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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Melvin Prince, Mark A.P. Davies, Mark Cleveland and Dayananda Palihawadana

A first objective is to add insight into how constructs of ethnocentrism, xenocentrism and cosmopolitanism relate to each other. Knowledge of how these constructs overlap…

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Abstract

Purpose

A first objective is to add insight into how constructs of ethnocentrism, xenocentrism and cosmopolitanism relate to each other. Knowledge of how these constructs overlap or work together in affecting consumer preferences will offer global marketers insights for designing appropriate marketing strategies. The second objective is to extend this knowledge by examining the correspondence of these three constructs to a nomological network of dispositional concepts pertinent for product positioning and market segmentation. The third objective is to empirically examine the extent to which the measures, construct structure and associative relationships are robust in different national research settings. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveying British and American consumers, this study examines and analyzes the correspondence of these identity-relevant constructs within a nomological net of pertinent concepts: consciousness-of-kind, global consumption orientation, materialism and natural environment concern.

Findings

The hypothesized negative links between CET-XEN and CET-COS, and the predicted positive connection between XEN-COS were all confirmed on the latent factor results for the combined data set. The negative correlation between CET-XEN was of a considerably lower magnitude than that for CET-COS.

Originality/value

To date, no research has used an identity theory framework and simultaneously examined in a cross-cultural context the interrelationships of consumer ethnocentrism consumer xenocentrism and cosmopolitanism – and their differentiating linkages to a multiplicity of consumer dispositions.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Mark Cleveland and Anjana Balakrishnan

Cosmopolitanism and xenocentrism denote distinct individual orientations toward cultural outgroups. The former considers an individual’s openness to cultural diversity and…

Abstract

Purpose

Cosmopolitanism and xenocentrism denote distinct individual orientations toward cultural outgroups. The former considers an individual’s openness to cultural diversity and ability to navigate through intercultural environments, whereas the latter describes an individual’s feelings of admiration or preference for specific cultural outgroup(s), over his/her ingroup. Few studies have simultaneously examined these constructs and fewer still have considered these within a nomological framework of key predictors (i.e. basic psychological needs) and practical outcomes (e.g. influentialness and friendships across different groups). The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors hypothesized a series of relationships of various antecedents and outcomes of cosmopolitanism and xenocentrism, and tested these conjectures using survey data from Canadians (n=238) and Americans (n=239).

Findings

The findings support the psychometric robustness of our tripartite operationalization of xenocentrism, and clearly distinguish this construct from cosmopolitanism. Beyond confirming earlier findings, the authors illuminate several novel relationships (e.g. between basic psychological needs, cosmopolitanism and xenocentrism), and elucidate the role played by a key personality dimension, neuroticism, in mediating the relationships between basic psychological needs and the two outgroup orientations.

Research limitations/implications

Samples of this study are drawn from North America and a cross-sectional research design is used.

Originality/value

Whereas for xenocentric consumers admiration of one or more foreign culture(s) displaces customary preferences for one’s own cultural group, cosmopolitan consumers are able to embrace outside cultures without disaffection from their sociocultural ingroup. Given the obvious repercussions of these differences for targeting international consumer segments and for positioning brands across borders, our research has numerous practical applications as well as theoretical implications.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Nicolas Papadopoulos, Mark Cleveland, Boris Bartikowski and Attila Yaprak

This study focuses on an inventory and typology of consumer dispositions towards “place” and relates it to the underlying theories, inputs and outcomes of place images and…

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1031

Abstract

Purpose

This study focuses on an inventory and typology of consumer dispositions towards “place” and relates it to the underlying theories, inputs and outcomes of place images and attitudes, aiming to unclutter a crowded research landscape by providing a holistic perspective of product/brand place associations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on extant literature to identify, analyze and discuss the consumer dispositions, theories and other elements related to place.

Findings

In total, 32 dispositions, 10 inputs to image formation, 28 permutations that complicate the understanding of place images, and 18 outcomes are discussed, providing a comprehensive perspective of the images of, and behaviours towards, various types of places from neighbourhoods to countries and beyond.

Research limitations/implications

Of the large number of constructs and combinations among them that are discussed, some have been studied fairly extensively, but most comprise “the road(s) less travelled”. The paper identifies relevant research gaps and numerous opportunities for new research.

Practical implications

Managers are aware and act upon some of the inventoried dispositions but can benefit by considering the complete array of constructs and concepts that are discussed.

Social implications

Individuals’ dispositions towards various places help to shape their self and social identities and are important in their daily life and consumption behaviour.

