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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Irene Bengo and Marika Arena

The purpose of this paper is to perform a critical analysis of the relationship between small- and medium-sized social enterprises (SMSEs) and banks. Based on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to perform a critical analysis of the relationship between small- and medium-sized social enterprises (SMSEs) and banks. Based on the conceptual framework for the analysis of SME’s credit availability developed by Berger and Udell (2006), this study aims to contribute to the current debate in two ways: first, outlining the characteristics of the lending technologies currently used by banks and financial institutions to evaluate SMSEs when they apply for credit; and second, discussing, based on the results of the empirical analysis, the coherence of these systems from the social ecosystem perspective and identifying areas for possible improvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper develops a conceptual framework based on the model proposed by Berger and Udell (2006), which defines the characteristics of lending technologies that banks use to evaluate SMEs, and applies it to the case of SMSEs. To study the interplay of these lending technologies, the empirical analysis is based on a case study of five Italian banks. Data are collected from multiple sources to capture key dimensions of the problems analyzed.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insight about the relationship between SMSEs and banks. The Italian case shows that the current lending infrastructure must be revised to support SMSE credit availability, and government policies affect the national financial institution structure. The relationship between SMSEs and Italian banks remains underdeveloped.

Social implications

The research supports the scaling up of social business.

Originality/value

This paper fulfills an identified need to study how social enterprises credit access can be enabled.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 68 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 9 November 2021

Marika Arena, Giovanni Azzone and Giulia Piantoni

Although innovation ecosystems (IEs) are generally considered capable of creating shared value (SV), this potentiality has often been taken for granted and not deeply…

Abstract

Purpose

Although innovation ecosystems (IEs) are generally considered capable of creating shared value (SV), this potentiality has often been taken for granted and not deeply analysed, yet. As a result, in the literature, there is not a framework that defines the process of SV creation in IEs or which aspects should be considered for understanding it. Moving from these considerations, this paper aims to propose a conceptual model of how IEs can create SV, identifying the main building blocks of the process and the aspects that characterize these building blocks.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors reviewed the literature on IEs and value creation over the last 15 years, by structurally analysing 120 articles. On the basis of such review, the authors identified main dimensions of analysis focusing on the conceptualization of SV in IEs.

Findings

First, the authors developed a conceptual model relying on a process-based logic and framing the SV creation in terms of inputs, here intended as four key characteristics (actors, structure, governance and relations), internal processes (strategies and internal mechanisms) and outputs (the value created). Second, each element of value creation is explored, highlighting the main evidence emerging from prior studies in connection to each block.

Originality/value

This paper drives the identification of some relevant relationships that connect the characteristics of the IEs, the strategies and the internal mechanisms to the output of the process, i.e. the SV created.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Marika Arena and Michela Arnaboldi

This paper aims to provide a critical assessment of existing links between risk management systems (RMS) and performance management systems (PMS) through a general review…

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2022

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a critical assessment of existing links between risk management systems (RMS) and performance management systems (PMS) through a general review of the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The research approach consists of a literature review, aimed at highlighting the “points of contact” between RMS and PMS along three main dimensions: scope of the system, measurement and ownership.

Findings

Key papers and books published in the field are examined. Based on this review, an assessment of similarities and potential synergies between RMS and PMS is offered. In addition, possible avenues for future research are discussed.

Practical implications

The paper provides managers with useful insights on pros and cons of integrating RMS and PMS. It highlights possible instruments and organizational arrangements that could be exploited by practitioners to connect the two systems and discusses the implications of different possible configurations.

Originality/value

Whilst the professional literature is loaded with illustrations of RMS and PMS as “integrated” solutions, this issue has been only partially addressed by the academic literature that generally focuses on one of the two systems. Hence, the study overall contributes to enrich the knowledge of the relationship between performance and risk management by mapping how and where the two systems are linked.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2014

Marika Arena, Giovanni Azzone, Enrico Cagno, Amerigo Silvestri and Paolo Trucco

This paper aims to propose a model, to operationalize the idea of enterprise risk management (ERM), relying on the concept of capabilities. The proposed model, labelled…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a model, to operationalize the idea of enterprise risk management (ERM), relying on the concept of capabilities. The proposed model, labelled “Spring model”, is specifically tailored to the characteristics of project-based organisations, where risk is to be managed transversally to different organizational levels (enterprise, project portfolio, functions, projects).

