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Article

Maria Sääksjärvi, Ellis van den Hende, Ruth Mugge and Nicolien van Peursem

This study aims to propose that a brand can be kept both prominent and fresh by using existing logos as well as logo varieties (i.e. slight modifications to the brand’s…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose that a brand can be kept both prominent and fresh by using existing logos as well as logo varieties (i.e. slight modifications to the brand’s existing logo).

Design/methodology/approach

In two experimental studies, the authors exposed respondents to either the existing brand logo or to logo varieties, and examined their influence on brand prominence and freshness.

Findings

The findings suggest that consumers subconsciously process logo varieties to which they are exposed in a similar way as they subconsciously process the existing logo of the brand, making both types of logo exposure effective for building brand prominence and freshness.

Research limitations/implications

It would also be worthwhile to study the effect of logo varieties using other dependent measures than the ones employed in this study, such as purchase intent and behavioral measures (such as consumption behaviors).

Practical implications

This research shows that logo varieties can be used alongside the existing brand logo to build prominence and freshness. These findings diverge from the findings typically reported in the branding literature that state that consumers resist changes to logos.

Originality/value

This research not only demonstrates that exposure to logo varieties and existing logos evokes automatic effects (both types of logos outperform a control group in fostering brand-related outcomes) but also confirms that exposing consumers to the existing logo or logo varieties give less differential effects than one may think.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article

Maria Sääksjärvi, Katarina Hellén and George Balabanis

The purpose of this paper is to examine women’s reactions to celebrity endorsers holding positive and negative public images and the consequences for purchase intentions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine women’s reactions to celebrity endorsers holding positive and negative public images and the consequences for purchase intentions of the endorsed product.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on the social comparison literature and applies the theory of upward and downward comparisons to the celebrity endorsement context.

Findings

Study 1 shows that exposure to celebrities holding a positive public image decrease consumers’ temporal self-esteem, while celebrities holding a negative public image increase temporal self-esteem. Study 2 suggests that this change in self-esteem transfers to the product depending upon the type of social comparison focus (similarity vs dissimilarity) which people have. Study 3 shows that for consumers low in true self-esteem, i.e. self-esteem based upon a stable foundation, celebrities holding a positive public image decrease purchase intentions. For consumers high in true self-esteem, there was no difference between exposure to celebrities holding a positive and a negative public image for purchase intentions. Study 4 focused on replicating the results found in Studies 1-3 in the context of an achievement celebrity (as opposed to a regular celebrity). The findings in Study 4 provide further support for the results of Studies 1 and 3, and identify expert celebrities as a boundary condition for the effects found in Study 2.

Practical implications

The results provide evidence suggesting that celebrities holding a negative public image can be used as celebrity endorsers in product categories in which it can be considered helpful to protect women’s self-esteem, such as beauty products or self-expressive products.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the literature on celebrity endorsement by adding a boundary condition for the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement. According to the results, choosing a positive celebrity can, for some groups, have negative effects on purchase intensions and that a negative celebrity might be the safer choice.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Valentin Gattol, Maria Sääksjärvi, Tripat Gill and Jan Schoormans

Previous research in the context of feature fit has examined the effects of congruence (i.e. more specifically, the extent to which a new feature and the product are…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research in the context of feature fit has examined the effects of congruence (i.e. more specifically, the extent to which a new feature and the product are similar in the hedonic-utilitarian benefits they provide to consumers). The purpose of this paper is to examine a second dimension of feature fit: complementarity (i.e. the extent to which a new feature is related and contributing to the main functionality of the product).

Design/methodology/approach

The role of feature fit is examined in two experimental studies (n=593) in the context of feature additions, and also for feature deletions.

Findings

The results showed that complementarity adds value to a product as an additional dimension of feature fit beyond congruence, complementarity matters more for a hedonic than for a utilitarian product, and complementarity can compensate for lack of congruence.

Originality/value

For a product developer, adding new features to a product offers an array of choices in terms of what feature(s) to include. Although having a large pool of potential features to choose from is attractive it can also prove problematic, as products may become overly complex and features do not fit well together. The results demonstrate the importance of both congruence and complementarity as predictors of feature fit when features are added to or deleted from products.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article

Maria Sääksjärvi and Katarina Hellén

Development of new products is important for firm success; however, firms often struggle to identify the best ideas from multiple options. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Development of new products is important for firm success; however, firms often struggle to identify the best ideas from multiple options. The purpose of this paper is to study how innovators and early adopters can be used for identifying the best ideas, i.e. the ideas that appeal to mass-market customers.

