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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Mark R. Shannon, Maurice Buford, Bruce E. Winston and James Andy Wood

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of trigger events and leadership crucibles in the lives of authentic leaders. The study was based on two theories…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the role of trigger events and leadership crucibles in the lives of authentic leaders. The study was based on two theories: authentic leadership theory and born versus made theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were included in the study if they scored between 64 and 80 on the Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ). The qualified leaders were then asked to participate in a qualitative interview utilizing an interview guide born out of the relevant literature. The interview followed the guidelines of the Critical Incident Technique (CIT).

Findings

The data indicated that trigger events and leadership crucibles play a significant role in authentic leadership development.

Practical implications

Practitioners should emphasize the prominent themes of self-awareness, relational transparency, balanced processing and moral perspective and the connection with other themes that emerged from the current study when developing or training leaders. Furthermore, practitioners concerned with creating an authentic leadership culture may consider the findings of the current study to develop and employ hiring and promotion strategies that increase the probabilities of hiring and promoting leaders that exhibit authentic leadership behaviors.

Originality/value

The findings of the research indicate that trigger events and crucibles both affect authentic leadership development. The research findings confirm characteristics associated with authentic leadership theory were predominant in the participants. However, one theme that prevailed was that of spirituality, which may or may not be considered to be part of an authentic leader's moral perspective

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2013

Sun Bingzhen and Ma Weimin

– The purpose of this paper is to present a measure method of the uncertainty for rough fuzzy set based on general binary relation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a measure method of the uncertainty for rough fuzzy set based on general binary relation.

Design/methodology/approach

Rough set and fuzzy set are two different but complementary theories for expressing uncertainty information, and based on the combination of these two uncertainty theories of expressing and handling uncertainty information, the rough fuzzy set model and uncertainty measure based on general relation are discussed.

Findings

This paper reveals the intrinsic of the uncertainty for rough fuzzy set based on general relation and presents a new measure method by introducing the Shannon entropy to generalized approximation space.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the discussion on the research of rough set and fuzzy set. The conclusions are useful in information processing with uncertainty.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2010

Symeon Christodoulou

The purpose of the paper is to perform bid mark‐up optimisation through the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) and a metric of the selected bid mark‐up's derived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to perform bid mark‐up optimisation through the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) and a metric of the selected bid mark‐up's derived entropy. The scope is to provide an alternative, entropy‐based method for bid mark‐up optimisation that improves on the analytical models of Friedman and Gates.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method enables the incorporation of bid parameters through the use of ANN's pattern recognition capabilities and the integration of these parameters with a mark‐up selection process that relies on the entropy produced by possible mark‐up values. The entropy metric used is the product of the probability of winning over the bidder's competitors multiplied by the natural logarithm of the inverse of this probability.

Findings

The case study results show that the proposed entropy‐based bidding model compares favourably with the prevailing competitive bidding models of Friedman and Gates, resulting in higher optimisation with regards to the number of jobs won, the monetary value of contracts awarded and the value of “money left on the table”. Furthermore, the method allows for the incorporation of several objective and subjective bid parameters, in contrast to Friedman's and Gates's models, which are based solely on the bid mark‐up history of a bidder's competitors.

Research limitations/implications

While the proposed method is a useful tool for the selection of optimal bid mark‐up values, it requires historical data on the bidding behaviour of key competitors, much like the classic bidding models of Friedman and Gates.

Originality/value

The method is suitable for quantifying objective and subjective competitive bidding parameters and for optimising bid mark‐up values.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Lance Nizami

For half a century, neuroscientists have used Shannon Information Theory to calculate “information transmitted,” a hypothetical measure of how well neurons “discriminate”…

Abstract

Purpose

For half a century, neuroscientists have used Shannon Information Theory to calculate “information transmitted,” a hypothetical measure of how well neurons “discriminate” amongst stimuli. Neuroscientists’ computations, however, fail to meet even the technical requirements for credibility. Ultimately, the reasons must be conceptual. That conclusion is confirmed here, with crucial implications for neuroscience. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Shannon Information Theory depends upon a physical model, Shannon’s “general communication system.” Neuroscientists’ interpretation of that model is scrutinized here.