Design/methodology/approach

A case study methodology is used to exemplify the functioning of the proposed model and display the suitability of the concept of capabilities, as means whereby companies can manage their risk. Data were collected from different sources over a time frame of three years: semi-structured interviews, official documents and presentations, archives, direct observation and internal document usually not available to the public.

Findings

The “Spring model” explains how risk can impact different organizational levels (enterprise, project portfolio, functions, projects), and how risk can be effectively managed, at different organizational levels, through the organization's capabilities.

Practical implications

The paper gives concrete guidance on the operational elements that project-based organisations should consider for managing risks in a comprehensive and integrated way and discusses potential analysis/insights that could be derived embracing the capability perspective. The empirical testing, performed in a leading oil and gas company, provides an example of its functioning.

Originality/value

The paper represents an attempt to apply ERM concepts and tools to operations, making a connection between research in corporate governance and finance, where the ERM concept originated, and research in project management, where attention of researchers tended to concentrate on specific types of risk management practices.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Marika Arena and Giovanni Azzone

The paper aims to support small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in overcoming the difficulties they encounter in initiating sustainability reporting, proposing a “general”…

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2110

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to support small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in overcoming the difficulties they encounter in initiating sustainability reporting, proposing a “general” process for identifying a standard set of key sustainability indicators, that is specifically tailored on SMEs characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper moves from the analysis of the existing international frameworks for sustainability reporting, and it discusses the main motivations whereby they are hardly applicable for SMEs. Then, it proposes a theoretical approach, which derives the set of key sustainability indicators starting from GRI, but explicitly considering SMEs specificities.

Findings

The paper presents and discusses the application of the proposed approach to a network of Italian steel SMEs.

Practical implications

The approach proposed can support SMEs to face the problems they face in implementing sustainability reporting (resource and capability constraints and lack of operative instruments to support them), helping them to derive financial benefits arising from more sustainable choices.

Originality/value

Contrary to most existing international reporting guidance, this work does not seek to identify a set of general purpose key sustainability indicators (KSIs). Instead, the paper sets out a “general” process for obtaining a standard set of KSIs for use by any promoting organisation, whether a public administration seeking to reinforce sustainability strategies, or a trade association looking to support proactive SMEs.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Deborah Agostino, Marika Arena and Michela Arnaboldi

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the trajectory of an institutional change in a public organisation, this study explores the role of organisational mediators – i.e…

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1853

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the trajectory of an institutional change in a public organisation, this study explores the role of organisational mediators – i.e. middle managers involved in the enactment of change projects - to translate leaders’ entrepreneurial attempts of modernisation.

Design/methodology/approach

Enlightened by an institutional perspective, the research is carried out through a single case study in a major Italian Court House. The empirical evidence relies on various sources of information: archival data, documentation, observation and 42 face-to-face interviews.

Findings

The research outlines the heterogeneity of mediators’ approaches and the diverse effectiveness in translating leaders’ ideas. Three approaches are evidenced: instrumental leader-driven, conformant leader-driven, rhetorical individual-driven. These archtypes are compared in term of characteristics and contribution to mediate the symbolic realm of new ideas and the technical realm of everyday working activities.

Practical implications

The identification of the importance and characteristics of organisational mediators provide insights for leaders in choosing the most appropriate figures to carry out change projects.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the importance of more operational figures (mediators), and their characteristics, in pursuing change in the public sector. Mediators become essential organisational translators to bridge the gap between strategic leaders ideas and employees working reality.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 34 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 20 August 2016

Francesca Mapelli, Marika Arena and Paolo Strano

This chapter aims to understand how partnerships and networks can aid the development and growth of organizations whose goal is to foster social inclusion along the…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter aims to understand how partnerships and networks can aid the development and growth of organizations whose goal is to foster social inclusion along the agro-food supply chain, with particular reference to the social entrepreneurship sector.

