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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Fragiskos K. Gonidakis, Andreas G. Koutoupis, Anastasios D. Tsamis and Maria-Eleni K. Agoraki

The purpose of this study is to investigate risk disclosure in listed Greek companies. The effects of the financial crisis were also considered.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate risk disclosure in listed Greek companies. The effects of the financial crisis were also considered.

Design/methodology/approach

This study aimed to determine the risk-reporting practices of Greek’s non-financial companies listed on the Athens Stock Exchange through a content analysis of their annual reports.

Findings

Risk identification and anticipation protect businesses and create shareholder value. In recent years, particularly since the economic crisis, risk has become one of the most important business issues. This study concluded that during the crisis, there was an increase in disclosure. Financial, personnel and legal risks were the most reported types of risk. This study also found liquidity to be a very important issue.

Research limitations/implications

Content analysis has limitations because subjectivity cannot be eliminated. This study measured only the quantity, not the quality, of risk disclosure. The quality of risk reporting will be examined in future research.

Originality/value

This is the first study on risk disclosure in the non-financial companies listed on the Athens Stock Exchange to conduct a content analysis of the corporate annual reports.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 33 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Michail Nerantzidis, John Filos, Anastasios Tsamis and Maria-Eleni Agoraki

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of Combined code (2010) impact in the Greek soft law (SEV code, 2011) and the adoption of an overlapping set (between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent of Combined code (2010) impact in the Greek soft law (SEV code, 2011) and the adoption of an overlapping set (between the two codes) of best practice provisions in Greece.

Design/methodology/approach

Content analysis was conducted to examine the similarities between the UK’s Combined code (2010) and the Greek SEV code (2011). Moreover, a sample of 219 Greek listed companies’ annual reports was analyzed, and their compliance with a specific number of provisions was evaluated.

Findings

Through analyzing the content of both codes, it was found that from the total 64 provisions of the SEV code (2011), 45 were matched to at least one of the Combined codes (2010). From these 45 provisions, 26 were characterized as “in spirit” influence and 19 as “in letter”. Based on this evidence, 22 overlapping practices were selected to investigate the compliance and a quite low rate was revealed, an average percentage of 30.46 per cent. These findings indicate that while exogenous forces trigger the development and adoption of a code in Greece, in line with the UK’s, the endogenous forces tend to avoid the compliance with that “exogenous practices”. Moreover, the results support the idea that the Greek national code should be reshaped to fit the different country’s characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

The research limitations are associated with the content analysis methodology, as well as the reliability of corporate governance (CG)statements.

Originality/value

This study contributes to understanding in a more comprehensive manner the impact of Combined Code (2010) in Greek soft law. More specifically, based on a previous case study, this paper extends the seven analyzed factors of Koutoupis’ (2012) research to the total CG provisions of both codes. However, it goes further and develops a coding scheme to rate the level of compliance of the overlapping provisions.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 57 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Michail Nerantzidis

The purpose of this paper is to look inside the “black box” in corporate governance (CG) measurement, and shed some light on how to construct a transparent, reliable and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look inside the “black box” in corporate governance (CG) measurement, and shed some light on how to construct a transparent, reliable and valid index, considering equally both the academics and practitioners’ perspectives.

Design/methodology/approach

A synthesized literature review is presented and a CG index is developed combining the strengths of three different methodologies: the Delphi method, the classical test theory (CTT) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). This approach helps authors to break the process into separate steps and to select the appropriate techniques to support their decision regarding the norms, the criteria, the variables and the weights that someone should use to construct a CG index.

Findings

The authors’ analysis indicates that a well-designed CG index requires a combination of research methods to identify the best options to solve several methodological issues in index construction. For the application of this multi-methodology in Greece, the authors used two equal and independent samples to explore the different perspectives regarding the importance of the index criteria and sub-criteria. This process provides evidence that the opinion of academics and practitioners in Greece tend to converge. Moreover, it is found that this multi-methodology produces the highest variation in CG scores and ranking orders, as opposed to a traditional approach, in measuring CG disclosure, an important issue with econometric implications.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study are associated with the methods used.

Practical implications

This paper provides practical implications for investors and commercial vendors. For the former, it highlights the need to be more cautious and/or suspicious when they use CG ratings, meaning that they should comprehend the base of the ratings models, and for the latter, it demonstrates the importance of enhancing the transparency in CG indices construction.

Originality/value

The value of the paper lies in improved understanding of the methodological issues in constructing CG indices. This is quite interesting because this approach could serve as a roadmap for other researchers.

Details

Corporate Governance, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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