Knowledge‐based systems (KBS) can help organizations to leveragetheir professional expertise and manage their human resources. Considersthe introduction and assimilation…
Knowledge‐based systems (KBS) can help organizations to leverage their professional expertise and manage their human resources. Considers the introduction and assimilation of a new technology such as KBS in your organization. Proposes five strategic alternatives: paving footpaths – building the low road, building the high road, building a road network, and waiting for the green light. Considers their relative merits by using a case‐study methodology to examine organizations that have followed each road. Relative costs, risks and required resources are noted while the importance of a fit between a chosen road and the existing knowledge structure is discussed.
The timetabling of classes is a major education management activity, with the complexity of the process being highest for tertiary‐level institutions, especially where students and programme numbers as well as classroom requirements are growing. Describes the pioneering development of a microcomputer‐based timetabler using expert system technology for a Hong Kong tertiary institution with a very dynamic academic environment. The knowledge, strategies and heuristics of a small, centralized group of schedulers were modelled and subsequently represented in a readily‐available expert system shell which runs on a standard IBM‐type microcomputer. Discusses the broad feasibility of such expert‐level timetablers, and more generally the application of this knowledge‐based systems approach.
Drawing on transaction cost economics (TCE) and social exchange theory (SET), the purpose of this paper is to explain why and how external environment, governance…
Drawing on transaction cost economics (TCE) and social exchange theory (SET), the purpose of this paper is to explain why and how external environment, governance structures and interpersonal relationships influence information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled information sharing in supply chains (SCs) of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) from developing economies.
The authors adopt a theory-building approach using a multiple case study design, including four SMEs operating in SCs from two developing economies (i.e. Republic of North Macedonia and People’s Republic of China), in which the authors conduct both within-case and cross-case analyses.
Social bonds (known as vrski in Macedonian and guanxi in Chinese) were found to govern buyer–supplier exchanges by supporting the establishment of personal trust and the reduction of distrust. These social bonds compensate for the institutional deficiencies in developing economies and thus encourage ICT-enabled information sharing by SMEs in their SCs.
By applying the theoretical perspectives of TCE and SET to the cross-case analysis, the authors develop nine propositions to explain ICT-enabled information sharing and its interdependencies with external environment, governance structures and interpersonal relationships in developing economies. Further research is recommended to refine and test the generalizability of the theoretical model.
Firms have to develop and nurture social bonds with their suppliers from developing economies to reduce risks related to the environmental uncertainty and institutional voids. This can increase trust and decrease distrust associated with ICT-enabled information sharing.
The study examines why and how external environment (environmental uncertainty and institutional environment), social bonds (vrski and guanxi) and interpersonal mechanisms (trust and distrust) influence ICT-enabled information sharing of SMEs operating in developing economies.
The commercial emergence of knowledge‐based information technologyrepresents a tremendous opportunity to enhance the practice of humanresource management. Unfortunately…
The commercial emergence of knowledge‐based information technology represents a tremendous opportunity to enhance the practice of human resource management. Unfortunately, much of the potential of knowledge‐based systems (KBS) to leverage expertise and promote organizational learning remains unrealized because of poor management and piecemeal adoption of the technology. With the impending shortage of skilled professionals in many economies, it is imperative to consider this technology in the human resource planning process. Critically examines the applicability of KBS to HRM activities. Defines basic concepts while benefits, costs and limitations are considered. Profiles current applications which help to manage and leverage human resources.
Ideal organizational structures are subjectively based on specific sets of organizational and external factors. Begins with a review of structural alternatives and identifies the need for a contingency‐based approach. Changes in corporate structure may be needed as a result of internal developments and environmental changes. A case study of the consumer goods multinational, Procter & Gamble, is used to illustrate the evolutionary nature of organizational structure. Difficulties in determining the ideal structure lead to a basis for a set of recommendations which can help leaders structure their own organization for success.
Reminds us that strategic planning has been widely advocated in themanagement literature but points out that studies of its actual effecton performance have been sparesely…
Reminds us that strategic planning has been widely advocated in the management literature but points out that studies of its actual effect on performance have been sparesely and selectively reported. Reconsiders the question of whether strategic planning really does contribute to business success in today′s dynamic and turbulent environments. Highlights the adversarial positions in this debate, as personified by management writers Michael Porter and Tom Peters. Finds the results of a meta‐analysis of empirical evidence to be inconsistent and confusing and, as a result, proposes the use of a contingency approach for modelling the planning‐performance relationship. Illustrates the growing importance of technological sophistication as a contingency factor by considering the author′s own research. Considers that a strategic innovation paradigm, which creates a synergy between formal planning and action‐based learning, is appropriate for surviving and navigating increasingly turbulent waters. Uses this new paradigm as the basis for offering practical guidance to general managers.
After the rapid and dramatic demise of the Soviet Union in 1991, 15newly autonomous republics are restructuring their economies afterdecades of central Communist planning…
After the rapid and dramatic demise of the Soviet Union in 1991, 15 newly autonomous republics are restructuring their economies after decades of central Communist planning. The three Baltic states of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia had successful market‐oriented economies during more than two decades of independence between World Wars I and II and were comparatively strong performers within the USSR after being occupied in 1940. A case study of Latvia looks at the historic factors and political issues which are shaping the current reform process. A contrast of state‐run, collective and private enterprises is used to illustrate the rapid changes which now place Latvia at the forefront among post‐Soviet reformers. This analysis of the early progress and problems forms a foundation for considering the reform prospects across the former Soviet Union and leads to a suggestion that the results in Latvia will play a bell‐wether role.
Employee empowerment is commonly a fundamental part of the prescriptions offered to improve business performance. However, business process improvement and many other…
Employee empowerment is commonly a fundamental part of the prescriptions offered to improve business performance. However, business process improvement and many other organisational development and change initiatives tend to encapsulate the values of the societies and organisations in which they were developed – and such values are not universal. The case of a business process re‐engineering project in Hong Kong illustrates an attempt to empower team members that paradoxically resulted in their psychological enslavement. The roles of cultural differences and reward systems in producing unintended consequences are analysed while the implications of the case for both research and practice are considered.
Argues for the importance of placing a higher priority on information resources and managing their strategic contributions to the business. Gives details of an executive development programme which aims to infuse senior executives with insight to manage information as a strategic resource.
The ISO 9000 standards have been rapidly accepted by business communities around the world. An on‐going research programme focuses on the implementation of quality…
The ISO 9000 standards have been rapidly accepted by business communities around the world. An on‐going research programme focuses on the implementation of quality management systems based on these standards. This article presents data collected from the managers of the first cohort of firms to receive ISO 9000 certification in the export‐driven Hong Kong economy. The results indicate that the local firms typically made a non‐compensatory choice to pursue quality certification and only subsequently elaborated a quality‐based strategy. Quality systems implementation was perceived to have resulted in greater control, higher employee morale and fewer production errors. The presence of such a system was also linked to higher quality outputs and more satisfied customers. Despite the absence of substantial improvements in either quality costs, sales levels or profit margins during the initial post‐certification period, the informants expected tangible long‐term benefits.