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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2022

Branislav Hock and Mark Button

Pyramid schemes create an unusual situation, where the victims might be effectively turned into offenders, as their role is to recruit more victims to the pyramid scheme…

Abstract

Purpose

Pyramid schemes create an unusual situation, where the victims might be effectively turned into offenders, as their role is to recruit more victims to the pyramid scheme. This paper aims to investigate the prevalence of pyramid schemes, their modern forms and why people join them.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper has developed from a structured literature review carried out as part of a wider study into policing pyramid schemes.

Findings

This paper identifies a range of reasons why people join pyramid schemes. Some of these reasons are “participant dominant”, including the vision of high reward for little work and the attraction to a better lifestyle. Other reasons are “organiser dominant”, including the exploitation of specific groups and high-pressure sales. These findings suggest significant differences in levels of culpability of pyramid schemes victims and perpetrators. This complexity is accompanied by conceptual, regulatory and institutional challenges.

Originality/value

Despite the profound and pervasive impact of pyramid schemes, researchers know very little about why some people participate in pyramid schemes. Limited research is largely American and specific to illegal multi-level marketing schemes. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to provide an overview of a mix of strategies of participants of pyramid schemes to recruit new victims and reasons why people are joining pyramid schemes.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

David Shepherd, Emma Beatty, Mark Button and Dean Blackbourn

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of media coverage on offenders convicted of occupational fraud and corruption in the UK. It examines the extent of media…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of media coverage on offenders convicted of occupational fraud and corruption in the UK. It examines the extent of media coverage and provides insights into the experiences of offenders.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based upon interviews with 17 convicted offenders, and on a content analysis of one national and two regional newspapers in the UK.

Findings

The findings suggest that offenders convicted of occupational crime and corruption are more likely to experience media coverage than previously assumed and that personal digital criminal legacies create long-term labels which lead to economic strains and social fractures that hinder productive reintegration into society.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited by a small sample frame in the UK. Nevertheless, the findings suggest further research is required as they have important implications for privacy and rehabilitation.

Practical implications

In particular, offenders and their families need support in dealing with their personal digital criminal legacies, accessing their privacy rights and coping with the strains created by online stigmatisation. From a policy perspective, the existing regulatory framework that supports rehabilitation in the UK, especially the increasingly archaic Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974, requires close examination and debate to ensure it is fit for the digital era. The findings also suggest that policies, practices and responsibilities of the public sector in employing offenders need to be examined.

Originality/value

It is a rare study of white-collar offenders after their release from prison. The findings are of relevance to criminal justice policy makers, rehabilitation services and academics.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 June 2021

Peter Tickner and Mark Button

Cressey’s Fraud Triangle has been referenced in 8,584 studies and academic papers [1] and is a stalwart of training courses for accounting and audit practitioners and…

1157

Abstract

Purpose

Cressey’s Fraud Triangle has been referenced in 8,584 studies and academic papers [1] and is a stalwart of training courses for accounting and audit practitioners and fraud investigators. The Fraud Triangle has endured for three decades in the academic and practitioner worlds. This study aims to explore the origins of Cressey’s Fraud Triangle and challenge its practical value to a fraud investigator.

Design/methodology/approach

This study has developed from analysis of a targeted literature review carried out as part of a wider study into occupational fraud and corruption.

Findings

Cressey’s name is intrinsically linked to the Fraud Triangle, although he never used the expression during his lifetime. Two of the three motivational factors identified by Cressey (1953) were developed from the earlier work of Svend Riemer (1941), who it is suggested should have equal billing with Donald Cressey for the concepts that led to the creation of the Fraud Triangle.

Practical implications

The paper illustrates the limitations of Cressey’s Fraud Triangle for practitioners.

Originality/value

Many academics and researchers have either misunderstood Cressey’s role in the development of the Fraud Triangle or been unaware of its true origins. Although the pioneering work of Riemer is referenced in a 2014 study on the Fraud Triangle by Alexander Schuchter and Michael Levi, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to identify the influence of Riemer on Cressey’s thinking and the development of the Fraud Triangle.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2019

Claire Nee, Mark Button, David Shepherd, Dean Blackbourn and Sharon Leal

This paper aims to present findings based on the psychological profile of 17 offenders who have been convicted of occupational fraud, bribery or related offences. It…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present findings based on the psychological profile of 17 offenders who have been convicted of occupational fraud, bribery or related offences. It provides findings on their specific psychological profiles using well-established psychological techniques to gauge personality. The study is also aimed to provide the foundations for further research on such profiles, which could eventually provide a screening tool to identify individuals who might be a higher risk of engaging in corrupt behaviours for organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based upon 17 interviews with white-collar offenders who were also asked to complete an Eysenck Personality Questionnaire to identify their profile.

Findings

This study postulates that sensation seeking, risk appetite, impulsivity and lower non-aggressive self-regulation dominate the E scale traits of white-collar offenders.

