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Publication date: 25 November 2019

Linda M. Blum

Rates of less perceptible social–behavioral–emotional disorders thought to be based in neurobiological brain differences have burgeoned, though much of disability studies…

Abstract

Purpose

Rates of less perceptible social–behavioral–emotional disorders thought to be based in neurobiological brain differences have burgeoned, though much of disability studies remains focused on the need to challenge compulsory able-bodiedness. This chapter examines instead diverse families living with adult sons’ and daughters’ invisible disabilities, asking how mothers may challenge compulsory able-mindedness.

Methodology/Approach

This chapter is based on 15 in-depth interviews conducted in 2017 and 2018 with mothers originally interviewed between 2003 and 2008.

Findings

The accounts foreground tensions for those at the boundaries of “normality” in a culture that valorizes citizen’s independence, productivity, and heroic overcoming of any inability. Mothers of “precariously normal” adult sons and daughters invited to reflect on their earlier accounts reveal both the power of such dominant narratives and the possibilities to disrupt and challenge this public storytelling.

Implications/Value

Findings of this study point to the alternative narratives and identities sought by disability studies and bring invisible social–behavioral–emotional disabilities into discussions that have largely centered on visible physical disabilities. These findings also underscore the complex similarities and differences in families’ experiences of disability across class and race divides, while suggesting the need for institutional change and greater, less punitive, public resources.

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Marika Macchi, Ugo Rizzo and Laura Ramaciotti

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the strategies business incubators (BI) adopt in respect to the creation of incubatee intellectual capital, and it focuses in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the strategies business incubators (BI) adopt in respect to the creation of incubatee intellectual capital, and it focuses in particular on links between BI structural capital and the creation of incubatee relational capital (RC). By crossing IC literature with the open innovation paradigm the authors consider the incubator as an innovation intermediary and the authors investigate how different incubator strategies of knowledge exchange take place within and across incubator boundaries. The main issues the authors seek to explore regard the mechanisms by which incubators shape the exchange of knowledge within and across their boundaries and the rationale underlying such an approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on a multiple case study research involving five Italian incubators. Primary and secondary data were gathered through interviews with each incubator managing director and with relevant actors.

Findings

The analysis allows us to propose a theoretical framework and to highlight how different structural capital shape heterogeneous processes by which incubatees build their RC. The authors find that important differences in RC formation are present both at an exchange of knowledge level within the incubator, and across incubator boundaries.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitations of this study regard the generalizability of results. This is mostly an exploratory work and further research based on quantitative rather than qualitative analysis, would provide stronger evidence in order to validate the results with respect to the population of incubators and consequently lead to more precise policy implications.

Originality/value

The analysis points to the importance of recognizing different BI approaches regarding the mechanisms by which incubatees develop their RC, and allows us to gain a knowledge-based conceptualization of incubators. This definition moves beyond the more diffuse classification based on public vs private and sectoral specificities, and introduces some new insights for further research.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Irene Bengo and Marika Arena

The purpose of this paper is to perform a critical analysis of the relationship between small- and medium-sized social enterprises (SMSEs) and banks. Based on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to perform a critical analysis of the relationship between small- and medium-sized social enterprises (SMSEs) and banks. Based on the conceptual framework for the analysis of SME’s credit availability developed by Berger and Udell (2006), this study aims to contribute to the current debate in two ways: first, outlining the characteristics of the lending technologies currently used by banks and financial institutions to evaluate SMSEs when they apply for credit; and second, discussing, based on the results of the empirical analysis, the coherence of these systems from the social ecosystem perspective and identifying areas for possible improvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper develops a conceptual framework based on the model proposed by Berger and Udell (2006), which defines the characteristics of lending technologies that banks use to evaluate SMEs, and applies it to the case of SMSEs. To study the interplay of these lending technologies, the empirical analysis is based on a case study of five Italian banks. Data are collected from multiple sources to capture key dimensions of the problems analyzed.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insight about the relationship between SMSEs and banks. The Italian case shows that the current lending infrastructure must be revised to support SMSE credit availability, and government policies affect the national financial institution structure. The relationship between SMSEs and Italian banks remains underdeveloped.

Social implications

The research supports the scaling up of social business.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to study how social enterprises credit access can be enabled.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 68 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 January 2012

Anne Leena Marika Kauppi, Tuija Vanamo, Kari Karkola and Juhani Merikanto

A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn't aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse…

Abstract

A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn't aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were caused by child battering and 13 (7%) by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot) and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse) were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent) and often substance dependence (31%). None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child's behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent's life, the child may be in danger.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Marika Gon, Linda Osti and Harald Pechlaner

This paper aims to analyse how leisure boat tourism impacts are perceived by local communities in coastal areas. For this purpose, a review of the literature on nautical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse how leisure boat tourism impacts are perceived by local communities in coastal areas. For this purpose, a review of the literature on nautical and leisure boat tourism, together with residents’ attitudes, is presented. On that basis, authors consider economic, socio-cultural and environmental impacts, together with general development and future policies of nautical tourism, and cluster the coastal community according to their attitudes towards leisure boat tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data are collected among residents of coastal municipalities in the north part of the Adriatic Sea. Within the theoretical framework of social representation, a cluster analysis is performed on 233 valid questionnaires, collected during winter 2013.

