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Rising occupational costs, unit shop oversupply and falling retail sector profits have generated demands for changes to the current valuation and leasing procedures. Tests the accuracy of rental value estimation at review by identifying the actual residual value of occupation to existing tenants, and quantifies demand volume requirements at different levels of rental increase so that the interpretation of transactional evidence can be set in an actual demand volume context by selecting two shopping centres – Brent Cross and MetroCentre – for audit. Concludes that the long‐running dispute between landlords and tenants over rent review valuations is a market information problem that can be resolved only by the release of local sales data.
Considers a number of issues relating to the problem of promotingan ethos of research among the property management profession. Discussesthe meaning and types of research…
Considers a number of issues relating to the problem of promoting an ethos of research among the property management profession. Discusses the meaning and types of research. Argues for a more positive approach to convincing the profession as a whole of the worth of research.
Sierra Leone established two post-conflict institutions to address the crimes committed during its decade long civil war which officially ended in 2002. The Special Court…
Sierra Leone established two post-conflict institutions to address the crimes committed during its decade long civil war which officially ended in 2002. The Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) was established to promote justice by trying “persons who bear the greatest responsibility” (Statute of the Special Court for Sierra Leone, 2002, Article 1) for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and other serious violations of international humanitarian law, while the Sierra Leone Truth and Reconciliation Commission (SLTRC) was mandated to offer a forum for victims and perpetrators alike to tell their wartime stories in an effort to promote reconciliation. How were women's expectations for justice and reconciliation met through the two transitional justice mechanisms? Although both institutions made notable attempts to include gender-specific crimes as an important component of their work, the all-important third ingredient in the “toolkit” of transitional justice – reparations and reforms – remained underutilized, and would have had a more positive impact on women's lives than the two institutions. This chapter highlights some of the achievements of the Court and Truth Commission, which were arguably superior to earlier transitional justice institutions, such as the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (SATRC) in addressing women's needs, but concludes that unless social, political, and economic improvements are made that empower women, women will remain vulnerable to sexual and other human rights abuses not only in times of war but in peace time as well.
The recommendations of this Committee published on May 30th of this year cover a very wide sphere. The report describes the present arrangements for the inspection of meat in Britain and the qualification and training of the meat inspectors. The difficulties associated with the storage and sale of meat in stalls, markets and mobile shops, and the problems of transport of meat and offal by road and rail are reviewed. The recommended standard for meat inspection known as Memorandum 62/Foods issued by the Ministry of Health in 1922 has been the subject, too, of much revision. The report is a comprehensive document, and the Committee took evidence from many authoritative bodies. It is surprising to note, however, the lack of representation on this Committee of sanitary inspectors, who, at present are, and have been for many years, responsible for at least 80 per cent of the meat inspection in England. Members of the local authorities and the meat trades will remember the Ministry of Health memorandum in 1940 which drew attention to the fact that, under the scheme of control, animals, meat and offal were Crown property until sold, and were not, therefore, subject to the provisions of the Food and Drugs Act relating to the seizure of unsound food. The Committee have considered this anomaly and recommend that the question of the meat inspector's statutory power to examine and, if necessary, to reject the meat should be considered. An even stronger recommendation than this would seem desirable. It is unfortunate that, whilst the meat inspector cannot seize Crown property, he has only to wait until it is in the hand of the unfortunate private owner or butcher, probably the next day, and he is then fully empowered to seize it. The Committee reviewed the qualification and training of meat inspectors, and having received very diverse evidence from the veterinary and medical profession and the Sanitary Inspectors‘ Association, they did not view with favour the scheme of the present meat inspectors acting as detention officers under the supervision of veterinary surgeons. This would mean relegating the present qualified meat inspector to the position of detention officer. He would be permitted to pass sound meat but would have to call in a veterinary surgeon or medical officer to confirm his findings in respect of meat which he wished to reject as unfit for human consumption. This restriction of responsibility was rightly deemed unwise. If an officer is fit to pass meat he is obviously fit to reject it, and the Committee decided that the professional training of the veterinary surgeon could be utilised to the best advantage in a supervisory capacity over a large abattoir or group of smaller abattoirs. This follows the present mode whereby the Ministry of Food veterinary surgeons pay periodical visits to abattoirs and slaughterhouses for liaison purposes, with a view to obtaining a uniform standard throughout the country. It is interesting to note that the Committee assumes that the duties of meat inspection will continue to remain the responsibility of local authorities; this is a wise recommendation appreciative of the difficulties of an officer of the Ministry of Food attempting to act in both a judicial and executive capacity. Another recommendation of far‐reaching importance was that there are men available in the butchery trade who, by reason of their practical experience, would make suitable candidates for training in meat inspection. It was considered unnecessary for such persons to qualify as sanitary inspectors, but a course of theoretical and practical training should be provided for these