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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2019

Martyn Harris, Mark Levene, Dell Zhang and Dan Levene

The purpose of this paper is to present a language-agnostic approach to facilitate the discovery of “parallel passages” stored in historic and cultural heritage digital archives.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a language-agnostic approach to facilitate the discovery of “parallel passages” stored in historic and cultural heritage digital archives.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors explore a novel, and relatively simple approach, using a character-based statistical language model combined with a tailored version of the Basic Local Alignment Tool to extract exact and approximate string patterns shared between groups of documents.

Findings

The approach is applicable to a wide range of languages, and compensates for variability in the text of the documents as a result of differences in dialect, authorship, language change over time and errors due to inaccurate transcriptions and optical character recognition errors as a result of the digitisation process.

Research limitations/implications

A number of case studies demonstrate that the approach is practical and generalisable to a wide range of archives with documents in different languages, domains and of varying quality.

Practical implications

The approach described can be applied to any digital archive of modern and contemporary texts. This makes the approach applicable to digital archives recording historic texts, but also those composed of more recent news articles, for example.

Social implications

The analysis of “parallel passages” enables researchers to quantify the presence and extent of text-reuse in a collection of documents, which can provide useful data on author style, text genres and cultural contexts.

Originality/value

The approach is novel and addresses a need by humanities researchers for tools that can identify similar documents and local similarities represented by shared text sequences in a potentially vast large archive of documents. As far as the authors are aware, there are no tools currently exist that provide the same level of tolerance to the language of the documents.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 76 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Maayan Zhitomirsky-Geffet, Judit Bar-Ilan and Mark Levene

One of the under-explored aspects in the process of user information seeking behaviour is influence of time on relevance evaluation. It has been shown in previous studies…

Abstract

Purpose

One of the under-explored aspects in the process of user information seeking behaviour is influence of time on relevance evaluation. It has been shown in previous studies that individual users might change their assessment of search results over time. It is also known that aggregated judgements of multiple individual users can lead to correct and reliable decisions; this phenomenon is known as the “wisdom of crowds”. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether aggregated judgements will be more stable and thus more reliable over time than individual user judgements.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study two simple measures are proposed to calculate the aggregated judgements of search results and compare their reliability and stability to individual user judgements. In addition, the aggregated “wisdom of crowds” judgements were used as a means to compare the differences between human assessments of search results and search engine’s rankings. A large-scale user study was conducted with 87 participants who evaluated two different queries and four diverse result sets twice, with an interval of two months. Two types of judgements were considered in this study: relevance on a four-point scale, and ranking on a ten-point scale without ties.

Findings

It was found that aggregated judgements are much more stable than individual user judgements, yet they are quite different from search engine rankings.

Practical implications

The proposed “wisdom of crowds”-based approach provides a reliable reference point for the evaluation of search engines. This is also important for exploring the need of personalisation and adapting search engine’s ranking over time to changes in users preferences.

Originality/value

This is a first study that applies the notion of “wisdom of crowds” to examine an under-explored in the literature phenomenon of “change in time” in user evaluation of relevance.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 68 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2011

Judit Bar‐Ilan and Mark Levene

The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for assessing search results retrieved from different sources.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for assessing search results retrieved from different sources.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a two phase method, where in the first stage users select and rank the ten best search results from a randomly ordered set. In the second stage they are asked to choose the best pre‐ranked result from a set of possibilities. This two‐stage method allows users to consider each search result separately (in the first stage) and to express their views on the rankings as a whole, as they were retrieved by the search provider. The method was tested in a user study that compared different country‐specific search results of Google and Live Search (now Bing). The users were Israelis and the search results came from six sources: Google Israel, Google.com, Google UK, Live Search Israel, Live Search US and Live Search UK. The users evaluated the results of nine pre‐selected queries, created their own preferred ranking and picked the best ranking from the six sources.

Findings

The results indicate that the group of users in this study preferred their local Google interface, i.e. Google succeeded in its country‐specific customisation of search results. Live Search was much less successful in this aspect.

