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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Bruno H. Rocha Fernandes, John F. Mills and Maria Tereza L. Fleury

To investigate in an empirical situation the resources that drive organizational performance, considering as resources HR practices, human competencies and other tangible…

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate in an empirical situation the resources that drive organizational performance, considering as resources HR practices, human competencies and other tangible resources and evaluating performance according to the balanced scorecard (BSC) model.

Design/methodology/approach

After literature review, a case study in a Brazilian water company was chosen. Methodology consisted of in‐depth interviews with managers; collection of information from company's database and questionnaires; factor analysis to identify underlying factors that explain the majority of variance for each BSC perspective; regression analysis to find association between factors and resources.

Findings

In general, resources seemed to be correlated to performance, but further details appeared: employee competency presented no correlation with performance; environmental factors related to demand seemed to be the strongest performance determinant; employee satisfaction showed association with all BSC perspective.

Research limitations/implications

The research circumstances are quite particular and should not be generalized to other organizations. Future research should focus on more knowledge intensive firms and use a longitudinal research design.

Practical implications

The results for practitioners, especially those in the investigated company, included the need to review part of their indicators, choosing formulae that are better connected to business results.

Originality/value

This paper helps to understand how resources and competencies convert into performance and proposes a methodology to be used under particular conditions of organizations with multiple and comparable business units.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 54 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Afonso Fleury and Maria Tereza Leme Fleury

This paper questions currently accepted arguments about the impacts of pro-market reforms in the internalization of emerging country firms, through an in-depth analysis of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper questions currently accepted arguments about the impacts of pro-market reforms in the internalization of emerging country firms, through an in-depth analysis of the Brazilian case, thus revealing new dimensions to add to the extant literature.

Design/methodology/approach

Historical analysis is the central mode of investigation leading to a commitment of offering historically grounded explanation for pro-market reform impacts in the Brazilian industry.

Findings

Outcomes reveal that the impacts of pro-market reforms depend on (a) the purpose of their adoption, (b) the compatibility with the features of the local institutional context, and (c) the relative bargaining power of local firms vis-à-vis foreign multinationals.

Research limitations

The research is based on the Brazilian experience only which is indicative of what may have happened in other Latin American countries; however, the analytical approach may be extended to the study of other emerging countries.

Practical and social implications

By having a systemic perspective encompassing the different actors and the interdependence among themselves, it allows for an enhanced view of the factors which led to the adoption of pro-market reforms and the forces which acted for its configuration, thus helping policy-makers to better approach industrial policy-making.

Originality

A longitudinal perspective within a historical analysis is adopted, focusing on the interplay of macro-level and firm-level factors, resulting in a better understanding of the reasons which led to the adoption of pro-market reforms, the resistance to its implementation and its real outcomes.

Details

Emerging Market Firms in the Global Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-066-7

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Alvaro Cuervo-Cazurra, Jorge Carneiro, Diego Finchelstein, Patricio Duran, Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez, Miguel A. Montoya, Armando Borda Reyes, Maria Tereza Leme Fleury and William Newburry

This paper aims to analyze how emerging market firms upgrade their capabilities by focusing on “uncommoditizing strategies” that enable them to achieve levels of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze how emerging market firms upgrade their capabilities by focusing on “uncommoditizing strategies” that enable them to achieve levels of international competitiveness beyond the comparative advantages of their home countries and serve markets with premium pricing, quality and reputation of products.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors studied 18 Latin American companies across six countries. Latin America represents an ideal setting because many of these countries have traditionally developed using natural resource endowments, and their firms have tended to rely on these in their internationalization. To facilitate the analysis of each case and the comparisons across cases, the authors used the same analytical framework for the companies, identifying the sources of differentiation and cost efficiency strategies that enabled these firms to upgrade their capabilities and compete on the basis of premium pricing, quality and reputation.

Findings

The analysis identified a general framework that represents an abstraction of the actions taken by these companies over time. The proposed model consists of three main elements used to pursue uncommoditizing strategies: tropicalized innovation, global efficiency and coordinated control.

Originality/value

Recent research on emerging market firms has shown interest in how these firms upgrade their capabilities. This paper contributes to this stream of research by providing an overarching framework that not only bridged previous narrower studies but also explained how firms can develop uncommoditizing strategies to upgrade their capabilities. Further, this paper helps managers by providing a comprehensive yet succinct overview of the main strategies that they can use to help their firms to achieve international competitiveness.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 24 June 2015

Afonso Fleury, Yongjiang Shi, Maria Tereza Leme Fleury, Silas Ferreira, Jose Henrique Cordeiro and Xingkun Liang

Despite the seminal works of authors like Bartlett, Ghoshal, Nohria, Doz, Williamson, among others, because they focused on mature multinationals, newcomers in…

Abstract

Despite the seminal works of authors like Bartlett, Ghoshal, Nohria, Doz, Williamson, among others, because they focused on mature multinationals, newcomers in international markets find scarce information about the design and implementation of international operations networks. In this paper we analyze the internationalization process of Brazilian and Chinese firms to understand the evolution of their networks, a process influenced by factors inexistent in studies about developed country multinationals, namely global production networks (GPNs) and country-of-origin effects. The key characteristics of their international operations networks seem to be well described by a stage-based approach where emerging country multinationals start as local optimizers and then evolve by taking different strategic positions within the GPN to which they are connected. That upgrading is possible when the implementation of the international operations network reaches a certain level of maturity.

