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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2009

Marc Fetscherin and Mark Toncar

Chinese and Indian car manufacturers are entering developed markets. The question arises how they will be perceived by consumers from those countries. Using the…

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Abstract

Chinese and Indian car manufacturers are entering developed markets. The question arises how they will be perceived by consumers from those countries. Using the multi‐dimensional brand personality scale, this paper provides an explorative study of the country of origin effect on U.S. consumers’ brand perception of automobiles from China and India. Our multivariate analysis of variance shows differences in terms of brand excitement, brand competence, brand sophistication, and brand ruggedness. Our results indicate that the Chinese car is perceived to be more daring, up‐to‐date, and outdoorsy than the Indian and U.S. car; more intelligent, successful, and upper‐class than the Indian car; and more charming than the U.S. car. The U.S. car is perceived as more successful than the Indian car.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Mark Toncar and Marc Fetscherin

This paper aims to investigate visual exaggerations of fragrance advertisements by comparing subjects' expectations resulting from print ads to their subsequent product…

5854

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate visual exaggerations of fragrance advertisements by comparing subjects' expectations resulting from print ads to their subsequent product evaluations. It then considers whether the actual scents fall short, meet or exceed these expectations.

Design/methodology/approach

By means of a semiotic analysis the authors capture the corresponding literary attributes of the ads to develop adjective pairs describing the meaning of the ads. Interviews are conducted to assess the meaning that consumers draw from the fragrance ads and the authors supplement these findings by performing a blind olfactory product evaluation of the fragrances. Paired sample t‐tests are used to compare subjects' ad expectations to their subsequent product evaluation of the actual scent.

Findings

These results show that the visual cues and imagery in the fragrance ads appear, under certain conditions, to result in product expectations that exceed actual product evaluations, suggesting the existence of visual puffery. The authors also found that the more abstract descriptors of the ad resulted in significantly higher expectations, while the more concrete descriptors resulted in significantly lower expectations than the actual product evaluation.

Research limitations/implications

A small sample size of homogenous consumers limits the generalizability of the results. No measures of attitude effectiveness were taken.

Practical implications

Visual puffery may be effective and help marketers, even in countries where verbal puffery is illegal, to use another means to reach consumers.

Originality/value

This paper investigates an under‐researched area in advertising. A multi‐method approach and primary data are used to assess subjects' ad expectations of a fragrance and the actual product evaluation and demonstrate the existence of visual puffery.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 46 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Audhesh K. Paswan and S. Prasad Kantamneni

A framework for evaluating public opinion towards franchising is proposed and empirically tested in an emerging market, India. Franchising in an emerging market was…

2255

Abstract

A framework for evaluating public opinion towards franchising is proposed and empirically tested in an emerging market, India. Franchising in an emerging market was selected as the context because – (1) future growth is likely to come from newly emerging markets, (2) franchising is primarily seen as a foreign concept in emerging markets and has attracted its fair share of attention, both positive and negative. The results indicate that people evaluate franchising using four key factors – well being of small businesses, socio‐economic, socio‐cultural well being, and employment opportunity. This study further investigates the relationship between these factors and patronage behaviour. Some of these factors were associated with patronage behaviour and the associated residual feeling. Clearly, in order to succeed in emerging and developing markets, the franchising industry must pay heed to public opinion.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2007

Mark Toncar, Jane S. Reid and Cynthia E. Anderson

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the consequences of using national celebrities, local celebrities and disaster victims as spokespersons in a public service…

3679

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to investigate the consequences of using national celebrities, local celebrities and disaster victims as spokespersons in a public service radio announcement (PSA) soliciting contributions for victims of Hurricane Katrina.

Design/methodology/approach

Subjects were exposed to one of three public service announcements and were then asked to report their reactions to the messages. Differences in the self‐reported reactions of subjects were used to test a series of hypotheses regarding the effectiveness of the three different types of spokespersons.

Findings

The paper finds that the hurricane victim was the most credible and believable spokesperson. The national celebrity, Ashlee Simpson, was the least credible and the least believable. The local celebrity was more credible and believable than the national celebrity, but no more so than the hurricane victim.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper a small student sample was used in an experimental setting involving one set of stimuli and one set of spokespersons. It cannot be said that the results would generalize to other celebrities, non‐celebrities, video formats, or non‐experimental settings.

Practical implications

The paper shows that nonprofit agencies considering using celebrity spokespersons in PSAs should do so with caution. There is no evidence that they increase their effectiveness and, at least in the case of the national celebrity, the use of national celebrities may reduce the effectiveness of the PSA.