candidates to allow them to qualify as meat inspectors. The necessary amendment to the Food and Drugs Act is recommended to enable them to examine and seize meat. At the same time the Committee state that the holding of the Meat and Food Certificate of the Royal Sanitary Institute should be obligatory for sanitary inspectors carrying out meat inspection duties. This has been the consensus of opinion among that body for many years. The question of the registration of retail butchers’ shops was investigated, and the Committee felt that this was desirable, and that the suitability of the premises should be considered before granting registration. This should be a pre‐requisite for the opening of new businesses, and should be revocable; there should be a right of appeal to the courts against the decision of the local authority to refuse to grant or to cancel a registration. This would, for all practical purposes, bring all butchers' shops and meat storage premises under the scope of Section 14 of the Food and Drugs Act, which at present is only applicable to retail butchers if sausages or other kinds of meat products are manufactured on the premises. Members of the meat trade in general, and officers of the local authority will heartily agree with the Committee in their statement that it is not practicable to protect meat and open‐packed meat products against contamination when they are sold from stalls in the open air. The Committee state that the sale of meat and open‐packed meat products in the open air should be brought to an end, and suggest that registration should be granted to existing stalls on a temporary basis only. The question of mobile shops is also the subject of some attention, and the report states that mobile shops should be registered by the local authority of the area from which they operate; registration should be conditional upon approval by the local authority of the construction and equipment of these shops, and of the accommodation for the storage of meat. In relation to compulsory meat inspection, the Committee did not seem aware of the distribution made from pig clubs and individual pig owners, who periodically fatten and kill pigs. Under the present scheme a pig from such a source, slaughtered at an abattoir and found to be infected with tuberculosis, cannot be detained. The owner may, despite the carcase being diseased, take it away with him and, in some cases perhaps in ignorance of the risks involved, may quietly distribute the surplus amongst his friends. In all such cases it would have seemed advisable to insist on compulsory inspection and subsequent detention, where the interests of the individuals concerned would suffer by its consumption. The present system of centralised slaughtering, carried out for the past ten years, has many advantages. A rural authority prior to this time often had 20–30 slaughterhouses in its area; these would kill one to two animals a day, and adequate inspection of all carcases over such an area was often impossible. At present the majority of authorities in possession of a public abattoir and killing over 20,000 carcases a year, employ a full‐time meat inspector with the Royal Sanitary Institute certificate for the inspection of meat and other foods. It is to be hoped that the Ministry of Food will make a declaration of policy in so far as abattoirs are concerned. In the past they have refused to allow toll charges to be raised, some of which were fixed in 1925: as an alternative they agree to meet a loss beyond that incurred in the pre‐war years. This does not give an incentive for economical running, and the majority of authorities would prefer a proportionate rise in charges to meat the increase in labour and materials. Also, if the policy of centralised slaughtering is to continue, many abattoirs must be enlarged and provision made for adequate facilities. The Committee were convinced of the value of laboratory tests as a supplement to visual inspection of carcases, and recommended that laboratory accommodation and facilities should be provided at all new slaughterhouses, and wherever practicable at existing ones, to enable inspectors to carry out routine laboratory tests covering the examination of smears and tissues. This decision, too, appears to be inextricably linked with the question as to whether or not the present system of slaughtering is to continue. Local authorities and owners of large private slaughterhouses can hardly be expected to incur considerable expenditure in this sphere, merely to have their premises taken from them by subsequent legislation, or to be informed later that the abattoir and slaughterhouse is not going to be used to its capacity and a diversion made elsewhere.
To explore the use of video-stimulated reflection during read aloud activities in early childhood to promote self-awareness, reading comprehension, and metacognitive…
To explore the use of video-stimulated reflection during read aloud activities in early childhood to promote self-awareness, reading comprehension, and metacognitive literacy practices.
The increasing visibility and accessibility of video recording devices across learning environments is the cause for investigating their potential utility as effective instructional tools. This chapter outlines a pedagogical approach to the implementation of video reflection in early childhood education. Grounded theory is used to build an understanding of how video can support effective emergent literacy and metacognitive strategy instruction.
Video recordings facilitated students’ reflection. Common reflective themes include revisiting the recorded event in reflective discussion, elaboration on story elements toward increasing comprehension, and explaining students’ own thinking. These findings indicate students’ ability to engage in emergent practices fundamental to a disciplinary literacy perspective.
The use of tablets as a video device in early childhood can be utilized to promote reading instruction and metacognition. Video reflection can leverage practices that are necessary for disciplinary literacies.
Purpose – This chapter presents an analysis of a researcher-led follow-up activity during an early childhood reading lesson that was aligned with a gradual release of…
Purpose – This chapter presents an analysis of a researcher-led follow-up activity during an early childhood reading lesson that was aligned with a gradual release of responsibility (GRR) model. Particularly, the authors seek to understand how students used their language(s) in this lesson, how they described particular linguistic decisions, and how language could be further conceptualized in such events.
