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In view of the emphasis in cross-cultural research on negative factors such as cultural misfit, cultural distance, and the liability of foreignness, the purpose of this…
In view of the emphasis in cross-cultural research on negative factors such as cultural misfit, cultural distance, and the liability of foreignness, the purpose of this paper is to offer one explanation for why this is the case and highlight the advantages of giving at least equal emphasis to research on positive factors. Three propositions are offered to guide future cross-cultural research.
Summaries of empirical studies on the inherent inclinations of human systems toward the negative, as well as inclinations toward the positive, produce explanations for each of these biases and their implications for cross-cultural scholarship.
By prioritizing positive factors instead of negative factors, individuals and organizations perform at much higher levels than when the reverse is the case. Virtuous practices, in particular, are associated with positively deviant performance. Inasmuch as virtuousness is universally valued, its emphasis can address some of the liabilities of difference inherent in cross-cultural contexts.
The three propositions offered in the paper explain why negative biases exist, how positive biases provide an advantage to individuals and organizations, and highlight future directions for cross-cultural research. Social scientists have been challenged to help enable 51 percent of the world’s population to flourish by mid-century, and prioritizing positive cross-cultural phenomena is one prescription for achieving that objective.
This study aimed to document the life experiences of child miners (CMs) engaged in small-scale gold mining system (SSGMS) in Paracale using qualitative and ethnographic…
This study aimed to document the life experiences of child miners (CMs) engaged in small-scale gold mining system (SSGMS) in Paracale using qualitative and ethnographic approaches. Findings revealed that the SSGMS started even before the Spaniards came in 1572. Pagbibitâ (underground mining), and pagkocompressor (underwater mining) were identified as types of SSGMS (pagkakabod) with common organizational structure and CMs. Their differences were in the nature of work, roles, costs, income, equipment, and processes. Majority of the CMs are males, out-of-school youth, eldest children, and have worked from two months to nine years. Altruistic factors, a source of inspiración, motivated them to engage on mining. They view their families as poor, and mining as their primary means of livelihood and family tradición. Their life threatening or work-related risks and impoverished living conditions unquestionably infringe their children’s rights. Their aspiración include having permanent employment, better family life and community, finishing their studies, and sending their siblings to school. Perseverance and hard work are their means to realize them.
Their experiences of labour explotación and destitution are indeed social issues. Espousing social development and community organizing frameworks, good governance, holistic alternative livelihood and learning system may minimize their plight as child miners.
Healthcare innovations for bottom-of-pyramid populations face considerable risks and few economic incentives. Can entrepreneurial innovators provide new solutions for…
Healthcare innovations for bottom-of-pyramid populations face considerable risks and few economic incentives. Can entrepreneurial innovators provide new solutions for global health? This chapter examines how a technology enterprise built a collaborative network and supportive ecosystem making it possible to steer an innovation for TB patients through discovery, development, and delivery. Ecosystem resources were mobilized and upstream and downstream co-innovation risks were mitigated to commercialize a new diagnostic test. Detailed evidence on this innovation for TB care uses ecosystem analysis to clarify core issues in the context of joint value creation. The case study shows how resources from private and public partners can be leveraged and combined by the focal firm to build joint value and to lower execution, co-innovation, and adoption risks in healthcare ecosystems combating diseases of poverty.
Purpose: In this chapter, I explore how American Sign Language/English interpreters came to enact an ally role with members of the American deaf community during the 1988…
Purpose: In this chapter, I explore how American Sign Language/English interpreters came to enact an ally role with members of the American deaf community during the 1988 Deaf President Now (DPN) protest. The DPN protest, led by students at Gallaudet University in Washington, DC, was a historic moment in the deaf community's struggle for civil rights (Christiansen & Barnartt, 1995). During the events that unfolded over the week-long rebellion, students engaged in a variety of claims-making activities (Lindekilde, 2013), such as participating in media interviews and organizing rallies. To share their message with the world, the deaf protesters developed alliances with American Sign Language/English interpreters, who mediated a wide variety of protest-related activities.
Method: The data I analyze in this chapter come from (1) archival review and (2) semistructured interviews I conducted with DPN stakeholders, including interpreters and protesters.