Originality/value

The paper applies the concepts developed in the study of celebrity spokespersons in advertising and applies them to PSAs. The effects of celebrity spokespersons in PSAs are not the same as in conventional advertising messages.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 April 2010

Marc Fetscherin and Mark Toncar

The purpose of this paper is to offer a new perspective of country of origin effects on consumers' brand personality perceptions of domestic and imported automobiles. It…

10342

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a new perspective of country of origin effects on consumers' brand personality perceptions of domestic and imported automobiles. It aims to assess the perceived similarities and differences between automobiles from two countries with respect to the country of origin of the brand (COB) and the country of manufacturing (COM) of that same brand.

Design/methodology/approach

An experimental design was used to investigate developed country consumers' brand personality perceptions of three cars: a domestic car; a car manufactured in a developing country by a developing country manufacturer; and a car from a developing country manufacturer that is manufactured in the developed country. Data were collected in the USA and therefore a US car was used as the developed country car. China was selected as the developing country of origin. A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data.

Findings

Multivariate analysis of variance indicates that consumers' brand personality perceptions varied according to the country of origin (COB) of the brand and the country of manufacture (COM) of the brand. The COM of a car influenced the perceived brand personality of the car more than the COB. In some respects the Chinese car made in the USA was perceived to have a stronger brand personality than the US car made in China. This suggests that for cars the COM exerts a greater influence on the perceived personality of a brand than the COB.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should take a larger respondent pool, respondents from other countries, other automotive manufacturers as well as assess the impact of COM and COB on purchase intention and behavior.

Practical implications

Manufacturers of cars must understand the effect of COM and COB in order to build, position and protect their brands in international markets.

Originality/value

This paper provides an important contribution to the existing literature and business practice by providing a new perspective on country of origin research by using the multi‐dimensional construct of brand personality and analyzing the relationship between country of origin of a brand and country of manufacturing of that same brand.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Ying Wang, Shaojing Sun, Weizhen Lei and Mark Toncar

The purpose of this paper is to investigate beliefs about and attitudes toward online advertising (ATOA) among Chinese consumers and the relationship between belief…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate beliefs about and attitudes toward online advertising (ATOA) among Chinese consumers and the relationship between belief factors, ATOA, and consumers' behavioral responses to online advertising.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from students of a large metropolitan university in China. A total of 202 questionnaires provided usable data and were analyzed using AMOS.

Findings

Five belief factors that underlie Chinese consumers' ATOA were identified: entertainment, information seeking, credibility, economy, and value corruption. Information seeking, economy and value corruption were significant predictors of ATOA. ATOA was found to be a significant positive predictor of ad clicking and online shopping frequency.

Practical implications

Global marketers would benefit from understanding how consumers from a booming emerging market perceive the internet as a source of advertising. Thus, the study will enable businesses and organizations to use online advertising more effectively and efficiently in their global marketing efforts.

Originality/value

Investigating Chinese ATOA extends current research on ATOA to a distinctly different cultural context and may provide useful implications about expanding business across cultures.

Details

Direct Marketing: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-5933

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2010

Mark F. Toncar, Ilan Alon and Everlyne Misati

The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the role of price and price expectations in service quality evaluations based on a study of the US hotel sector.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the role of price and price expectations in service quality evaluations based on a study of the US hotel sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on an experimental study to test service quality and price congruency through randomly assigned treatments to a quota sample of 120 students.

Findings

The research shows that the degree to which subjects' price expectations are met influences their evaluations of service quality. This is especially true in the case of a price loss; when the actual price exceeds the expected price. However, when there is a price gain, subjects' evaluations of service quality were not affected.

Research limitations/implications

The experiment sacrificed external validity for internal control; an artificial stimulus was used in a carefully controlled experimental setting to control the subjects' exposure to price and service manipulations. A small sample size of student subjects was used; only 20 subjects in each treatment group. The results obtained were based on subjects' evaluation of a written script, and not an actual service encounter. By virtue of using an experimental design, the experiment did not consider a broad range of potential factors.

Originality/value

The paper uses an experiment to test the effects of price gains and price losses on consumers' perceptions of the quality of a service encounter.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Krunal K. Punjani and V.V. Ravi Kumar

The purpose of this study is to develop a framework to investigate the mediating role of attitude toward advertising for the relationship between the exogenous constructs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a framework to investigate the mediating role of attitude toward advertising for the relationship between the exogenous constructs – advertising puffery and celebrity trustworthiness, and an endogenous construct purchase intent.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper has proposed a conceptual model based on the previous relevant studies and conducted a survey of 223 youth respondents from India. Further, structural equation model with the help of AMOS software was used to test the relationship among the proposed constructs.

Findings

This paper has considered advertising puffery and celebrity trustworthiness as exogenous constructs, attitude toward advertising as a mediating construct and purchase intent as an endogenous construct. The results revealed that advertising puffery influenced purchase intent and attitude toward advertising inversely, whereas celebrity trustworthiness positively influenced both purchase intent and attitude toward advertising. Additionally, attitude toward advertising was found to be a significant predictor of the purchase intent. Moreover, attitude toward advertising is found to have significant partial mediation between the constructs, celebrity trustworthiness and purchase intent.