Design/Methodology/Approach – The authors develop a telling case (Mitchell, 1984) from the guided instruction portion of a lesson to make salient theoretical connections between metacognitive strategies taught in early literacy and metalinguistic knowledge theorized from the field of linguistic anthropology. The lesson was video recorded for interactional analysis. The video recording was also used to stimulate recall and allow students to reflect on their own language use.
Findings –Through the telling case, the authors use language socialization as a lens to understand the way students represent story retell with physical objects. Though some students do not use the school-based conventionalized form of retelling, they do engage in retelling by using a variety of other forms. The authors highlight through the case that the metacognitive strategy of story retell is distinct from the abstract linear, left-to-right representation of sequencing of events.
Research Limitations/Implications – This study suggests that further attention is needed to theorize the relationship between reading strategies and forms of representation in multilingual preschool contexts. In particular, the very notions of literacy and language need to be nuanced through conversations among multiple disciplines.
Practical Implications – Practitioners are encouraged to attend to the differences between metacognitive strategies that are useful for reading comprehension and the expected styles of representation. Teachers can consider leveraging the communicative repertoires of emergent bilingual students as they accomplish early literacy activities, thereby, potentially offering further scaffolds for learning reading strategies.
Originality/Value of Paper – This chapter brings nuance to the GRR model by demonstrating that there is a difference between the GRR of metacognitive strategies in reading instruction and the way they are represented through diverse semiotic repertoires.
In its passage through the Grand Committee the Food Bill is being amended in a number of important particulars, and it is in the highest degree satisfactory that so much interest has been taken in the measure by members on both sides of the House as to lead to full and free discussion. Sir Charles Cameron, Mr. Kearley, Mr. Strachey, and other members have rendered excellent service by the introduction of various amendments; and Sir Charles Cameron is especially to be congratulated upon the success which has attended his efforts to induce the Committee to accept a number of alterations the wisdom of which cannot be doubted. The provision whereby local authorities will be compelled to appoint Public Analysts, and compelled to put the Acts in force in a proper manner, and the requirement that analysts shall furnish proofs of competence of a satisfactory character to the Local Government Board, will, it cannot be doubted, be productive of good results. The fact that the Local Government Board is to be given joint authority with the Board of Agriculture in insuring that the Acts are enforced is also an amendment of considerable importance, while other amendments upon what may perhaps be regarded as secondary points unquestionably trend in the right direction. It is, however, a matter for regret that the Government have not seen their way to introduce a decisive provision with regard to the use of preservatives, or to accept an effective amendment on this point. Under existing circumstances it should be plain that the right course to follow in regard to preservatives is to insist on full and adequate disclosure of their presence and of the amounts in which they are present. It is also a matter for regret that the Government have declined to give effect to the recommendation of the Food Products Committee as to the formation of an independent and representative Court of Reference. It is true that the Board of Agriculture are to make regulations in reference to standards, after consultation with experts or such inquiry as they think fit, and that such inquiries as the Board may make will be in the nature of consultations of some kind with a committee to be appointed by the Board. There is little doubt, however, that such a committee would probably be controlled by the Somerset House Department; and as we have already pointed out, however conscientious the personnel of this Department may be—and its conscientiousness cannot be doubted—it is not desirable in the public interest that any single purely analytical institution should exercise a controlling influence in the administration of the Acts. What is required is a Court of Reference which shall be so constituted as to command the confidence of the traders who are affected by the law as well as of all those who are concerned in its application. Further comment upon the proposed legislation must be reserved until the amended Bill is laid before the House.
Purpose – This chapter describes an assessment tool that not only contains all of the good qualities of formative assessments, in that it informs teaching and is based on…
Purpose – This chapter describes an assessment tool that not only contains all of the good qualities of formative assessments, in that it informs teaching and is based on systematic observation of the learner engaged in reading and writing, but also possesses the same good qualities as standardized assessments, in that a student's performance can be compared to other students over time.
Methodology/approach – The chapter begins with an overview of Clay's interactive literacy processing theory. The value of using observation is discussed and a case is made that when observations are conducted in a systematic way, the assessment can possess all the same qualities of a good standardized instrument. Two first-grade students' assessment data from the Observation Survey (OS), one a struggling reader and the other working at low-average level, are shared in order to demonstrate how to interpret the assessment data using Clay's literacy processing theory and how to use those interpretations to inform teaching.
Practical implications – Systematic observation of children engaged in reading, and writing continuous text, allows the teacher to observe behaviors that can be used to infer what a reader is using and doing while reading.
Value – This assessment information can be used to effectively scaffold literacy instruction and a child's reading performance.
BEC Group Limited is replacing a mixture of existing manufacturing systems at aircraft manufacturer Avro International with an integrated 400‐user system, based on BEC's manufacturing total management system (MTMS) package. Avro, a subsidiary of British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Limited, estimates that the deal, which is valued at £475,000, will cut the annual cost of manufacturing computer systems by 80 per cent and achieve a payback in 28 months.