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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2021

Maqsood Ahmad Sandhu, Omer Farooq, Saba Khalid and Mariam Farooq

Based on the extensive literature review and the research published in the context of Western countries, this study proposes that the entrepreneurship education…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the extensive literature review and the research published in the context of Western countries, this study proposes that the entrepreneurship education, participation in entrepreneurial seminars at the universities and their involvement in the activities of innovation and incubation center of the universities may foster entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) among Emirati female graduating students.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the study’s hypothesized model, survey data are collected from 283 female graduating students of 19 public and private universities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The analysis of the data relies upon multiple hierarchical regression and moderation analysis in SPSS.

Findings

The results suggest that all three types of educational activities positively influence the women's EIs in the UAE. However, formal entrepreneurship courses are more effective than the participation in seminars and involvement in the activities of innovation/incubation center. The authors also found that perceived social support does not moderate the impact of education on EIs, which means that entrepreneurship education is equally effective in fostering EIs, no matter female students perceive low or high social support. On the other hand, results demonstrate that the level of gender stereotypes negatively moderates the impact of education on it. This implies that if a female student believes in a high gender stereotype, the impact of education on her EIs will be low and vice versa.

Research limitations/implications

This study specifically focuses on women entrepreneurship and for the UAE only. However, the results can be generalized for female entrepreneurship, specifically for countries where governments are taking initiatives to foster female entrepreneurship. The study provides specific implications for the UAE public policy government.

Practical implications

As the Government of the UAE is keenly interested to boost up the women entrepreneurial behavior, the findings of the study support that in addition to entrepreneurship education, the government should also encourage the universities to arrange entrepreneurship seminars as these seminars also increase the EIs of women. In addition, the government and the universities should also focus on the involvement of women in the incubation centers/innovation park because the incubation centers can provide the practical exposure to the women in the new business start-ups.

Originality/value

This research is among the first, which benchmarks women EIs in the UAE.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2018

Muhammad Arshad, Omer Farooq and Mariam Farooq

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how and when intrinsic (personal growth, affiliation, community contribution, health) and extrinsic (financial success, fame…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how and when intrinsic (personal growth, affiliation, community contribution, health) and extrinsic (financial success, fame, physical appearance) goals affect individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions (EIs). The study uses goal contents theory to propose that intrinsic and extrinsic goals positively influence individuals’ EIs. The authors further argue that the collectivism moderates the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic goals on individuals EIs.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was designed to collect data from business graduates at a university in Pakistan. The measurement model and the hypothesized model were tested using the structural equation modeling technique in MPlus 7.0.

Findings

The results suggest that all four intrinsic goals and three extrinsic goals positively affect individuals’ EIs. However, financial success and fame appear to be the most prominent determinants of EIs. Similarly, personal growth and contribution to community are strong predictors of individuals’ EIs. Conversely, health, physical appearance and affiliation motives were found to have a weaker effect on individuals’ EIs. Moreover, the results show that collectivist orientation negatively moderates the effect of intrinsic goals on individuals’ EIs, but positively moderates the effect of extrinsic goals. These results suggest that the EIs of individuals with high collectivist orientation are mainly induced by extrinsic goals, whereas intrinsic factors play a greater role in stimulating the EIs of individuals with low collectivism.

Originality/value

Extant research has paid little attention to intrinsic and extrinsic goals as determinants of individuals’ EIs. Thus, this study explores how and when intrinsic and extrinsic goals develop individuals’ EIs. This study is the first of its kind to highlight the importance of individuals’ cultural orientation (collectivism) to determine the alternative role of intrinsic and extrinsic goals in developing individuals’ EIs. In addition, this study was conducted in a different cultural setting (i.e. South Asia), which provides an opportunity to expand the boundary conditions of the phenomenon by offering an alternative perspective on this issue.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 57 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2020

Muhammad Arshad, Mariam Farooq, Muhammad Atif and Omer Farooq

This study aims to analyze individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions from the perspective of motivational theory and examines the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions from the perspective of motivational theory and examines the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on entrepreneurial intentions of male and female individuals.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from students graduating from Pakistan’s largest university. A structural equation modeling technique was used for model testing.

Findings

Intrinsic factors such as intrinsic interest and community feeling aspiration and extrinsic factors such as perceived relative income and occupational prestige positively affect attitudes and, in turn, stimulate entrepreneurial intentions. Further, as intrinsic interest and perceived relative income scored higher among men, gender moderates those effects. Conversely, the entrepreneurial attitudes of women were primarily driven by community feeling aspiration. Notably, the positive effect of occupational prestige did not vary among men and women.

Originality/value

This paper explores the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the entrepreneurial intentions of men and women. The integration of motivational theory with gender provides insights into the determinants of entrepreneurial intentions in South Asia.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Muhammad Arshad, Omer Farooq, Naheed Sultana and Mariam Farooq

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differentiated effects of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and social norms on individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions (EIs)…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the differentiated effects of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and social norms on individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions (EIs), through the mediation of attitude toward entrepreneurship, by integrating the framework of gender schema theory with the theory of planned behavior. The authors posit that different factors stimulate the EIs of males and females, through attitude toward entrepreneurship, in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Data are collected from graduating students of South Asia’s largest university. Structural equation modeling is used for model testing.