Research limitations/implications

Search engines are highly dynamic, thus the findings of the case study have to be viewed cautiously.

Originality/value

The main contribution of the paper is a two‐phase methodology for comparing and evaluating search results from different sources.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2006

Judit Bar‐Ilan, Mark Levene and Mazlita Mat‐Hassan

The objective of this paper is to characterize the changes in the rankings of the top ten results of major search engines over time and to compare the rankings between…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to characterize the changes in the rankings of the top ten results of major search engines over time and to compare the rankings between these engines.

Design/methodology/approach

The papers compare rankings of the top‐ten results of the search engines Google and AlltheWeb on ten identical queries over a period of three weeks. Only the top‐ten results were considered, since users do not normally inspect more than the first results page returned by a search engine. The experiment was repeated twice, in October 2003 and in January 2004, in order to assess changes to the top‐ten results of some of the queries during the three months interval. In order to assess the changes in the rankings, three measures were computed for each data collection point and each search engine.

Findings

The findings in this paper show that the rankings of AlltheWeb were highly stable over each period, while the rankings of Google underwent constant yet minor changes, with occasional major ones. Changes over time can be explained by the dynamic nature of the web or by fluctuations in the search engines' indexes. The top‐ten results of the two search engines had surprisingly low overlap. With such small overlap, the task of comparing the rankings of the two engines becomes extremely challenging.

Originality/value

The paper shows that because of the abundance of information on the web, ranking search results is of extreme importance. The paper compares several measures for computing the similarity between rankings of search tools, and shows that none of the measures is fully satisfactory as a standalone measure. It also demonstrates the apparent differences in the ranking algorithms of two widely used search engines.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 62 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Martin O'Shea and Mark Levene

Recent years have seen “really simple syndication” or “rich site summary”(RSS) syndication of frequently updated content become ubiquitous across the internet. RSS's…

Abstract

Purpose

Recent years have seen “really simple syndication” or “rich site summary”(RSS) syndication of frequently updated content become ubiquitous across the internet. RSS's XML‐based format allows these data to be stored in a semi‐structured format but, despite the presence of online aggregators and readers, and the related work in clustering feeds and mining subjects by keywords, much potentially useful information present in RSS may remain undiscovered. This paper aims to address this issue in an experimental setting.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents two distinct technologies which employ the semi‐structured nature of RSS content to allow users to mine information directly from raw RSS feeds: occurrence mining counts occurrences of text strings in feeds, whilst value mining mines structured ticker tape numeric data. It describes both technologies and their implementation in an experiment, where 35 students mined small numbers of RSS feeds and visualised the data mined.

Findings

This paper analyses the results of the experiment and cites examples of data mined and visualisations produced. The subject matter of data mined is also explored and potential applications of the technologies are considered.

Research limitations/implications

The mining technologies proposed in this paper have been developed to mine textual and numeric data directly from feeds, but can be extended to mine other data types present in RSS and to include other variants like Atom.

Originality/value

These technologies are seen to be applicable to data mining, the role of data and visualisations in social data analysis, issue tracking in news mining and time series analysis.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 September 2001

Abstract

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 18 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

Content available
Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Ismail Khalil

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2020

Gina Grandy and Sharon Mavin

This paper aims to explore how informal and socially situated learning and gendered practices impact the experiences of women learning to lead and the gendered dynamics…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how informal and socially situated learning and gendered practices impact the experiences of women learning to lead and the gendered dynamics inherent in women’s lived experiences of learning.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopt a becoming ontology and a social constructionist perspective. A qualitative approach guided by feminist principles facilitated the surfacing of rich and reflective accounts from women leaders. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 women leader priests in Canada.

Findings

The authors highlight how gendered practices are concealed and revealed through informal learning processes and illustrate this through two themes, informal and socially situated learning as inductive and gendered, and the jolt of gender discrimination in informal learning.

