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Article

Jeanine L. Parolini and Mark D. Parolini

Christian Churches in the United States are facing decline and, just like other organizations, must renew themselves. This study explores the culture of a successful…

Abstract

Christian Churches in the United States are facing decline and, just like other organizations, must renew themselves. This study explores the culture of a successful Midwestern church and its climate for innovation in an effort to move this church toward renewal. Through multiple regressionanalysis, support was found for the literature’s claims that a strong adhocracy culture has a significantly positive relationship with climate for innovation. However, the findings offered startling support that a strong clan culture has an even greater significant correlation with climate for innovation. Interestingly, it was found that market and hierarchy cultures have a small inverse relationship with support for innovation, and also that market culture has a small inverse relationship with resource supply. These results have significant implications for churches, ministries, and other nonprofit leaders and their organizations.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Abstract

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article

Jeanine Parolini, Kathleen Patterson and Bruce Winston

Although transformational and servant leadership has been in existence since the 1970s and theoretical assumptions about the differences began in the 1990s, this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Although transformational and servant leadership has been in existence since the 1970s and theoretical assumptions about the differences began in the 1990s, this paper seeks to relate the first empirical investigation distinguishing between the two leaders, which was conducted recently by the first author.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a review of the literature, the first author established 19 semantic differential scales and two self‐typing paragraphs to differentiate between the two leaders. The scales and paragraphs were formed into an online survey, reviewed by an expert panel, and distributed to 56 randomly selected contacts where 514 participants responded.

Findings

Through discriminant analysis, five statistically significant (p=0.000) discriminant items were found that differentiated between transformational and servant leadership.

Research limitations/implications

The paper proposes that the five statistically significant items revealed by the first author's research be brought into future definitions, discussions, and research on transformational and/or servant leadership.

Practical implications

The five items proposed should also be integrated into leadership and organizational development practices, the literature, and future research.

Originality/value

The paper discusses the first empirical research study investigating the distinctions between transformational and servant leaders, two leadership styles that have existed and been discussed by scholars and theorists since the 1970s.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article

Sherry K. Schneider and Winnette M. George

The major purpose of this research is to test the application of two leadership models to a voluntary service club. Servant leadership was predicted to better explain the…

Abstract

Purpose

The major purpose of this research is to test the application of two leadership models to a voluntary service club. Servant leadership was predicted to better explain the attitudes and commitment of service organization members than transformational leadership. Both leadership styles were hypothesized to be mediated by empowerment.

Design/methodology/approach

At eight clubs of a national voluntary service organization, it was investigated whether transformational and “servant” leadership were positively related to club member satisfaction, commitment and intentions to stay in the club. A sample of 110 participants completed either a printed or an online survey on the leadership style of their current club president and their attitudes toward the club in general. The club presidents completed the leadership surveys.

Findings

While perceptions of transformational leadership and servant leadership styles were highly correlated, servant leadership was identified as a better predictor of the voluntary club members' commitment, satisfaction, and intentions to stay. Club members' perceptions of empowerment mediated the relationship between servant leadership and satisfaction, commitment, and intentions to stay in the volunteer service organizations.

Practical implications

Leaders of service clubs may wish to adopt a servant leader style. These servant leaders may find it practical to provide empowering experiences to encourage volunteers to perform service club activities effectively. More generally, leaders who provide volunteers with positive, meaningful experiences may be able to maintain their interest in their volunteer positions.

Originality/value

It is believed that this is the first paper to compare directly servant versus transformational leadership in a voluntary organization.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article

Angus J. Duff

The purpose of this paper is to consider theoretically the relationships between performance management, a servant leadership style and leader gender, drawing from Hackman…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider theoretically the relationships between performance management, a servant leadership style and leader gender, drawing from Hackman and Wageman's theory of team coaching to suggest a servant leadership style being optimally suited to support the different leadership roles enacted at different stages of the performance management cycle. While recent research suggests that female managers may be more likely to enact a servant leadership style, team and process‐level considerations have yet to be addressed. This paper aims to theoretically address this topic.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is conceptual based on theory with literature review.