Findings

The results show that perceived entrepreneurial self-efficacy has a greater effect on the attitude of males toward entrepreneurship than on the attitude of females, but perceived social norms have a greater effect on female attitude toward entrepreneurship. Attitude toward entrepreneurship has a positive impact on EIs.

Originality/value

This is the first study of its nature which demonstrates that the EIs of males and females are induced by different factors. Where the social norms are the major factors in determining the EIs of the females, self-efficacy plays a vital role in predicting the EIs of their male counterparts. This study also attempts to clarify the relationship between self-efficacy, social norms, and EIs by positing entrepreneurial attitude as mediator. Moreover, it brings a fresh perspective through its setting in South Asia. By testing a model in the cultural setting of a developing country, this study differentiates the research from that conducted in the developed world.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Muhammad Arshad, Mariam Farooq, Sadia Afzal and Omer Farooq

The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors influencing the adoption of new information systems (IS) in organizations. Based on the institutional theory, this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors influencing the adoption of new information systems (IS) in organizations. Based on the institutional theory, this research proposes that organizations may induce their employees to adopt new IS by creating three types of institutional pressure: coercive, normative and mimetic. It is further argued that the effects of these three institutional pressures on employees’ new IS usage depend on their cultural orientations.

Design/methodology/approach

Model testing relies on data collected from 370 banking sector employees during the implementation of a new “customer relationship management” system. The hypothesized model was tested by using the structural equation modeling technique in MPlus 7.0.

Findings

The findings of this research reveal that institutional pressures (coercive, normative and mimetic) have positive effects on employees’ attitudes to using the new IS, which, in turn, positively influences their IS usage. In addition, collectivism strengthens the positive effect of coercive and normative forces on attitudes to using the new IS. Conversely, collectivism weakens the effect of the mimetic force on employees’ attitudes to using the new IS.

Originality/value

This research is among pioneering studies that explain the effect of institutional pressures (coercive, normative and mimetic) on employees’ IS usage. It is the first study of its nature that demonstrates that each of the three institutional pressures has differential effects on employees with highly collectivist orientations in comparison with employees with low collectivist orientations.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2021

Syed Arslan Haider, Muhammad Zubair, Shehnaz Tehseen, Shahid Iqbal and Mariam Sohail

Research on adopting leadership style like ambidextrous leadership to enhance employees' innovative work behavior (IWB) is in an initial stage. Moreover, employees need a…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on adopting leadership style like ambidextrous leadership to enhance employees' innovative work behavior (IWB) is in an initial stage. Moreover, employees need a high knowledge sharing attitude to show more IWB. The purpose of this study is to empirically test the impact of ambidextrous leadership on IWB with the mediating role of knowledge sharing and the moderating role of innovativeness as a project requirement (IAPR).

Design/methodology/approach

The simple random sampling technique was used to collect data from 542 employees of project-based construction companies operating in Pakistan. Smart partial least squares-structural equation modeling (Smart PLS SEM v.3.2.8) was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The result revealed that ambidextrous leadership has a significant and positive effect on knowledge sharing but negative effect on IWB at the workplace. Additionally, the mediating role of knowledge sharing has been tested and proved to be a potential mediator between ambidextrous leadership and IWB. Also, IAPR as moderator has a significant and positive effect on knowledge sharing and IWB.

Practical implications

The managers need to develop an ambidexterity-oriented strategy and communicate this strategy across the members of the whole organization. These processes can be facilitated by ambidextrous leaders with complex behavioral repertoires and specific constellations and characteristics of top management teams.

Originality/value

The relationship between ambidextrous leadership and IWB is the new contribution through the mediating of knowledge sharing between AL and IWB also moderation role IWB between knowledge sharing and IWB.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 23 October 2015

Ned Smith and Andrea Meyer

This case gives students the opportunity to explore the concept of organizational status as a competitive asset. CEO Noura Abdullah of Saudi furniture retailer Aura…

Abstract

This case gives students the opportunity to explore the concept of organizational status as a competitive asset. CEO Noura Abdullah of Saudi furniture retailer Aura founded her company as a middle-market furniture and home goods store offering affordable yet design-savvy products. By many accounts, both tangible and intangible, Aura had been a success. By late 2014, Aura had drawn considerable attention from several high-status Saudi wedding planners and media outlets, including Harper's Bazaar Interiors, Elle Decor, and Martha Stewart Weddings. This attention yielded unusually strong conversion rates (the percentage of visitors to the store who made a purchase). Foot traffic, on the other hand, remained unexpectedly low, leading Abdullah to wonder whether the high-status affiliations had unintentionally signaled to mid-market consumers that they would not be able to afford Aura's products, keeping such customers away. Students will decide, along with Abdullah, how to handle this unique “problem” as Aura enters a growth phase to other Saudi and Middle Eastern markets.

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