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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Jill Kickul, Mark D. Griffiths, Colleen C. Robb and Lisa Gundry

Given the previous research on the disparities of lending rates and their relationship with lending institutions for women-owned and minority-owned businesses, the study…

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Abstract

Purpose

Given the previous research on the disparities of lending rates and their relationship with lending institutions for women-owned and minority-owned businesses, the study poses the research question: How much Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) funding was distributed to women-owned and minority-owned businesses in comparison to other firms? Additionally, as the purpose of the PPP funding was to assist small businesses in retaining their workforce, the authors pose a second research question: Of those who received PPP funding, how many jobs on average were retained? And importantly related to our first research question, are there differences across gender and race in the average number of jobs retained?

Design/methodology/approach

This is one of the first empirical studies with an initial sample size of 661,218 loans from July 2020 that examines whether the United States PPP had the intended impact to save jobs in small businesses and to examine any reported differences across gender and race in loans issued and jobs saved.

Findings

The authors find that significant differences exist between women- and men-owned businesses across all five loan categories, with male-owned firms receiving over 80% of PPP loans. However, women-owned firms saved more jobs on average across all but the largest loan category. Significant differences were also found between minority- and White-owned businesses with minority-owned businesses generally saving more jobs on average across most loan categories.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of this study pertains to certain missing data that were not reported by participants. While a participant may have included their gender, they may not have included their race. Therefore, the varying sets of data may not be a reflection of the same individuals. Additionally, the industries were not included in this analysis, which may shed light on the job creation differences across gender and race.

Practical implications

Many of the industries that have been significantly impacted have been the tourism, restaurant and hospitality sectors, and knowing “where the money was allocated” can assist policymakers in allocating additional funds to those businesses, especially those who did not receive funding in the initial first waves of PPP.

Originality/value

This is one of the first empirical studies that examine over 600,000 loans and found that women-owned firms saved more jobs across all loan categories except the largest loans. Significant differences were also found between minority- and White-owned businesses with minority-owned businesses generally saving more jobs on average across most loan categories.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Mark D. Griffiths, Lisa Gundry, Jill Kickul and Angeles Muñoz Fernandez

The purpose of this paper is to examine the governmental, economic, and technological factors contributing to a country's innovation ecology that have an impact on…

1730

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the governmental, economic, and technological factors contributing to a country's innovation ecology that have an impact on sustainable economic growth.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigates governmental, economic, and technological supports that comprise the innovation ecology of 34 nations using ordinary least squares, discriminant analysis, and mediated regression. It is proposed that the strength of a country's innovation ecology is associated with greater sustainable entrepreneurial growth opportunities. Innovation indicators and trend analyses were collected from Eurostat Yearbook 2007, Science and Technology, and Global Financial Data over the 1995‐2005 period.

Findings

The results reveal that while the influence of government and the economic environment encourage innovation ecology, having resources at the research and development levels, human capital, and early seed funding were key indicators of innovation. The greater the degree of research and development, the availability of a highly skilled labor force, and the amount of private and public venture capital funding, the more likely it is that a strong national innovation ecology will emerge leading to the creation of new business ideas and growth opportunities.

Originality/value

The results contribute to the understanding of the significant role of innovation investment for new business development and growth.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2008

Chaitanya Singh and Mark D. Griffiths

The purpose of this paper is to provide a descriptive analysis of the role of computer usage in determining the credit score for small business owners.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a descriptive analysis of the role of computer usage in determining the credit score for small business owners.

Design/methodology/approach

Bitler, Robb, and Wolken report over three‐quarters of all small business use computerized systems. Since such systems are faster, more accurate, and less fallible than manual systems, we investigate whether increased use of computers leads to better credit ratings and leads to access to larger credit lines.

Findings

The results suggest that computer usage has virtually no effect in the determination of credit by financial service providers. Credit analysis and risk measures dominate the decision‐making process.

Research limitations/implications

The 3,561 surveyed firms are skewed toward very small firms with approximately 64 per cent having less than five employees and an 20 per cent having less than ten employees. Forty per cent of the firms have annual sales of less than $100,000 while only 1.8 per cent of the firms have sales in excess of $10 million.

Practical implications

Computerization is an operational necessity but credit worthiness is a function of the overall management characteristics of the firm and not the tools employed by the management team.

Originality/value

A minority of small businesses do not use computerization and these tend to be among the smallest in size and with the lowest levels of credit‐worthiness. Nonetheless, credit worthiness is determined by standard credit analysis and risk measures rather than operational efficiency.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 July 2011

Lisa K. Gundry, Jill R. Kickul, Mark D. Griffiths and Sophie C. Bacq

Social entrepreneurship is primarily concerned with the development of innovative solutions to society's most challenging problems. Since social entrepreneurship…

Abstract

Social entrepreneurship is primarily concerned with the development of innovative solutions to society's most challenging problems. Since social entrepreneurship flourishes in resource-constrained environments, social innovation may depend on the extent to which social entrepreneurs can combine and apply the resources at hand in creative and useful ways to solve problems – “bricolage.” Moreover, innovating for social impact relies on a set of institutional and structural supports – “innovation ecology,' which can facilitate or impede innovation. Our research empirically examines these variables as drivers of systemic social change through scaling and replication – “catalytic innovation” (i.e., the development of products and services targeted to unserved markets). Results of a survey conducted with 113 social entrepreneurs indicate that, while innovation ecology is associated with the degree of catalytic innovation, it is mediated by the role and degree of bricolage that social entrepreneurs bring to solving problems. These findings reinforce the role of entrepreneurs as the indispensable agents of social change.

