Several studies have related diagnostic information and adversity in childhood to criminal careers and risk of recidivism. Notably, ADHD and conduct disorder in childhood…
Several studies have related diagnostic information and adversity in childhood to criminal careers and risk of recidivism. Notably, ADHD and conduct disorder in childhood, schizophrenia, sexual abuse and physical abuse have been associated with offences in adulthood. This study investigates these variables in relation to large cohorts of offenders with learning disabilities. A case note review was undertaken for 126 individuals referred but not accepted into forensic learning disability services and 197 individuals accepted for such services. Results are reported on diagnostic information and experience of adversity in childhood. ADHD/conduct disorder featured prominently in both groups. Autistic spectrum disorders were not particularly over‐represented. For adversity in childhood, general socioeconomic deprivation featured prominently in both groups. This also increased significantly for those accepted into services. Sexual abuse and non‐accidental injury were featured at around 13‐20% for both groups. These results are broadly consistent with the mainstream literature on offending, ADHD/conduct disorder and general deprivation featuring significantly in all groups and rising for those accepted into offender services. It is important to deal with these aspects during assessment and to provide appropriate psychotherapeutic services for these individuals.
The World Bank report Changing Wealth of Nations 2018 is only the most recent reminder of how much poorer Africa is becoming, losing more than US$100 billion annually from…
The World Bank report Changing Wealth of Nations 2018 is only the most recent reminder of how much poorer Africa is becoming, losing more than US$100 billion annually from minerals, oil, and gas extraction, according to (quite conservatively framed) environmentally sensitive adjustments of wealth. With popular opposition to socioeconomic, political, and ecological abuses rising rapidly in Africa, a robust debate may be useful: between those practicing anti-extractivist resistance, and those technocrats in states and international agencies who promote “ecological modernization” strategies. The latter typically aim to generate full-cost environmental accounting, and to do so they typically utilize market-related techniques to value, measure, and price nature. Between the grassroots and technocratic standpoints, a layer of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) do not yet appear capable of grappling with anti-extractivist politics with either sufficient intellectual tools or political courage. They instead revert to easier terrains within ecological modernization: revenue transparency, project damage mitigation, Free Prior and Informed Consent (community consultation and permission), and other assimilationist reforms. More attention to political-economic and political-ecological trends – including the end of the commodity super-cycle, worsening climate change, financial turbulence and the potential end of a 40-year long globalization process – might assist anti-extractivist activists and NGO reformers alike. Both could then gravitate to broader, more effective ways of conceptualizing extraction and unequal ecological exchange, especially in Africa’s hardest hit and most extreme sites of devastation.
The purpose of this legacy paper is to review leadership preparation over time in the United States and addresses challenges ahead. It is hoped that the US developments…
The purpose of this legacy paper is to review leadership preparation over time in the United States and addresses challenges ahead. It is hoped that the US developments will be instructive to an international audience interested in strengthening the preparation of school leaders.
The paper synthesizes research and commentary on leadership preparation programs in the US as a basis for identifying five challenges ahead.
Meaningful change should be informed by the past but not bound by tradition. It is imperative to be open to different viewpoints, to take reasonable – and at times bold – risks, and to question deeply held values and assumptions. Broad recognition of the significant role school leaders play in facilitating student learning suggests that the political climate is right to effect meaningful reforms in leadership preparation in the US. Those involved in preparing school leaders are urged to address the challenges identified in this paper.
Encouraging work is underway, but many more people need to be involved in efforts to rigorously assess and improve leadership preparation.
We do not have all the answers but cannot be paralyzed by what we do not know. We are ethically responsible to act on what we do know, such as incorporating the compelling research on learning theory into the leadership preparation curriculum.
The traditional complacency in the educational leadership professoriate cannot continue if university preparation programs are to meet the needs of the next generation of school leaders. The time is short, and the stakes are high for all involved especially for PK-12 students.