Findings

In Shannon’s system, a recipient receives a message composed of symbols. The symbols received, the symbols sent, and their hypothetical occurrence probabilities altogether allow calculation of “information transmitted.” Significantly, Shannon’s system’s “reception” (decoding) side physically mirrors its “transmission” (encoding) side. However, neurons lack the “reception” side; neuroscientists nonetheless insisted that decoding must happen. They turned to Homunculus, an internal humanoid who infers stimuli from neuronal firing. However, Homunculus must contain a Homunculus, and so on ad infinitum – unless it is super-human. But any need for Homunculi, as in “theories of consciousness,” is obviated if consciousness proves to be “emergent.”

Research limitations/implications

Neuroscientists’ “information transmitted” indicates, at best, how well neuroscientists themselves can use neuronal firing to discriminate amongst the stimuli given to the research animal.

Originality/value

A long-overdue examination unmasks a hidden element in neuroscientists’ use of Shannon Information Theory, namely, Homunculus. Almost 50 years’ worth of computations are recognized as irrelevant, mandating fresh approaches to understanding “discriminability.”

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 44 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Abstract

Details

George Spencer Brown's “Design with the NOR”: With Related Essays
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-611-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1900

The decision of the Wolverhampton Stipendiary in the case of “Skim‐milk Cheese” is, at any rate, clearly put. It is a trial case, and, like most trial cases, the reasons…

Abstract

The decision of the Wolverhampton Stipendiary in the case of “Skim‐milk Cheese” is, at any rate, clearly put. It is a trial case, and, like most trial cases, the reasons for the judgment have to be based upon first principles of common‐sense, occasionally aided, but more often complicated, by already existing laws, which apply more or less to the case under discussion. The weak point in this particular case is the law which has just come into force, in which cheese is defined as the substance “usually known as cheese” by the public and any others interested in cheese. This reliance upon the popular fancy reads almost like our Government's war policy and “the man in the street,” and is a shining example of a trustful belief in the average common‐sense. Unfortunately, the general public have no direct voice in a police court, and so the “usually known as cheese” phrase is translated according to the fancy and taste of the officials and defending solicitors who may happen to be concerned with any particular case. Not having the general public to consult, the officials in this case had a war of dictionaries which would have gladdened the heart of Dr. JOHNSON; and the outcome of much travail was the following definition: cheese is “ coagulated milk or curd pressed into a solid mass.” So far so good, but immediately a second definition question cropped up—namely, What is “milk?”—and it is at this point that the mistake occurred. There is no legal definition of new milk, but it has been decided, and is accepted without dispute, that the single word “milk” means an article of well‐recognised general properties, and which has a lower limit of composition below which it ceases to be correctly described by the one word “milk,” and has to be called “skim‐milk,” “separated milk,” “ milk and water,” or other distinguishing names. The lower limits of fat and solids‐not‐fat are recognised universally by reputable public analysts, but there has been no upper limit of fat fixed. Therefore, by the very definition quoted by the stipendiary, an article made from “skim‐milk” is not cheese, for “skim‐milk” is not “milk.” The argument that Stilton cheese is not cheese because there is too much fat would not hold, for there is no legal upper limit for fat; but if it did hold, it does not matter, for it can be, and is, sold as “Stilton” cheese, without any hardship to anyone. The last suggestion made by the stipendiary would, if carried out, afford some protection to the general public against their being cheated when they buy cheese. This suggestion is that the Board of Agriculture, who by the Act of 1899 have the legal power, should determine a lower limit of fat which can be present in cheese made from milk; but, as we have repeatedly pointed out, it is by the adoption of the Control system that such questions can alone be settled to the advantage of the producer of genuine articles and to that of the public.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 2 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2018

Paolo Rocchi and Andrea Resca

The concept of information is central to several fields of research and professional practice. So many definitions have been put forward that complete inventory is…

Abstract

Purpose

The concept of information is central to several fields of research and professional practice. So many definitions have been put forward that complete inventory is unachievable while authors have failed to reach a consensus. In the face of the present impasse, innovative proposals could rouse information theorists to action, but literature surveys tend to emphasize the common traits of definitions. Reviewers are inclined to iron out originality in information models; thus the purpose of this paper is to discover the creativity of authors attempting to define the concept of information and to stimulate the progress of studies in this field.

Design/methodology/approach

Because the present inquiry could be influenced and distorted by personal criteria and opinions, the authors have adopted precise criteria and guidelines. It could be said the present approach approximates a statistical methodology.