Details

Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-073-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2013

Mark D. Griffiths, Lisa K. Gundry and Jill R. Kickul

The purpose of this paper is to incorporate the demand and supply‐side theories of entrepreneurship development in a series of stage‐based models that analyze how…

6564

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to incorporate the demand and supply‐side theories of entrepreneurship development in a series of stage‐based models that analyze how macro‐level and contextual variables influence social entrepreneurship activity. The paper investigates the macro‐level influences, including the socio‐political, cultural and economic factors that can stimulate or impede the emergence of social entrepreneurship. Although little research on these determinants has been conducted, this study seeks to reveal that several variables that are crucial in traditional entrepreneurial studies do not appear to significantly affect social entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

To measure social entrepreneurial activity, the authors used the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) findings from the 2009 study. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test three multi‐level stages of the socio‐political, economic, and cultural determinants of social entrepreneurship activity. The series of three stages for all of the variables were entered in the following order: first, socio‐political variables; second, cultural variables; third, economic variables. This approach allows the authors to explore and thus extend the previous research reviewed here, on how the economic context beyond socio‐political and cultural factors affects social enterprise activity.

Findings

A three‐stage analysis revealed that socio‐political variables accounted for 76 percent of the variance in social entrepreneurial activity. It was found that the single greatest determinant of social entrepreneurial activity is the degree of female participation in the labor force. Additional findings and implications for understanding the role of macro‐level factors on social entrepreneurship are discussed.

Originality/value

Social entrepreneurship has the potential to confront and address some of society's most challenging and complex problems arising from market and government inadequacies or failures. Social entrepreneurial firms exist within environments that are often severely resource‐constrained. Therefore, social entrepreneurs may rely on a unique set of strategies to mobilize resources available to them, such as collaboration with others and accessing social capital to generate value solutions for their communities. The growth of women's participation in the labor force is a powerful influence on social entrepreneurship activity, and with the increase in training programs and local networks to support women's business ownership, it is likely that this trend will continue and positively impact communities around the world.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Craig R. Brown and Drew B. Winters

The State of Delaware recently passed a new banking law that allows banks and bank affiliates chartered in Delaware to sell and underwrite insurance nationwide. The new…

Abstract

The State of Delaware recently passed a new banking law that allows banks and bank affiliates chartered in Delaware to sell and underwrite insurance nationwide. The new laws provide two potential benefits to banks; (1) increased profits from selling insurance and (2) reduced interest rate risk exposure from underwriting insurance. We find support for increased profit potential to banks from the law, but we fail to find a reduction in the interest rate risk exposure of the banks.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2011

Sheilagh M. Resnick and Mark D. Griffiths

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate service quality in a UK privately funded alcohol treatment clinic.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate service quality in a UK privately funded alcohol treatment clinic.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered via interviews with two groups of participants using the SERVQUAL questionnaire. The first group comprised 32 patients and the second 15 clinic staff. The SERVQUAL instrument measures service quality expectations and perceptions across five service dimensions and identifies gaps between service expectations and perceptions of what was delivered.

Findings

Patients' service quality expectations were exceeded on four of five dimensions. However, staff members felt services fell below expectations on four of five dimensions with the “reliability” service dimension emerging as the common service element falling below expectations for both participant groups. It was concluded that achieving consistent service delivery and increasing empathy between staff and patients improves overall service quality perceptions.

Research limitations/implications

The paper relies on self‐report methods from a relatively small number of individuals.

Originality/value

There have been limited research studies measuring alcohol treatment service quality in the private sector.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Maria Karanika-Murray, Nikita Duncan, Halley M. Pontes and Mark D. Griffiths

Organizational identification refers to a person’s sense of belonging within the organization in which they work. Despite the importance of organizational identification…

10990

Abstract

Purpose

Organizational identification refers to a person’s sense of belonging within the organization in which they work. Despite the importance of organizational identification for work-related attitudes and organizational behavior, little research has directly examined the mechanisms that may link these. The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of how organizational identification relates to job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a social identity perspective, the authors present and test two models that describe work engagement and its constituent dimensions (vigor, dedication, absorption) as mediating the relationship between organizational identification and job satisfaction.

Findings

Bootstrapped mediation analyses provided support for full mediation whereby there is an indirect (via work engagement) and positive effect of organizational identification on job satisfaction. Analyses also provided support for the mediating effects of the three dimensions of work engagement, vigor, dedication, and absorption, in this relationship.

Practical implications

Although cross-sectional, this study provides a needed first step toward an understanding of the important role of organizational identification for job satisfaction and the mediating role of work engagement in this relationship.

Originality/value

The results provide valuable insights into the effects of organizational identification and address some of the gaps in understanding social identity as the context for work behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications for strengthening employee engagement and enhancing organizational identification are discussed.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 30 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 30 August 2019

Ellis Cashmore

Abstract

Details

Kardashian Kulture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-706-7

Book part
Publication date: 17 February 2022

Nicholas M. Baxter

In this chapter, I utilize insights from symbolic interaction to analyze the identity work processes of larp subculture participants to construct and perform their in-game…

Abstract

In this chapter, I utilize insights from symbolic interaction to analyze the identity work processes of larp subculture participants to construct and perform their in-game identities. I extend the research on larp subcultures in two ways. First, I place larping within the larger context of leisure subcultures and society by arguing that larping is representative of changes in leisure and subcultures in postmodern society. Second, I draw upon ethnographic data collected among the New England Role-playing Organization (NERO) to analyze larpers character identity performances. RPG and Larp researchers have developed several theories about the relationship between larp participants and their character performances. While these concepts provide a helpful framework for understanding the participant-character relationship, they undertheorize the in-game constructed performance of identity. Using symbolic interaction theory, I analyze the identity work processes larpers use to construct and perform their larp identities extending our understanding of the similarities between everyday identity and larpers' character identity performances.

1 – 10 of over 3000