Findings

Because the theory of team coaching suggests differential leader task delivery at various points in the coaching process, servant leadership's individually‐centred approach is suited to team coaching, particularly in the execution of performance management coaching.

Practical implications

Since research suggests that women are more likely to employ a servant leadership style, this paper explores whether gender plays a role in team coaching.

Originality/value

This study makes a novel contribution by considering the influence of a servant leadership style at the leadership process and team levels.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article

Senja Svahn and Mika Westerlund

Purchasing has emerged as a key source of competitive advantage. This paper aims to explore how different purchasing strategies are connected to complex supply…

Abstract

Purpose

Purchasing has emerged as a key source of competitive advantage. This paper aims to explore how different purchasing strategies are connected to complex supply relationships and to the goal of purchasing.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws on the literature on industrial network theory and industrial buying behaviour.

Findings

The contribution describes six types of purchasing strategies that firms exert. These strategies depend on the complexity of supply relationships and the buyer's purchasing goal. Conventional products and services are bought through transactional exchange relationships, whereas strategically important items are purchased through intentional supply networks.

Practical implications

Purchasing strategies of a firm emphasise either efficiency or effectiveness of operation. The type of exchange varies according to the nature of supply relationships: it is either transactional or relational. A key implication for managers is that they should recognise the goal of buying, the strategic importance of the object of purchasing, and choose accordingly between the different types of supplier structures.

Originality/value

The paper shows that firms' purchasing strategies depend on the nature of their supply relationships and the motive for purchasing. Different strategies emphasise different aspects and events that ultimately manifest themselves in the firms' business models.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 24 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article

Nigel Bassett‐Jones and Geoffrey C. Lloyd

This paper seeks to examine the issue of whether Herzberg's two‐factor motivation theory still resonates nearly 50 years after it was first posited. The objective is to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to examine the issue of whether Herzberg's two‐factor motivation theory still resonates nearly 50 years after it was first posited. The objective is to assess whether or not Herzberg's contentious seminal studies on motivation at work still hold true today.

Design/methodology/approach

The arena in which the theory is investigated is work‐based suggestion schemes, and the question considered is “What motivates employees to contribute ideas?” The paper begins by revisiting the literatures that form the basis of motivation theory and, in particular, the furore surrounding the work of Fredrick Herzberg.

Findings

The results are derived from a survey providing over 3,200 responses. They suggest that money and recognition do not appear to be primary sources of motivation in stimulating employees to contribute ideas. In line with Herzberg's predictions, factors associated with intrinsic satisfaction play a more important part.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that, despite the criticism, Herzberg's two‐factor theory still has utility nearly 50 years after it was first developed.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 24 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article

Wallace Alexander Williams, Randolph-Seng Brandon, Mario Hayek, Stephanie Pane Haden and Guclu Atinc

The purpose of this paper is to examine how servant leadership and political skill combine to impact workplace spirituality and employee creativity.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how servant leadership and political skill combine to impact workplace spirituality and employee creativity.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were working adults recruited by graduate and undergraduate students from a US public regional comprehensive university. Data were collected across three time periods, with a final sample size of 280 participants.

Findings

The authors’ findings suggest that servant leaders impact employee creativity by fostering an environment that promotes workplace spirituality. Furthermore, this relationship is strengthened to the extent that the servant leader possesses high levels of political skill.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides a foundation for the interplay between servant leadership and political skill. Therefore, the data collection procedures undertaken in this study (i.e. from sources in multiple organizations) are beneficial. A limitation to this study is the use of a single informant to measure all of the constructs, which may cause a bias in the results.

Practical implications

This study provides a foundation for the interplay between servant leadership and political skill. Therefore, the data collection procedures undertaken in this study (i.e. from sources in multiple organizations) are beneficial.

