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The treatment of severe and chronic substance dependence is challenged by high rates of treatment attrition, highlighting the need to identify factors that hinder…
The treatment of severe and chronic substance dependence is challenged by high rates of treatment attrition, highlighting the need to identify factors that hinder treatment retention. The paper aims to discuss this issue.
The present study examined certain neurocognitive and personality traits in relation to treatment retention in a sample of 46 residents of an Australian therapeutic community (TC). The traits examined were previously found to be associated with problematic substance use in non-clinical samples and were also previously shown to differentiate TC clients from social drinkers. The hypothesis was thus that traits that appear to be risk factors for addictions are also likely to impact on TC treatment retention.
Group comparisons of those retained for more than the recommended 90 days vs those who left treatment prematurely showed that after controlling for the influence of depression, those who left treatment prematurely reported significantly higher levels of trait impulsivity, punishment sensitivity and executive cognitive dysfunction. There was a very high rate of alexithymia in the sample (52 per cent), but alexithymia was unrelated to retention.
The final sample size was less than planned but reflected the strict participation criteria and temporal limitations of this study. No statistical assumptions were violated and the reliability indices of the scales completed by clients ranged from acceptable to excellent. Another limitation was that dropout cannot be assumed to mean relapse, as the reasons for client dropout were not available.
Findings highlight the important roles of trait factors in TC treatment retention in addition to the motivational and interpersonal factors identified in previous work.
This article aims to highlight the results of a Global Innovation Survey from 407 organizations representing 33 countries. This was the third of three surveys conducted by…
This article aims to highlight the results of a Global Innovation Survey from 407 organizations representing 33 countries. This was the third of three surveys conducted by the researchers since 2011. Ten key insights were formulated to gauge the progress of innovation in organizations as well as the practice and success of nine innovation methods (data analytics, design thinking, innovation metrics, etc.) used to support innovation execution.
The survey data was bifurcated into two groups, high and low innovators, by analyzing their innovation scores using a K-means cluster analysis. This was followed by correlational analysis with the innovation practices by these groups. Qualitative survey data was also collected and used to interpret the results.
Overall innovation scores have improved over the decade. Organizations are still struggling with process drivers such as idea management and innovation measures. High innovators are pervasively using innovative methods to advance innovation execution much more than low innovators. The two methods that showed the highest correlation to an innovative culture were design thinking and open innovation.
Comparing the Global Innovation Survey to two other surveys, 2011 Canadian Executives (n = 605) and 2013 US Fortune 1000 (n = 1,203) that use the same innovation measurement scale, provides a unique longitudinal perspective. The nine innovation methods investigated in the Global Innovation Survey provide original insight into how high and low innovative organizations are using methods to advance innovation execution.
An occupational longevity programme focuses on the ways to maximise the performance and life satisfaction of managers during their tenure with an organisation. Actions are…
An occupational longevity programme focuses on the ways to maximise the performance and life satisfaction of managers during their tenure with an organisation. Actions are directed toward improving people involvement through participative management, a productivity culture, personal skills development, improved personal, physical and psychological health and career and retirement planning. Return on investment for an occupational longevity programme should be expected to be better than three dollars returned for every dollar invested. Payoffs include improved morale, job satisfaction, increased attendance, less turnover, less hospitalisation, fewer accidents and disabilities, and improved job performance. Recommendations are made for developing an effective productivity improvement process by implementing a comprehensive occupational longevity programme.
Traditional Reduction In Force (RIF) methods have been unpopular, damaging to morale, dysfunctional, probably too expensive and, in some cases, indefensible. The article describes an innovative and democratic solution to RIF decisions. In a steel company a productivity group was instituted to plan the means of managing RIF — fairness to employees being the most important consideration. Participative management appears to be the key to success.
How are we to make sense of the attitudes of Social Democratic parties towards decentralisation? What do they think about what is a legitimate territorial allocation of…
How are we to make sense of the attitudes of Social Democratic parties towards decentralisation? What do they think about what is a legitimate territorial allocation of power? What factors shapes this view? And what makes Social Democratic parties change their minds? This article addresses these questions by way of competing ideological traditions, the external strategic incentives and internal constraints. Empirically, the article presents a comparative case-study analysis of Social Democratic parties in four countries (Belgium, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom). On the basis of this analysis, I argue that the positioning of Social Democratic parties on decentralisation is influenced by strategic incentives created by the structure of political competition, whereas the policy shifts are more often produced by factors that are internal to the party. A decentralist policy shift is always associated with the capacity of regionalist parties to set the agenda by exerting pressures on Social Democratic parties. In addition, Social Democratic parties tend to shift their policy while in opposition to distinguish themselves from their centralist mainstream rival in government. The dominant mechanism found across four countries was one in which regional branches persuade the central party leadership to adopt a pro-decentralist position. This chapter illustrates how Social Democratic parties have an instinct for ‘adaptation and control’ in the face of social-structural changes, and it demonstrates that the prevalence of different ideological traditions will vary according to external strategic incentives and, crucially, by the party's internal ability to follow those incentives.
The USA is the world’s largest economy, but is it a leading innovation nation? As economies mature and slow in growth, innovation will prove to be a key driver in…
The USA is the world’s largest economy, but is it a leading innovation nation? As economies mature and slow in growth, innovation will prove to be a key driver in maintaining transient advantage. This article presents a pulse on innovation in the USA as F1000 C-suite executives weigh in on their organization’s innovation health. It also compares the US score with proxy benchmark measures in other countries, and provides operational and strategic considerations to advance innovation platforms in US organizations. Managers will gain insight into common hurdles faced by some of America’s most prominent companies, as well as how to improve innovation practices in their own organization.