Methodology/approach

The chapter draws on a framework proposed by Newth and Woods (2014) to identify the main drivers of resistance to the development of social entrepreneurship. The empirical evidence is based on a single case, involving an Italian social enterprise, Semi di Libertà, which produces high-quality artisan beer. Case material included an analysis of organization documents and interviews with key actors.

Findings

The case study shows how Semi di Libertà faced different types of resistance, related to formal and informal institutions and market drivers, and leveraged partnerships with other actors in the ecosystem. Some of these partnerships were planned a priori to overcome specific problems (e.g., the Prison’s Authority, Mastri Birrai). Other partnerships were developed “by chance” (e.g., “peer” associations) but turned out to be particularly important to deal with the above resistances.

Research limitations/implications

The case study methodology prevents the authors from generalizing too far past the obtained results. However, key elements from the case, such as the relevance of “spontaneous” partnerships and those with “peer” organizations, could be taken into account for similar initiatives in different contexts.

Originality/value

Recent literature has highlighted the relevance of partnerships in scaling social enterprises but has not explored the dynamics whereby these partnerships are created and developed. This chapter provides some preliminary evidence of how partnerships can be used to overcome the resistance limiting the growth of social entrepreneurship and the sustainability of socially inclusive initiatives.

Details

Organizing Supply Chain Processes for Sustainable Innovation in the Agri-Food Industry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-488-4

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Marika Arena, Michela Arnaboldi and Giovanni Azzone

To describe the main characteristics of Internal Audit Departments in six Italian companies and investigate the influence of enacted regulations on their development.

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4438

Abstract

Purpose

To describe the main characteristics of Internal Audit Departments in six Italian companies and investigate the influence of enacted regulations on their development.

Design/methodology/approach

The research has been carried out through a multiple case study, which compared the Internal Audit Departments of six Italian companies, gathering evidence by interviews with chief internal auditors, by obtaining examples of internal audit reports, policy documents and corporate briefing notes.

Findings

The range of situations considered highlighted the diversity in Internal Audit Department characteristics, confirming the relevance of institutional pressures, but also providing evidence of the influence of additional elements in their development.

Research limitations/implications

Results provided by this research cannot be regarded as generally applicable or generalizable, although this study should contribute to the development of a deeper understanding of the characteristics of Internal Audit Departments.

Practical implications

This paper highlights some elements which can influence the development of Internal Audit Department characteristics, with a focus on value added activities.

Originality/value

This paper has referred to institutional theory to examine the development of Internal Audit Departments and provides a valuable framework for future research. Further it provides evidence of different structural characteristics and factors which can influence companies' choices in the development and support of their Internal Audit Departments.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 20 August 2016

Abstract

Details

Organizing Supply Chain Processes for Sustainable Innovation in the Agri-Food Industry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-488-4

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Susan Albers Mohrman and Stu Winby

We argue that in order to address the contemporary challenges that organizations and societies are facing, the field of organization development (OD) requires frameworks…

Abstract

We argue that in order to address the contemporary challenges that organizations and societies are facing, the field of organization development (OD) requires frameworks and skills to focus on the eco-system as the level of analysis. In a world that has become economically, socially, and technologically highly connected, approaches that foster the optimization of specific actors in the eco-system, such as individual corporations, result in sub-optimization of the sustainability of the natural and social system because there is insufficient offset to the ego-centric purposes of the focal organization. We discuss the need for OD to broaden focus to deal with technological advances that enable new ways of organizing at the eco-system level, and to deal with the challenges to sustainable development. Case examples from healthcare and the agri-foods industry illustrate the kinds of development approaches that are required for the development of healthy eco-systems. We do not suggest fundamental changes in the identity of the field of organizational development. In fact, we demonstrate the need to dig deeply into the open systems and socio-technical roots of the field, and to translate the traditional values and approaches of OD to continue to be relevant in today’s dynamic interdependent world.

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