Research limitations/implications

While each account from the women church leaders is highly valued in its own right and the women’s stories have generated new insights, the overall data set is small and not generalizable. Future research should explore further the types of informal learning initiatives and systems, which acknowledge and best support women learning to lead in (gendered) organizations. It should also explore how informal learning informs leadership styles in this and other contexts.

Originality/value

The research demonstrates how informal learning experiences can serve as a site for invisible and unaccounted for gender bias and inform the becoming of women leaders. The research also advances the limited body of work that seeks to better understand the gender dynamics of women’s leadership in faith-based organizations.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2014

John F. Ehrich and Lisa C. Ehrich

In the past, leadership scholars have tended to focus on leadership as a force for good and productivity (Ashworth, 1994; Higgs, 2009; Padilla, Hogan, & Kaiser, 2007)…

Abstract

Purpose

In the past, leadership scholars have tended to focus on leadership as a force for good and productivity (Ashworth, 1994; Higgs, 2009; Padilla, Hogan, & Kaiser, 2007). However, recently attention has been given to the ‘dark side’ of leadership (see Higgs, 2009; Judge, Piccolo, & Kosalka, 2009). The aim of this chapter is to explore dark leadership from the perspective of the narcissistic leader using a fictional character from a popular film.

Methodology/approach

Using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, 1994 (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) as an operational definition of narcissistic personality disorder we explore the psychology of the narcissistic leader through a fictional character study in a popular film.

Findings

We have created a psychological profile of a narcissistic leader which identifies specific behavioural characteristics within a toxic organizational culture.

Social implications

This study has implications for employees within any organizational culture. It is significant because it can illustrate how dark leadership can impact negatively within organizations.

Originality/value

The use of actual living persons on which to base case study material in the study of dark leadership is problematic and constrained by ethical issues. However, the use of characters in fiction, such as contemporary film and drama, represents an excellent source of case study material. Given that little empirical works exists on narcissistic leaders and leadership, the chapter adds originality and value to the field.

Details

The Contribution of Fiction to Organizational Ethics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-949-2

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Susan Young and Kristina Lu

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the study results conducted at a four-year university in Hawaii investigating the impact of providing nursing students with an…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the study results conducted at a four-year university in Hawaii investigating the impact of providing nursing students with an educational intervention session aimed at improving cultural competence.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive-correlational research method was used to examine the correlations between a control group and experimental group using pre-and post-tests. The t-test for equality of means and Levene’s test for equality of variances were conducted for statistical analysis on pre-and post-test scores. In addition, a power analysis was conducted due to the small sample size.

Findings

The control group receiving no intervention scored lower on the post-test in overall competency by five points, while the experimental group increased their post-score by five points after receiving the intervention; however, this increase did not change the overall cultural competence score. The results indicate that the educational intervention of a two-hour didactic, discussion and presentation did not provide as robust as what was needed to increase domain scores for the experimental group. Further, the domains of awareness, skill, knowledge, encounter and desire cannot be taught by instruction alone and should be reinforced over time.

Research limitations/implications

The study was a convenience sample and limited by the small sample size. The sample may not be representative of all senior nursing students. The study is limited to one school of nursing in Hawaii; the results may not be generalized to other populations.

Practical implications

This research provides a foundation for future curriculum development and the evaluation of nursing programs. For instance, incorporating a value-added instructional project on cultural competence into each nursing class would increase cultural competence awareness and knowledge.

Social implications

This study also emphasizes the necessity of education in cultural competence for all health professionals, which has implications for improving quality, patient satisfaction and increased health outcomes.

Originality/value

This research is unique to examining and applying an educational intervention on cultural competence for nursing students in Hawaii. This research sheds light on studying the importance of culture competence for nursing students and other health professionals. This is not a skill that can be taught in one class or only even a single immersion experience and should be acquired over time where continuing education and encounters are necessary in order to become culturally competent; this will enable health professionals to provide meaningful and appropriate care to patients.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Keywords

1 – 10 of 329