This current article reports on findings of innovation health in the USA based on responses from 1,127 F1000 executives (manager level and higher). F1000 executives report their innovation culture through completion of an innovation culture model survey developed by the authors. The F1000 is a listing created by Fortune magazine detailing the 1,000 largest companies in the USA based on revenues. This survey is considered one of the largest surveys on innovation culture in the USA to date.
One of the leading questions that this survey set out to answer is the current measure of innovation orientation amongst America’s largest organizations. Our findings suggest that US business is just beginning to catch the wave of innovation. Other major findings include: innovation amongst the F1000 is average at best; innovation is random and incremental; innovation strategy is missing in most organizations; there is an executive/employee innovation perception gap; innovation governance is missing; employees can not be blamed for a lack of innovation; and companies that fail to innovate will struggle even more.
There are a number of operational and strategic considerations presented to support the advancement of innovation in organizations. These include considerations around the leadership, resources, knowledge management and execution to strategically support innovation.
This is an original contribution in that it uses a scientifically developed model to measure innovation culture. It is the largest survey of innovation to date amongst the US Fortune 1000, and the finding present considerations to advance the innovation agendas of organizations.
The dilemma down under is a two-party distributive negotiation with integrative potential. A large airline, Transpacific Airlines (TPA), created an internal tour operator…
The dilemma down under is a two-party distributive negotiation with integrative potential. A large airline, Transpacific Airlines (TPA), created an internal tour operator brand named Transpacific Vacations as a separate profit center. After licensing its brand to Global Tour Services and establishing operations in the UK, negotiations to take over the internal tour operations of TPA-Australia are about to begin. The case involves the negotiation between Mr Edwards, representative of GTS, and Ms Bentley, representative of TPA-Australia.
The dilemma down under is based on a real negotiation with altered names and facts. All names of companies have been changed. All names of protagonists have been changed. The year of the case has also been altered. The case was created after an extensive interview with an individual engaged in the actual negotiation.
Relevant courses and levels
Students in courses related to negotiation and/or decision making. The case also works in international management/strategy courses where students are asked to apply market entry mode decisions along with the accompanying negotiations. The case is most appropriate for undergraduate courses, but can be used for graduate courses. The case can easily be used with common negotiation textbooks, such as Negotiation, 7th edition by Lewicki et al. (2014).
The exercise will be able to reinforce basic distributive negotiation concepts, including identifying issues, positions, interests, alternatives to a negotiated agreement, reservation (resistance) points, target (aspiration) points and opening bids, while at the same time challenge students to look for integrative potential among and across the issues. The case also provides an opportunity to explore the connection between negotiation and international market entry choice.
This chapter focuses on the impact of national economic conditions and voters’ attitudes on the positioning of European national political parties with regard to the…
This chapter focuses on the impact of national economic conditions and voters’ attitudes on the positioning of European national political parties with regard to the European Union (EU). We provide an empirical analysis based on data gathered through the Chapel Hill Expert Survey (CHES) covering parties from 14 European countries observed over the 1999–2010 time span. We perform a regression analysis where the dependent variable measures the position of political parties vis-à-vis EU integration and explanatory variables include a number of measures of national economic conditions, features of the national political and institutional framework and voters’ Euroscepticism. Fixed effect, ordered logit and fractional logit estimates provide the following main results. Compared with other parties, non-mainstream political parties and those acting in established economies are more prone to mirror citizens’ Eurosceptic sentiments. National economic conditions such as inflation as well as gross domestic product (GDP) growth affect mainstream party support for the EU. Smaller and ideologically extreme parties are, on average, less supportive of European integration.
Purpose – This chapter builds on our personal experiences of researching primary schools. The chapter begins by discussing some important subjective accounts of conducting…
Purpose – This chapter builds on our personal experiences of researching primary schools. The chapter begins by discussing some important subjective accounts of conducting qualitative research, and the unavoidable (often unexpected) dilemmas that confront researchers whilst ‘in the field’. This provides the backdrop against which our own experiences of conducting research will be considered.
Methodology/approach – Whilst it is vital and necessary for researchers to abide by the relevant code(s) of ethical conduct, the authors argue that the contingent nature of qualitative research necessitates a degree of personal ethical discretion. The ethical frameworks of bodies such as the British Educational Research Association and the British Sociological Association are prima facie generalised, and cannot cover all ethical potentialities. Ethically sensitive researchers not only will be vigilant in adhering to the guiding framework, but will also be acutely aware of the situated nature of many ethical issues.
Findings – Researchers can never be fully prepared for the ethical issues they will confront in the field. However, the authors believe that if researchers share the eccentricities of their empirical experiences with others in their field, then researchers can be better prepared for the ethical challenges awaiting them. As such, this chapter draws upon our own fieldwork experiences in a rural village school in Norfolk and in a series of suburban/rural primary schools in North East England. The chapter does not offer a series of recommendations, but rather an exploration of the practical lessons that the authors have taken from the field.
A disturbing productivity loss occurs through the underutilization of women, and a negative effect on productivity is caused by the mis‐classification and under‐representation of truly high performers and by the inflation of the ratings of mediocre performers.