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Situational involvement (SI) and enduring involvement (EI) are important predictors of spectator sports tourist behaviours. For this study, onsite and web surveys were…
Situational involvement (SI) and enduring involvement (EI) are important predictors of spectator sports tourist behaviours. For this study, onsite and web surveys were utilised to help understand how SI and EI levels, with both event and destination, may vary according to the primary and secondary trip purpose of a spectator sports tourist. Results revealed differences between the two groups only within certain aspects of SI and EI with the destination.
Consumer loyalty has long been recognised as a key consideration of marketing strategies focused on customer retention. While the importance of the loyalty construct is…
Consumer loyalty has long been recognised as a key consideration of marketing strategies focused on customer retention. While the importance of the loyalty construct is widely recognised, the conditions and variables that foster consumer loyalty for a specific service may vary. This paper explores the variables that influence fan attendance at a professional sporting event. It extends prior research by conceptualising both a behavioural and an attitudinal component of loyalty, as well as considering fan involvement with the sport and attraction to the sport. The findings suggest that psychological commitment and resistance to change mediate the effect of fan attraction and involvement on behavioural loyalty in a professional sports context.
This paper examines the effectiveness of a sport loyalty program in fostering fan relationships with a team and its sponsors. The study of 268 US baseball spectators…
This paper examines the effectiveness of a sport loyalty program in fostering fan relationships with a team and its sponsors. The study of 268 US baseball spectators revealed that, in the mind of the fan, loyalty programs generally consist of three underlying components. When these components perform well, they can fuel a member's sense of attachment to a team and their tendency to purchase sponsor products. Recommendations to improve loyalty program performance focus on tactics that build member relationships and identification with the team.
The present data illustrate the effectiveness of utilizing theoretically guided models to develop consumer-based micro-segmentation strategies. The results provide…
The present data illustrate the effectiveness of utilizing theoretically guided models to develop consumer-based micro-segmentation strategies. The results provide marketers with a powerful discriminant function calculated from six variables to profile consumers and make informed decisions regarding promotional content and channel delivery to stimulate processing of marketing communication. The function also enables marketers to carve out casual, moderate, and loyal market segments with 74.3 per cent accuracy utilizing only 18 survey questions.
This paper aims to present a content analysis of two major constructs among tourism settings, namely involvement and emotions, strictly related to tourist behaviour, due…
This paper aims to present a content analysis of two major constructs among tourism settings, namely involvement and emotions, strictly related to tourist behaviour, due to the fact that there are still some critical gaps in the knowledge about tourists' emotions and involvement.
An in-depth content analysis of involvement and emotions was adopted as the methodological approach. This methodology addressed an amalgam of different definitions, frameworks, mixed theoretical and practical applications and approaches, results, comparisons as well as a blend of a set of scales of involvement and emotions by confrontating of authors.
The major findings state that emotions and involvement demonstrate greater progress and scientific development to the level of tourism, marketing and consumer behaviour, representing an important issue for the integrated tourism experiences.
This study presents a critical reflection on the importance of emotions and involvement in specific contexts of leisure and tourism.
In an empirical examination of the link between product involvement and brand loyalty, a convenience sample of 253 students were asked to complete a questionnaire relating…
In an empirical examination of the link between product involvement and brand loyalty, a convenience sample of 253 students were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to two products which had been found in preliminary qualitative research to be associated with contrasted levels of involvement. The factor structure of involvement was found to vary between the two product categories (sneakers and pens). Furthermore, the link between product involvement and brand loyalty was found to involve different aspects of product involvement for each of the products concerned. Hence, future researchers in the area should be mindful that product involvement and brand loyalty are not universal constructs: they should be examined within specific consumer and product parameters.
One of the most well-known, seminal models in the tourism marketing field is the one proposed more than 40 years ago by Stanley Plog. His venturesomeness model has been…
One of the most well-known, seminal models in the tourism marketing field is the one proposed more than 40 years ago by Stanley Plog. His venturesomeness model has been widely cited in journal articles, textbooks, and has also been used as a reference for planning and designing tourism marketing projects. However, empirical research on Plog’s psychographic model has yielded varied, inconclusive results, and the postulates of his conceptual framework are still subject to academic scrutiny. While some empirical investigations have corroborated the model, others have found partial or no support for it. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to offer an exhaustive review of 26 studies in the literature which have employed Plog´s venturesomeness concept to examine travellers’ personality traits, attitudes, and behaviour, as a way to synthetise empirical findings and draw conclusions from the cumulative results. A discussion of the model’s contribution to the current body of knowledge and managerial implications for tourism marketing practitioners are presented.
Recreational scuba diving is one of the fastest growing tourism industries around the world and has become a popular activity in Taiwan. Few studies focus on enduring…
Recreational scuba diving is one of the fastest growing tourism industries around the world and has become a popular activity in Taiwan. Few studies focus on enduring involvement with a high risk or difficult activity specialization, so this study aims to explore the causal relationship between enduring involvement and specialization and seeks to explain sustained involvement in scuba diving activity as a recreation specialization.
This research selects four diving sites in Taiwan as survey locations, specifically Yeliou, Longdong, Kenting and Green Island. The questionnaire consists of three sections, including demographic information, enduring involvement and specialization. By analyzing the data collected from 810 scuba divers in Taiwan, structural equation modeling is used to examine the causal relationships among the variables.
The primary findings of this study are as follows: attraction positively affects divers’ commitment and lifestyle through joy, relaxation and sharing diving experiences; the results indicate that self-expression is associated with past experience of participating in scuba diving activity; and centrality indicates that participants’ daily life and recreation are related to each other and become central to their life. Results show that most theoretical hypotheses are supported, but there is no significant evidence of attraction impacting past experience or self-expression influencing commitment and lifestyle.