Findings

Interviewed residents believe that leisure boating has a long tradition and has offered improvements to the municipalities as tourism destinations. They consider leisure boat tourism as a catalyst for tourism development and international tourists’ attraction. The cluster analysis reveals the existence of three homogeneous groups of residents labelled as supporters (51 per cent), cautious (29 per cent) and sceptics (20 per cent).

Practical implications

Practical implications are derived for destination managers and destination management organizations (DMOs) in addressing internal marketing and larger advertisement of the positive impacts leisure boat tourism has over the local community.

Originality/value

The paper enriches the discussion on residents’ perceptions on nautical tourism and specifically on leisure boat tourism in coastal areas. Limitations are linked to the exploratory nature of the research paper, the sample and the geographical connotation of the study area. Further research will enlarge the data collection to a wider number of coastal communities and integrate results with qualitative analysis.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 71 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Rochelle Spencer, Martin Brueckner, Gareth Wise and Banduk Marika

Using an integrated framework for performance management of nonprofit organizations, this paper aims to present an analysis of the activities of an Indigenous social…

Abstract

Purpose

Using an integrated framework for performance management of nonprofit organizations, this paper aims to present an analysis of the activities of an Indigenous social enterprise in the town of Yirrkala in northeast Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory of Australia. The evaluation focuses on the social effectiveness of the organization and its ability to help generate income and employment and drive social capital creation.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is informed by data derived from “yarns” with social enterprise staff and semi-structured interviews conducted with key informants who were selected using snowball sampling. Data were transcribed and analyzed thematically.

Findings

The analysis reveals that the organization provides a successful community-based pathway for increasing Indigenous economic participation on local terms at a time of regional economic decline and high levels of Indigenous unemployment nationally.

Practical implications

The measured effectiveness of Nuwul highlights the need for targeted policy support for Indigenous enterprises and that social entrepreneurship is far more likely to be successful in a supportive government policy environment, a critical need for government-initiated policies to encourage the formation of Indigenous social enterprises that are entrepreneurial and innovative in their solutions to poverty and marginalization. Such policies should not only aid the establishment of Indigenous ventures but also facilitate their long-term growth and sustainability.

Originality/value

Although Indigenous entrepreneurial activities have been found to be effective in addressing Indigenous disadvantage in Australia, little is known about their community impact. The article provides original empirically grounded research on the measurement of Indigenous entrepreneurial activities and their wider community impact. The data show, against the backdrop of mixed results of government efforts to drive Indigenous economic mainstreaming, that the entrepreneurial activities analyzed in this paper are an example of more flexible and culturally appropriate pathways for achieving Indigenous equality in rural and remote regions of Australia.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2010

Sabine Bachmayer, Artur Lugmayr and Gabriele Kotsis

TV changes in several disciplines concurrently: from analogue to digital, from scheduled broadcasts to on‐demand TV on the internet, from a lean‐back (passive) to a…

Abstract

Purpose

TV changes in several disciplines concurrently: from analogue to digital, from scheduled broadcasts to on‐demand TV on the internet, from a lean‐back (passive) to a lean‐forward (active) media, from straight watching to the consumption of content connected to additional services, from the sole TV viewer to the viewer being part in social networks and communities regarding to the TV content, etc. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the adaptation of design and realization of TV program formats to the changes that happen to television. In addition, the paper would like find out how to support the design of interactions, dynamic narrations and content types as well as the role of the internet within these processes and this application area.

Design/methodology/approach

Currently, there exist many approaches towards the development of social, collaborative, and interactive TV program formats and systems. Within the scope of this paper, the authors present latest case studies and example program formats for each case. The paper examines them concerning their interaction possibilities and architecture as well as the influence and utilization of the web. Finally, the paper provides a simple categorization according to the narration character, content, and interactivity types of the listed TV program formats.

Findings

Caused by the collaborative and interactive characteristic of the web, a big influence of the web concerning the hardware‐ and content‐sided development of TV is discovered. Nevertheless, the web's potential is absolutely not exploited in this area, neither to give more dynamic to the narration, nor to appreciate the content type or the interactivity. Finally, the paper identifies a high effort, occurrence and development in the interactivity, in contrary to the narration characteristic and content types.

Research limitations/implications

Only one representative, example TV program format enabling interactions by the viewer for each case in the paper, has been chosen. The authors make no claim to be complete, in covering all genres, possibilities of interaction or TV program formats existing for the field of interactive/social/collaborative TV.

Originality/value

This paper presents an extension of a previous paper presented at the MoMM2009.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2007

Marika P. Immonen, Mikko Karppinen and Jorma K. Kivilahti

To investigate the influences of environmental stresses on board‐embedded polymeric waveguides.

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the influences of environmental stresses on board‐embedded polymeric waveguides.