Originality/value

This paper is very much original in its design with few studies having been performed in this area.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1968

THAT is the title of a survey by the National Joint Advisory Council which has just been issued by the Ministry of Labour. Properly assimilated by both sides of industry…

Abstract

THAT is the title of a survey by the National Joint Advisory Council which has just been issued by the Ministry of Labour. Properly assimilated by both sides of industry it could become an important document for a country continually under pressure to increase productivity. In his Foreword the Minister of Labour says that the number of manual workers engaged on a shift system has increased by more than half in the last ten years and expects the trend to continue.

Details

Work Study, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0043-8022

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2022

Yanwen Yang, Yuping Jiang, Qingqi Zhang, Fengyuan Zou and Lei Du

It is an important style classification way to sort out suits according to the button arrangement. However, since the different dressing ways of suit cause the buttons to…

Abstract

Purpose

It is an important style classification way to sort out suits according to the button arrangement. However, since the different dressing ways of suit cause the buttons to be easily occluded, the traditional identification methods are difficult to identify the details of suits, and the recognition accuracy is not ideal. The purpose of this paper is to solve the problem of fine-grained classification of suit by button arrangement. Taking men's suits as an example, a method of coordinate position discrimination algorithm combined faster region-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN) algorithm is proposed to achieve accurate batch classification of suit styles under different dressing modes.

Design/methodology/approach

The detection algorithm of suit buttons proposed in this paper includes faster R-CNN algorithm and coordinate position discrimination algorithm. Firstly, a small sample base was established, which includes six suit styles in different dressing states. Secondly, buttons and buttonholes in the image were marked, and the image features were extracted by the residual network to identify the object. The anchors regression coordinates in the sample were obtained through convolution, pooling and other operations. Finally, the position coordinate relation of buttons and buttonholes was used to accurately judge and distinguish suit styles under different dressing ways, so as to eliminate the wrong results of direct classification by the network and achieve accurate classification.

Findings

The experimental results show that this method could be used to accurately classify suits based on small samples. The recognition accuracy rate reaches 95.42%. It can effectively solve the problem of machine misjudgment of suit style due to the cover of buttons, which provides an effective method for the fine-grained classification of suit style.

Originality/value

A method combining coordinate position discrimination algorithm with convolutional neural network was proposed for the first time to realize the fine-grained classification of suit style. It solves the problem of machine misreading, which is easily caused by buttons occluded in different suits.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1987

J.D. BOVEY and P.J. BROWN

Computers with graphics screens and pointing devices such as the ‘mouse’ provide the opportunity for highly interactive user interfaces. This paper describes some novel…

Abstract

Computers with graphics screens and pointing devices such as the ‘mouse’ provide the opportunity for highly interactive user interfaces. This paper describes some novel software for displaying documents on graphics screens: the software provides a fast and simple way for users to peruse documents and to examine the parts that interest them. One application of the software is as a front end to a document retrieval system, since it provides a way for users to identify quickly the records that are of relevance to them and to provide feedback between the user and the underlying retrieval system.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 43 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Book part
Publication date: 28 February 2022

Mark DeSantis, Matthew McCarter and Abel Winn

The authors use laboratory experiments to test two self-assessment tax mechanisms for facilitating land assembly. One mechanism is incentive compatible with a complex tax…

Abstract

The authors use laboratory experiments to test two self-assessment tax mechanisms for facilitating land assembly. One mechanism is incentive compatible with a complex tax function, while the other uses a flat tax rate to mitigate implementation concerns. Sellers publicly declare a price for their land. Overstating its true value is penalized by using the declared price to assess a property tax; understating its value is penalized by allowing developers to buy the property at the declared price. The authors find that both mechanisms increase the rate of land assembly and gains from trade relative to a control in which sellers’ price declarations have no effect on their taxes. However, these effects are statistically insignificant or transitory. The assembly rates in our self-assessment treatments are markedly higher than those of prior experimental studies in which the buyer faces bargaining frictions, such as costly delay or capital constraints.

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1942

THE Funk Gerat 10 equipment is the latest standardized type, and is installed in all the later bombers and reconnaissance machines of the Luftwaffe.

Abstract

THE Funk Gerat 10 equipment is the latest standardized type, and is installed in all the later bombers and reconnaissance machines of the Luftwaffe.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 14 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 16 September 2011

Pradipta Biswas and Pat Langdon

The purpose of this paper is to design an adaptation algorithm to facilitate pointing in electronic interfaces by users with motor impairment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design an adaptation algorithm to facilitate pointing in electronic interfaces by users with motor impairment.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the algorithm was optimized using a simulator, then the algorithm was validated through a user study involving seven motor‐impaired and six able‐bodied users and three different pointing devices.

Findings

The algorithm significantly reduces pointing time overall and most participants pointed quicker with the gravity well than without it.

Originality/value

The adaptation algorithm can significantly reduce pointing time for both motor and situational impairment.

Details

Journal of Assistive Technologies, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-9450

Keywords

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