Findings: Through these data, I explore how the protesters and interpreters came to develop shared understandings and expectations of allyship, including the roles that interpreters enacted in the protest.
Implication/Value: I frame this discussion within the context of a variety of metaphors that have been used to describe the role of signed language interpreters (Roy, 1993, 2002) and the concept of role-space (Llewellyn-Jones & Lee, 2014) to demonstrate the process of interpreters becoming allies in contentious political settings.
The current method of information retrieval used for bibliographic and full‐text databases of journal articles assumes a semantic representation together with stemming…
The current method of information retrieval used for bibliographic and full‐text databases of journal articles assumes a semantic representation together with stemming, Boolean connectives and so on. This requires searchers to have a well‐defined idea of what it is that they are searching for. This is unhelpful for many categories of searcher, in particular expert browsers and non‐expert searchers. An alternative method is developed in this paper, based on the idea that articles advance an argument and that this argumentation can be represented in a manner which enables flexible and robust searching to be carried out.
The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about debris management and acknowledge that the effective removal of debris has positive impacts on communities…
The purpose of this paper is to review what is known about debris management and acknowledge that the effective removal of debris has positive impacts on communities affected by disaster. Four new concerns are introduced that should be considered during the debris management process. These include the recognition of additional debris types as well as the importance of evidence in crime scene investigations.
A literature review on debris management is presented in this paper. It illustrates the relevance, amount, and types of debris in disasters as well as the need for advanced planning. Four new essentials are then discussed.
Those involved in debris management should consider how they will deal with excessive donations, human remains, animal carcasses and evidence collection.
Although this research could be enhanced with practitioner interviews, the literature review is fairly thorough.
Lessons in this paper will help to bring about more effective and efficient debris management operations.
This research reviews the current state of knowledge and adds to it.
Outlines the findings of a study designed to inform current practice in developing UK National Vocational Qualifications (NVQ) and Scottish Vocational Qualifications…
Outlines the findings of a study designed to inform current practice in developing UK National Vocational Qualifications (NVQ) and Scottish Vocational Qualifications (SVQ). Explores the link between an individual’s cognitive style and their successful management and completion of such a structured award. Adopts the Kirton Adaptation‐Innovation (KAI) instrument, as this represents an inventory designed to explore problem‐solving and information management styles. Provides insights to illuminate particular coping strategies and methods using candidates’ profiles and reports from interviews. The KAI results indicate that both adapters and innovators showing a low efficiency score managed more effectively with the storyboard and whole NVQ process. Points to the likely benefits for both candidates and organisations of appropriate supportive mechanisms to enhance the developmental aspects of gaining an NVQ.
Current indexing methods used in automated bibliographic and full text information retrieval assume that knowledge can be adequately represented as a semantic network…
Current indexing methods used in automated bibliographic and full text information retrieval assume that knowledge can be adequately represented as a semantic network which is manipulable by means of Boolean operators. However, this semantic approach requires the user to state formally what it is that he wants to find. This paper presents an alternative argumentation‐based method. It involves representing a learned article by means of rhetorical structure rather than by a semantic representation of content.
The color TV industry in China has become a mature industry. Its development demonstrates and provides reference implications for how developing industries within a…
The color TV industry in China has become a mature industry. Its development demonstrates and provides reference implications for how developing industries within a country can achieve a technological leap. This paper aims to address this issue.
An exploratory case study approach is taken to find the key factors in the technological catch‐up of China's traditional industry.
In the study it is found that China's color TV industry, as a mature traditional industry, has four‐dimensional key factors affecting the catch‐up of technology in the flat‐panel stage: market; merger and acquisition; international cooperation innovation for patent; and the roles of internal reform. “Market” is the window of opportunity and challenge; “merger and acquisition” is the key factor for making the patent convert from external mode to internal mode by deviant‐track. The “international cooperation innovation for patent” is also a key factor to ensure achievement of technology catch‐up and sustainable technological innovation. The role of internal reform promoter is the key factor in the technological catch‐up process in which taking entrepreneur as the core.
The article describes Changhong's flat‐panel TV technology catch‐up mode, analyzes four‐dimensional key factors affecting the technology catch‐up of China's color TV industry; the Chinese color TV industry as mature industry; and discusses which developments have demonstrated how to achieve a technological leap in developing industries.