Design/methodology/approach

Optical multimode waveguides were embedded on printed circuit boards using commercial polymers. The optical‐PCBs varying in board structure and in optical build‐up materials were exposed to heat, moisture and ionic‐contaminants in accelerated reliability tests. The influence of stress factors on the structural integrity and functional parameters, namely the refractive index and optical transmissivity, was investigated at the key communication wavelengths.

Findings

Isothermal annealing reduced the refractive index to the greatest extent. The optical‐PCB structure with an optical surface build‐up layer was observed to be more vulnerable under temperature shock when compared with the optical‐PCB with optical inner layer. The buffer layer beneath the optical build‐up was found to improve the stability of the optical waveguides significantly. The results indicated of wavelength dependence to the aging factor with a failure mechanism. The factors affecting the performance and reliability of polymer‐based optical waveguides on PCBs were discussed.

Research limitations/implications

More experimental data and investigations of failure mechanisms are required to ultimately obtain sufficient reliability statistics for accurate life‐time prediction models.

Originality/value

Optical interconnects are seen as a promising solution to overcome performance limitations encountered with high‐frequency electrical interconnections. As an emerging technology, only a limited amount of reliability data on optical/electrical packages is available. The paper investigates the influences of environmental stresses on board‐embedded polymeric waveguides.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Marika Immonen, Jinhua Wu, Hui Juan Yan, Peifeng Chen, Jian Xiong Xu and Tarja Rapala‐Virtanen

The purpose of this paper is to study fabrication of optical‐PCBs on panel scale boards in a conventional modern PCB process environment. It evaluates impacts on board…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study fabrication of optical‐PCBs on panel scale boards in a conventional modern PCB process environment. It evaluates impacts on board design and manufacturing with the developed optical board verifiers outlining challenges and requirements for manufacturing low‐loss waveguide structures and optical building blocks. The study aims to expand the current knowledge in the field by adding results obtained by utilizing industrial production infrastructure and developed scalable manufacturing processes to fabricate optical‐PCBs and board assemblies in high‐volumes and low‐cost manner.

Design/methodology/approach

Impacts on board design and manufacturing were studied with the developed optical technology verifiers. One verifier is optical‐PCB with embedded waveguides, integrated i/o couplers and optical vias. Another verifier is large size PCB with optical layer. A system‐level optical board assembly with 12.5 Gb/s Tx/Rx devices on surface mounted ball grid array (BGA) modules is designed for optical link analysis. Fabricated optical structures on verifiers are evaluated of their physical characteristics utilizing optical, SEM, LSCM analysis methods. Performance testing is conducted using standard optical transmission measurement methods and equipment.

Findings

The paper provides empirical results about fabrication of multimode optical waveguides with conventional PCB process equipment. Results suggest that current coating and imaging equipments are capable of producing optical waveguide patterns with high resolution and size accuracy. However, fabricators would require larger process window and defect tolerance for processing optical materials to obtain low‐loss waveguides with sufficient yields.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the limited amount of design variants in production verifiers evaluated in this paper, some impacts like effect of base material, board construction, optical layer location and beam coupling solution were not evaluated. Likewise, impacts on long‐term stability and cost were not addressed. These factors however require further investigation to address technical feasibility of optical PCBs technology prior commercial high volume production.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for the development of a fabrication methods and testing procedures for optical polymer waveguide layers on PCBs.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils need to provide results on design, fabrication and characterization of optical PCBs and backplanes from industrial fabricator's perspective. The paper provides input for end‐user and developers to evaluate technical performance, robustness, and maturity of building blocks and supply chain to support polymer waveguide based technology for intra‐system optical links.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Meiju Marika Keinänen and Liisa Kairisto-Mertanen

The purpose of this paper is to present an example of pedagogical strategy, called innovation pedagogy, and study whether its learning environments (activating teaching…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an example of pedagogical strategy, called innovation pedagogy, and study whether its learning environments (activating teaching and learning methods, working life orientation and research, development and innovation (RDI) integration, multidisciplinary learning environments, flexible curricula, entrepreneurship and internationalization) can be associated with students’ innovation competences (creativity, critical thinking, initiative, teamwork and networking).

Design/methodology/approach

In this case study, the electronic self-assessment questionnaire was distributed to third- and fourth-year bachelor students (n=236) from one Finnish university of applied sciences at the end of the Spring semester in 2017.

Findings

Two profiles of students concerning their level of innovation competences can be identified. The level of students’ innovation competences is associated with all the six elements of learning environments. The more students have experience with learning environments of innovation pedagogy, the higher they scored when assessed for their innovation competences.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the case study setting and a limited sample, there are limitations to the generalizability of the findings.

Originality/value

Focusing on different levels of innovation competences of students and approaching their study path in more detail, it could be better understood how to develop more effective education, and thus, respond to the demands of an innovation society. This study extends approaches on research in education and innovation and strengthens the understanding that learning environments should be versatile and include many-sided learning opportunities. It also shows that implementing pedagogical strategy needs lot of work to be revealed in practice.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 61 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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