Details

Emerging Economies and Multinational Enterprises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-740-6

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Article
Publication date: 30 October 2007

Afonso Fleury and Maria Tereza Fleury

The development of a conceptual framework for the study of production systems in general derived from the analysis of the telecommunications industry; since this industry…

Abstract

Purpose

The development of a conceptual framework for the study of production systems in general derived from the analysis of the telecommunications industry; since this industry is considered as one of the pillars of the coming information society and knowledge economy, the application of that framework to other industries and production systems brings insights as to their recent changes and future trends. This paper looks at the stream of frameworks proposed for production and operations management, with the intent of contributing to the debate by addressing the following question: would an analytical framework derived from the telecommunications industry have distinct features relative to the analytic frameworks currently in use?

Design/methodology/approach

Following a literature review of the evolution of the telecommunications industry, the framework (TbF for telecommunications‐based framework) was built from scratch, using grounded theory, case studies and Delphi methods. The field for research was the Brazilian Telecommunications industry, considered as a microcosm of the whole industry. The TbF was then applied to the automobile and textile/apparel industries for illustration purposes.

Findings

The TbF is composed by six types of companies, characterised by distinct profiles of organisational competences, interacting according to some specific patterns of relationships. Compared to the most commonly used conceptual frameworks, the TbF allows for critical assessments in regards to their basic assumptions and reveals ways to evolve in direction of more dynamic approaches to the study of production systems.

Research limitations/implications

As all other conceptual frameworks, the TbF is a simplification of reality and so its use requires a clear view of its assumptions. In regards to generalisation, the main assumption of the TbF is that other industries and production systems are accelerating their “clockspeeds” over time. As to the TbF's limitations, the main drawback relates to its development being derived from the most “traditional” segment of the telecommunications industry. This led to the exclusion of the internet‐enabled industries which promise a great impact in the near future.

Practical implications

The main contribution is for practical work in the academic and consultancy spheres, because what is under investigation is the way in which knowledge about production systems is being produced. The use of the TbF might disclose the limitations of the most commonly used conceptual frameworks and reveal ways to produce knowledge which is more aligned to the dynamism and complexity of production systems now and in the future.

Originality/value

The TbF is original in its structure. Its value in the creation of knowledge which is relevant and applicable still depends on further development.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 18 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2011

Felipe Mendes Borini and Maria Tereza Leme Fleury

The purpose of this paper is to discover whether factors responsible for the existence of non‐local competences in emerging multinationals are different from those of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discover whether factors responsible for the existence of non‐local competences in emerging multinationals are different from those of traditional multinationals.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey of 66 subsidiaries of Brazilian multinationals (BrMNes). This represents 70 percent of the 93 subsidiaries originally sampled.

Findings

The factors responsible for the development of non‐local competences in BrMNes are: the relationship between subsidiaries and business networks, the initiatives of subsidiaries and the support of the entrepreneurial orientation of subsidiaries by the headquarters.

Research limitations/implications

Even though emerging multinationals require more resources developed abroad and although some studies revealed that different management models had been adopted during the internationalization process, the factors required to develop non‐local competences in BrMNes are very similar to those required by traditional multinationals.

Practical implications

Subsidiary innovation in partnership with the business network in the foreign country is essential to develop non‐local competences.

Originality/value

The paper supports the results of studies of traditional multinationals and demonstrates that despite the differences of Brazilian multinationals the factors required to develop non‐local competences are very similar. This is an interesting result to consolidate knowledge about global competitive advantages in multinationals: the management model to develop non‐local competences seems to be the same, in order of importance, regardless of multinational origin.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

Afonso Fleury and Maria Tereza Fleury

One of the key features of the new economy seems to be the change from individual to collective efficiency: the joint performance of systems of networked enterprises. That…

Abstract

One of the key features of the new economy seems to be the change from individual to collective efficiency: the joint performance of systems of networked enterprises. That movement has an international dimension mainly related to the new strategies of transnational corporations. from the perspective of developing countries important changes might be taking place, as a consequence of the positioning of their firms in that new interorganisational networking. This is the focus of this study. An analytical model was developed for the assessment of which industrial segment shows the potential to be an international player for having the required organisational competencies. The conceptual framework was built around the idea that participation in an interorganisational network depends on the competencies built by each firm and influences the conditions for strategy formulation. A survey about the recent evolution of industry in Brazil was prepared. The outcomes reveal the relative position of the Brazilian firms in international networks, what leads to an overall picture of the competitiveness of local industry.

Details

Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Peter J. Williamson

The purpose of this paper is to re-assess both the nature and sources of the competitive advantages which multinationals expanding from home bases in emerging economies…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to re-assess both the nature and sources of the competitive advantages which multinationals expanding from home bases in emerging economies (EMNEs) may enjoy in the global market.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses the results of 12 concurrent studies undertaken by a group of experts who were asked to examine how strategies for innovation, international value chain configuration and foreign mergers and acquisitions contributed to the competitive advantages of multinationals emerging from Brazil, Russia, India and China (the BRICs), respectively.

Findings

EMNEs do have competitive advantages that can underpin their expansion abroad, but these are mainly “non-traditional” advantages that have been built by finding innovative ways to leverage advantages of their home countries. EMNE’s internationalisation is as much about accessing new resources and knowledge to enable them to extend their competitive advantage, as it is a route to exploiting existing advantages over a larger set of markets. As a result, the global value chain structure of EMNEs tends to be fundamentally different from that chosen by incumbent multinationals.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to EMNEs from the BRIC countries, but implications for EMNEs emerging from other countries are discussed.

Originality/value

We bring to bear extensive data and a systematic approach to understanding the new breed of multinationals emerging from the BRIC countries; their sources of competitive advantage; and how they are using innovation, foreign investment and overseas acquisitions to transform global competition.

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. 11 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

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