Practical implication

This paper is useful for the marketers of soft drinks and other low-involvement products in India to understand the perceptions of the youth toward advertising with puffery content and celebrity endorser.

Originality/value

This study is a unique attempt to build a framework involving a combination of advertising puffery and celebrity trustworthiness to analyze the mediating effect of attitude toward advertising on the purchase Intent.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2012

Bruce A. Huhmann and Pia A. Albinsson

Rhetorical works (schemes and tropes) can increase advertisement liking. Because liking impacts advertising effectiveness, this study aims to investigate if positive…

3365

Abstract

Purpose

Rhetorical works (schemes and tropes) can increase advertisement liking. Because liking impacts advertising effectiveness, this study aims to investigate if positive processing, brand awareness, and persuasion outcomes previously associated with rhetoric are spurious and chiefly attributable to liking.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment (n=448) employed natural advertising exposure conditions and a 3 (headline: nonfigurative, scheme, trope)×2 (copy length: long, moderate)×2 (involvement: high, low) between‐subjects factorial design.

Findings

Absent of liking differences, schemes and tropes are robust motivators of available resources devoted to processing (elaboration and readership). Favourable arguments only influence brand awareness and persuasion if processed. Consumers negatively view longer copy. Nonfigurative headlines encourage insufficient processing as copy lengthens. Insufficient processing decreases brand awareness and persuasion. However, schemes and tropes overcome negative copy length effects on brand awareness and persuasion regardless of involvement.

Research limitations/implications

Without the benefit of increased liking, schemes interfere with copy point and brand memory similar to other creative attention‐getters – humour and sex appeals. Instead, schemes focus consumers on advertising style. The results are based on consumer responses; thus, error may make differences harder to detect. Another limitation is the focus on a single low‐risk, informational product, i.e. pens. Future research should investigate effects of rhetorical works with high‐risk and transformative products.

Practical implications

Advertisers should use rhetorical works to motivate processing, especially with longer copy explaining advantages of new, technical, or complex products. Also, effective rhetorical works need not create positive affect.

Originality/value

Isolating advertising rhetoric effects from liking differences explains anomalies in the literature (e.g. scheme versus trope superiority).

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 46 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Vishag Badrinarayanan and Jeremy J. Sierra

Understanding consumer engagement in brand-centric collectives remains a critical area of interest in the branding literature. Although various antecedents have been…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding consumer engagement in brand-centric collectives remains a critical area of interest in the branding literature. Although various antecedents have been examined in prior research, members’ perceptions regarding how society evaluates such collectives remain under-explored. Focusing on brand tribes as the focal brand-centric consumer collective, the aim of this research is to examine and replicate the effects of inferences regarding societal approval (i.e. reputation, stigma and legitimacy) on members’ commitment to the tribe and brand tribalism.

Design/methodology/approach

Two distinct video game communities – one typically described in research and media as mainstream (Study 1; N = 242) and the other as deviant (Study 2; N = 926) – are used for data collection. Structural equation modeling is used to test hypotheses.

Findings

Interestingly, the significance and the direction of the paths differ meaningfully for these samples. For the mainstream community, reputation relates positively to legitimacy, while stigma relates inversely to both legitimacy and commitment. For the deviant community, reputation relates positively to legitimacy, while stigma relates positively to both legitimacy and commitment. For the mainstream community, reputation relates positively to commitment; for the deviant community, this relationship is non-significant. In turn, positive effects are found for legitimacy and commitment on brand tribalism (mainstream community) and for commitment on brand tribalism (deviant community).

Research limitations/implications

Using data from video gamers within mainstream and deviant communities may constrain external validity. As effect sizes in this setting are cognized, researchers have additional benchmarks for future brand tribalism research.

Practical implications

Perceived societal approval influences engagement in brand communities, albeit in different ways depending on the type of community. Therefore, perceptions of societal approval among current and potential brand community members must be acknowledged and understood by marketers. Within mainstream and deviant video game communities, such tribal-laden following exists. By further understanding determinants of brand tribalism, marketers and brand managers are in a better position to devise adroit strategies that appeal to targeted consumers, thereby boosting brand value.

Originality/value

Conceptualizing brand tribalism anthropologically, this study adds to the branding literature by examining cardinal, brand community/tribe-linked antecedents of brand tribalism, whereas previous study explores brand tribalism from the perspective of members’ evaluation of focal brands and existing community members. This investigation is fixated on members’ perceptions of societal impressions of the brand tribe, offering novel insight to brand tribe formation. Further, although pure replication is pursued, the results of the path analysis between the mainstream and deviant community samples vary, suggesting not all tribes are formed equally even within the same industry/context.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

1 – 10 of 28