Originality/value

The study brings together for the first time a complete inventory of place-related dispositions alongside a wide range of related theories and concepts, thus advancing our knowledge of the nature and role of the country and other place-related images of products and brands.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 2 June 2020

Melvin Prince, Attila Yaprak, Mark Cleveland, Mark A.P. Davies, Alexander Josiassen, Andrea Nechtelberger, Martin Nechtelberger, Dayananda Palihawadana, Walter Renner, Sona Chovanova Supekova and Sylvia Von Wallpach

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which personal values, moral foundations and gender-role identities affect, in sequence, consumers' constructions of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which personal values, moral foundations and gender-role identities affect, in sequence, consumers' constructions of their ethnocentric and cosmopolitan orientations. Achieving a better understanding of the psychological makeup of consumer ethnocentrism and cosmopolitanism should help managers better design international market segmentation and brand positioning strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The study's conceptual framework is anchored in attitude and values theories, and focuses on the social categorizations that consumers make and how these contribute to the formation of their ethnocentric and cosmopolitan orientations. Drawing data from consumers living in five European countries, we test our theoretical conjectures through structural equation modeling approaches, including multigroup analysis at the country level, as well as the identification and scrutiny of potential pan-European consumer segments.

Findings

Findings show that personal values, moral foundations and gender-role identities do exert direct and indirect (partially mediated) effects on the formation of consumers' ethnocentric and cosmopolitan orientations. These provide numerous insights for managers in terms of how they can segment domestic and international markets, as well as how to position products and communicate brand strategies.

Research limitations/implications

The study focused on consumers' personal and role identities and offers implications based on data gathered from a sample of five European countries. Future work should broaden this perspective by including other identity facets, such as religious and ethnic identities, as well as product-category and brand-specific outcomes, in order to help develop a more comprehensive picture of the psychology underpinning consumers' identity-related orientations, and their effects on consumer behavior. Future research should also study these issues in a broader geographical context, by including national markets that have culturally diverse populations as well as places with dissimilar cultural and economic profiles.

Originality/value

The study shows that individuals' personal values, moral foundations and gender roles have a strong effect on the formation of consumer ethnocentrism and consumer cosmopolitanism orientations. Consideration of how these antecedent constructs operate in concert to shape consumers' in- versus out-group orientations has been overlooked in the international marketing literature. Beyond the ramifications for theory, the study offers numerous substantive managerial implications in terms of how consumers are likely to respond to local and global/foreign products/brands based on these orientations.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2018

Mark Cleveland and Fabian Bartsch

The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework that highlights the reinforcing nature of global consumer culture (GCC). In doing so, this paper highlights…

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2801

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework that highlights the reinforcing nature of global consumer culture (GCC). In doing so, this paper highlights a dialectic process in which consumers trade-off, appropriate, indigenize and creolize consumption into multiple GCCs.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach is conceptual with illustrative examples.

Findings

GCC is a reinforcing process shaped by global culture flows, acculturation, deterritorialization, and cultural and geographic specific entities. This process allows consumers to indigenize GCC, and GCC to contemporaneously appropriate aspects from myriad localized cultures, producing creolized cultures.

Research limitations/implications

Marketing research and practices need to shift away from the dichotomous view of global and local consumption fueled by a misleading view of segmentation. Instead, marketers should focus on identifying the permutations of emerging GCCs, how these operate according to the context and accordingly position their marketing mix to accommodate them.

Originality/value

The proposed model reviews and integrates existing literature to highlight fundamental research directions that present a comprehensive overview of GCCs, its shortcomings and future directions.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Abstract

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2019

Mark Cleveland and Fabian Bartsch

Abstract

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 January 2019

Nicolas Papadopoulos, Mark Cleveland and Boris Bartikowski

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337

Abstract

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Abstract

Details

Popular Music, Popular Myth and Cultural Heritage in Cleveland: The Moondog, The Buzzard, and the Battle for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-156-8

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2011

Mark Cleveland, Nicolas Papadopoulos and Michel Laroche

The purpose of this paper is to focus on two questions that are especially pertinent to international marketers. Is a strong ethnic identity (EID) generally incompatible…

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25416

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on two questions that are especially pertinent to international marketers. Is a strong ethnic identity (EID) generally incompatible with a globally‐oriented disposition (cosmopolitanism: COS), and to what extent is the EID‐COS relationship stable across cultures and countries? What roles do EID and COS play on consumer behavior alongside key demographic variables, and how do these relationships vary across countries and across consumption contexts?

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of consumers drawn from eight countries, this study identifies and compares bases for international market segmentation. The antecedent roles of EID, COS, and the four demographics variables on the behaviors associated with nine product categories are examined.

Findings

The findings imply that consumers are complementing an identity rooted in their traditional culture with one that is globally‐oriented. The roles played by demographic and psychographic variables varied considerably, not only across product categories, but moreover, across country samples.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses more on consumer goods and less on intangible services. The sample and sampling approach place some limits on generalizability.

Practical implications

The results provide insights for international managers into when (i.e. product categories) and where (i.e. locations) marketing strategies could be standardized across national frontiers, and when and where these strategies should be customized or “glocalized.”

Originality/value

The paper makes a significant contribution to the international market segmentation literature, demonstrating the variable impact of demographics and identity across consumer behaviors. The findings bolster the notion that many cultures have the innate facility to glocalize, that is, to absorb foreign or global ideas with the best practices and bond these with native customs. The results further imply that globalization takes on many forms throughout the world.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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