Originality/value

Although servant leadership research continues to receive increased attention in the extant literature, researchers have tended to focus on the relational aspects of servant leadership. Curiously, the “leader” side of servant leadership has been largely neglected. As a result, some have questioned the construct as a viable leadership model. Greenleaf (1977), however, noted that servant leaders also possess conceptual skills; yet, these skills are rarely included in servant leadership measurements or empirical studies. The authors argue that political skill captures the essence of these abilities, and that including it strengthens the servant leader’s impact on workplace spirituality, ultimately influencing employee creativity.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article

Okechukwu Ethelbert Amah and Kabiru Oyetuunde

Employee turnover has been established as a major cause of the abysmal performance of SMEs in Nigeria. Hence, the study explored the role of servant leadership and the…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee turnover has been established as a major cause of the abysmal performance of SMEs in Nigeria. Hence, the study explored the role of servant leadership and the work climate created by the leader in the reduction of employee turnover in SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involved 1,000 participants drawn from 200 SMEs in the city of Lagos. Cross-sectional data was acquired through questionnaire designed in such a way as to minimise common method variance.

Findings

Results indicate that servant leadership reduced employee turnover, and that employee voice and the career growth dimensions partially mediated this relationship. The study variables explained 59% of the variance in employee turnover.

Practical implications

The paper highlights that SMEs leaders who adopt servant leadership behaviour can reduce employee turnover directly and through the positive work environment they create. SMEs leaders must not only be servant leaders but must ensure that the entire organisation is managed by servant leaders. They achieve this through recruitment and promotion process.

Originality/value

Past studies in Nigeria were in the area of government intervention and the effects of turnover on the productivity of SMEs. This appears to be the only paper that studied the effects of leadership on employee turnover in SMEs in Nigeria. This study advances research by studying the effect of servant leadership and the work environment created by leaders on employee turnover. Thus, the study advances past studies by suggesting possible ways to reduce employee turnover and enhancing the needed productivity of SMEs in Nigeria.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article

Adya Hermawati

This study aims to examine the effect of transglobal leadership on quality of work life (QWL), job involvement, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and human…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of transglobal leadership on quality of work life (QWL), job involvement, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and human resource (HR) performance of tourism sector-engaged micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in East Java; to examine the moderating role of QWL, job involvement and OCB in the effect of transglobal leadership on HR performance of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java; to examine the effect of HR performance of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs on responsible tourism marketing and sustainable tourism competitiveness in East Java; and to examine the mediating role of responsible tourism marketing in the effect of HR performance of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs on sustainable tourism competitiveness in East Java.

Design/methodology/approach

The population of this research was all HR executives of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java and domestic and foreign tourists in East Java. The sampling of the tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java (in 16 tourism potential cities) was performed using a purposive sampling technique. Determination of the sample size was made using the minimum criterion from structural model, ranging from 100 to 200. Thus, it was determined that the number of tourism sector-engaged MSMEs studied in this research was 200 enterprises from 16 tourism potential cities in East Java. From each tourism sector MSME, four employees and three tourists were selected. In total, this research involved 800 employees and 600 tourists (both domestic and foreign).

Findings

This research found that transglobal leadership (X) , QBL (M1), job involvement (M2) and OCB (M3) had an effect on HR performance (Y). The results of this research highlighted that QWL variable (M1) moderated the effect of transglobal leadership (X) on HR performance (Y). It was found that job involvement variable (M2) moderated the effect of transglobal leadership (X) on HR performance (Y). This research also detected that OCB variable (M3) moderated the effect of transglobal leadership (X) on HR performance (Y). This research found that HR performance (Y) had an effect on responsible marketing (Z1). It was obtained in this research that HR performance (Y) also had an effect on sustainable tourism competitiveness (Z2). Finally, this research found that responsible marketing (Z1) had an effect on sustainable tourism competitiveness (Z2).

Originality/value

Regarding the originality of this research, the holistic compilation was integrated from the theoretical concept of the HR and marketing strategies through the implementation of the tourism marketing concept and application that are responsible for tourism sector-engaged MSMEs in East Java. Of course, tourists need to get a good understanding of the marketing strategy to participate in controlling the sustainable tourism competitiveness in East Java.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

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