To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to examine the causal influence of enduring involvement and specialization in the scuba diving context. The findings provide a solid theoretical basis for the study of sustained involvement motivation and behavior on specialization. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed.
休闲水肺潜水是全球发展最快的旅游业之一, 已成为台湾的热门活动。很少有研究关注持续涉入高风险或困难活动的专门化, 因此本研究探讨持续涉入和专门化之间的因果关系, 并试图解释持续参与水肺潜水活动作为休闲专门化。
这项研究选择了台湾的四个潜水地点作为调查地点, 特别是野柳, 龙洞, 垦丁和绿岛。问卷分为三个部分, 包括人口统计信息, 持续参与和专门化。通过分析从台湾810名潜水员那里收集的数据, 使用结构方程模型检查变量之间的因果关系。
这项研究的主要发现是：（1）吸引力通过愉悦, 放松和分享潜水经历积极影响潜水员的承诺和生活方式; （2）结果表明自我表达与过去参加水肺潜水活动的经历有关（3）中心性表示参与者的日常生活和娱乐彼此相关, 并成为他们生活的中心。结果表明, 大多数理论假设均得到支持, 但没有显着证据表明吸引力会影响过去的经历或自我表达影响承诺和生活方式。
据我们所知, 本研究是第一个研究在潜水环境中持续涉入和专门化的因果关系影响的研究。研究结果为专门化持续参与动机和行为的研究提供了坚实的理论基础。 讨论了对未来研究的影响和建议。
El buceo recreativo como una forma especial de turismo: lecciones de Taiwán
El buceo recreativo es una de las industrias turísticas de más rápido crecimiento en todo el mundo y se ha convertido en una actividad popular en Taiwán. Pocos estudios se centran en la participación duradera con una especialización de actividad difícil o de alto riesgo, por lo que este estudio explora la relación causal entre la participación duradera y la especialización y busca explicar la participación sostenida en la actividad de buceo como una especialización recreativa.
Esta investigación selecciona cuatro sitios de buceo en Taiwán como lugares de estudio, específicamente Yeliou, Longdong, Kenting y Green Island. El cuestionario consta de tres secciones, que incluyen información demográfica, participación duradera y especialización. Al analizar los datos recopilados de 810 buzos en Taiwán, se utiliza un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales para examinar las relaciones causales entre las variables.
Los hallazgos principales de este estudio son: (1) la atracción afecta positivamente el compromiso y el estilo de vida de los buceadores a través de la alegría, la relajación y el intercambio de experiencias de buceo, (2) los resultados indican que la autoexpresión está asociada con la experiencia pasada de participar en actividades de buceo., y (3) la centralidad indica que la vida diaria y la recreación de los participantes están relacionadas entre sí y se vuelven centrales en su vida. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de las hipótesis teóricas están respaldadas, pero no hay evidencia significativa de que la atracción afecte la experiencia pasada o la autoexpresión que influya en el compromiso y el estilo de vida.
Hasta donde sabemos, este estudio es el primero en examinar la influencia causal de la participación y la especialización duraderas en el contexto del buceo. Los hallazgos proporcionan una base teórica sólida para el estudio de la motivación y el comportamiento de participación sostenida en la especialización. Se discuten las implicaciones y recomendaciones para futuras investigaciones.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between sport involvement, perceived event prestige and attendance intention of annual sporting events. In…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between sport involvement, perceived event prestige and attendance intention of annual sporting events. In addition, it examines the moderating effects of gender and past experience on the proposed model.
Data were collected, using an on-site survey, from spectators (n=349) who attended the men’s or women’s basketball tournaments of the 2016 William Jones Cup held in Taiwan.
The results showed that perceived event prestige partially mediated the relationship between sport involvement and attendance intention of sporting events. Moreover, the moderating effects of gender and experience were found in the proposed model. Specifically, male spectators’ involvement had a significantly stronger influence on perceived event prestige, and, in turn, their perception of event prestige played a more significant role in influencing attendance intention. Also, sport involvement was more important in predicting attendance intention for experienced spectators whereas the prestige of the event was more important for first-time spectators.
This study suggests that sport event organizers need to employ different strategies in developing the subsequent editions of the event and retaining fans’ interest in the sport. Specifically, event organizers need to enhance the prestige of the sporting event through effective marketing communication to attract first-time spectators to the event.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Chinese youth’s attention to and involvement with Chinese soccer and its professional league, the Chinese Super…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of Chinese youth’s attention to and involvement with Chinese soccer and its professional league, the Chinese Super League (CSL), on their level of satisfaction.
A survey study was employed to test the hypotheses. Research participants (n=948) were students from five major universities that represented each of the five main geographic regions of China. Data were randomly assigned into two halves: one half for CFA (n=474) and the other half for structural equation modeling (SEM) (n=474). Mplus 7.0 was used to conduct both the CFA and SEM.
The findings of this study indicated an overall lack of attention to and involvement with Chinese soccer and CSL among Chinese youths. Discussions have been presented on the causes of the lack of youth passion for Chinese soccer and suggestions have been articulated to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of policy formulation, business operation and marketing strategy.
The present study built on the extant sport management literature, demonstrated the complexity of consumers’ cognition and conation in the professional soccer setting, and revealed counter-intuitive relationship between attitudinal traits and behavioral patterns, which in turn provided unique insights for Chinese professional soccer marketers, managers and administrators.