have a significant impact on it. In particular, environmental sustainability related to the increase of worldwide population, and market demand for agricultural products (with consumers more and more aware about cultivation and breeding techniques and interested in healthy and high-quality products) represent two of the key challenges that the agricultural sector is going to face in next years. In such a landscape, technological innovations that can support organizations and entrepreneurs to face these problems become increasingly important, and Industry 4.0 is the most striking example. Indeed, the Industry 4.0 paradigm aims to integrate digital technologies into business processes to raise productivity levels and to develop new business models. Accordingly, digital technologies play a similar role in the precision agriculture domain, and the purpose of this paper is to understand if the technologies at the basis of these two paradigms are the same or not.

Design/methodology/approach

The present work investigates how the two domains of Industry 4.0 and precision agriculture are connected to one another by analyzing the most used technologies in both the fields in order to highlight common patterns and technological overlaps. To reach such goal, an approach combining manual and automated analysis was developed.

Findings

The research work generated three main results: a dictionary of precision agriculture technologies including 324 terms; a graph, describing the connections between the technologies composing the dictionary; and a representation of the main technological clusters identified.

Originality/value

These show how the two domains under analysis are directly connected and describe the most important technologies to leverage when approaching digital transformation processes in the agricultural sector.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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