Findings

The findings of this paper include (1) The authors found 32 original definitions of information which sometimes current surveys have overlooked. (2) The authors found a relation between information theories and advances in information technology. (3) Overall, the authors found that researchers take account of a wide variety of perspectives yet overlook the notion of information as used by computing practitioners such as electronic engineers and software developers.

Research limitations/implications

The authors comment on some limitations of the procedure that was followed. Results 1 and 3 open up new possibilities for theoretical research in the information domain.

Originality/value

This is an attempt to conduct a bibliographical inquiry driven by objective and scientific criteria; its value lies in the fact that final report has not been influenced by personal choice or arbitrary viewpoints.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1981

B.C. BROOKES

It is argued that the powerful techniques of OR operate on only a small fraction of the statistical information that the social sciences usually provide. This argument is…

Abstract

It is argued that the powerful techniques of OR operate on only a small fraction of the statistical information that the social sciences usually provide. This argument is illustrated by Leimkuhler's recent claim to have found an ‘exact’ fit to the Bradford law. An elementary theorem of Shannon information theory shows that his new function is applied to only 2·3% of the statistical information inherent in the bibliography he chooses and that Bradford's original simple formulation not only fits this segment but also the whole bibliography more closely than the new formulation. As every loss of statistical information can be measured, it can be shown that sophisticated mathematical techniques cannot compensate for the information they squander.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2020

Madjid Tavana, Akram Shaabani and Naser Valaei

Delivering premium services and quality products are critical strategies for success in manufacturing. Continuous improvement (CI), as an underlying foundation for quality…

Abstract

Purpose

Delivering premium services and quality products are critical strategies for success in manufacturing. Continuous improvement (CI), as an underlying foundation for quality management, is an ongoing effort allowing manufacturing companies to see beyond the present to create a bright future. We propose a novel integrated fuzzy framework for analyzing the barriers to the implementation of CI in manufacturing companies.

Design/methodology/approach

We use the fuzzy failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and a fuzzy Shannon's entropy to identify and weigh the most significant barriers. We then use fuzzy multi-objective optimization based on ratio analysis (MOORA), the fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and fuzzy simple additive weighting (SAW) methods for prioritizing and ranking the barriers with each method. Finally, we aggregate these results with Copeland's method and extract the main CI implementation barriers in manufacturing.

Findings

We show “low cooperation and integration of the team in CI activities” is the most important barrier in CI implementation. Other important barriers are “limited management support in CI activities,” “low employee involvement in CI activities,” “weak communication system in the organization,” and “lack of knowledge in the organization to implement CI projects.”

Originality/value

We initially identify the barriers to the implementation of CI through rigorous literature review and then apply a unique integrated fuzzy approach to identify the most important barriers based on the opinions of industry experts and academics.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1916

We have reprinted the powerful letter addressed to the Daily Mail by MR. H. W. WILSON, the author of “Ironclads in Action,” advocating the immediate adoption of a policy…

Abstract

We have reprinted the powerful letter addressed to the Daily Mail by MR. H. W. WILSON, the author of “Ironclads in Action,” advocating the immediate adoption of a policy of reprisals for the Zeppelin murder raids. In our view it is the duty of every journal, whatever may be its raison d'être, to assist in keeping the attention of the public fixed upon this matter, to aid in preventing the general feeling of disgust and indignation from cooling down, and to support those who have the brains to understand the nature of the Hun in their efforts to compel the Government to adopt the most effective means at present available to put an end to the murderous excursions of the German vermin into this country. As MR. WILSON points out, the deliberate Hun policy of slaying women, children and non‐combatants is either permitted by the laws of war recognised by civilised nations or it is not permitted by those laws. If it is permitted, “then clearly the Power which refrains from making similar attacks on the enemy's towns, villages, and residential districts, loses greatly from the military standpoint.” If it is not permitted then the only course— “the force behind the laws of War”—is a policy of drastic reprisals. Moreover, it is the only course that the Hun can understand. The methods of “frightfulness” are definitely laid down in the German military system as methods to be ruthlessly followed whenever this can be done with impunity and the fear of reprisals is also definitely laid down as the only consideration which is to be allowed to operate as a check upn “frightfulness.” “The Power which fails to take reprisals when a great offence is committed is as the negligent judge or the faithless jury that acquits a murderer. It sins against humanity … it encourages the criminal in his crime.”

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 18 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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