Design/methodology/approach

Two empirical studies were conducted. Study 1 concerned the development of a symbolic innovation, whereas Study 2 focused on a functional innovation. Each study consisted of two parts: idea generation and idea evaluation. In Study 1 there were 124 idea generators and 248 idea evaluators. In Study 2 there were 104 idea generators and 108 evaluators.

Findings

Both studies demonstrate that innovators and early adopters are able to predict the ideas that appeal to mass-market customers. Yet, it was also shown that this prediction depends on the nature of the idea. In the case of ideas for products that are predominantly symbolic in nature (Study 1), innovators and early adopters predict the buying intentions of mass-market consumers via the perceived novelty of the idea. In turn, for ideas that are predominantly functional in nature, innovators and early adopters predict the buying intentions of mass-market consumers directly via buying intentions.

Originality/value

These findings show that innovators and early adopters can be used for selecting the best ideas from a plethora of available options. This is the first time that innovators and early adopters have been empirically demonstrated to hold such a role.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article

Maria Sääksjärvi, Tripat Gill and Erik Jan Hultink

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the potentially positive role of rumors in generating curiosity about new products, and further shows how this prior knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the potentially positive role of rumors in generating curiosity about new products, and further shows how this prior knowledge through rumors affects consumer responses to subsequent official preannouncements about these products.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on the seminal work by Rogers (2003) on the innovation-adoption process, the authors examine how two factors – product newness (incremental vs radical) and rumor ambiguity (ambiguous vs unambiguous) shape consumer interest (curiosity) toward new products.

Findings

Study 1 experimentally tests the assumption that incremental and radical new products may benefit from different types of rumors, and shows that radical new products benefit more from ambiguous rumors as compared to incremental new products in terms of increased curiosity toward the product. Study 2 links rumors to preannouncements, and shows that rumors set expectations that become confirmed or disconfirmed by preannouncements. The results show that the curiosity evoked by the rumor has a significant impact on purchase intentions toward the new product, especially when they are confirmed by the preannouncements about the same product.

Originality/value

There is scant research investigating how rumors may shape consumer expectations about new products despite the prevalence of rumors in the marketplace, and this research provides a first outlook on the positive role that rumors play in the marketplace.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article

Jos Lemmink, Iva Franzelova, Maria Säaksjärvi and Kristina Heinonen

Nowadays, customers have big chunks of information on their smartphones and can acquire information and make decisions rapidly, oftentimes with the use of specific apps…

Abstract

Purpose

Nowadays, customers have big chunks of information on their smartphones and can acquire information and make decisions rapidly, oftentimes with the use of specific apps. Most of the research on this topic to date has been conducted from the perspective of the provider, or the company, therefore missing the value that is created with these apps in the customer’s own domain according to the customer-dominant logic (CDL) approach.

Design/methodology/approach

As compared with prior research, CDL requires a different type of research that is much more inclined towards customers and specific circumstances. This paper is positioned within CDL (Heinonen and Strandvik, 2015) and aims to quantitatively explore app usage in different customer contexts.

Findings

Seven apps were tested in two different usage contexts: a social vs an individual context and a calm vs dynamic context. It was found that for the social vs individual context there was no difference; thus, managers should not pay too much attention to whether the user of the digital service is in a social context. For the calm vs dynamic social context, it was found that customers’ satisfaction, enjoyment, pleasure and their overall rating of an app were higher when the customer as in a tranquil vs dynamic context.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed method provides a highly relevant way to approach app development from a CDL perspective.

Practical implications

These findings provide evidence that context matters and that we should study customer behavior from a more integral and detailed perspective as has been advocated by CDL.

Social implications

App research should incorporate a customer focused approach. This means that not only the customers’ needs need to be considered. The circumstances and context in which apps are used are highly relevant as well.

Originality/value

This research uses a CDL approach to provide evidence about the consequences for app usage and satisfaction and shows the necessity of incorporating specific circumstances, customer experience and usage variables to a larger extend than has been advocated in the past.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

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Article

Maria Saaksjarvi

This paper introduces a conceptual model of consumer innovation adoption based on knowledge and compatibility. More specifically, innovation adoption is proposed to be…

Abstract

This paper introduces a conceptual model of consumer innovation adoption based on knowledge and compatibility. More specifically, innovation adoption is proposed to be determined by four adopter groups: technovators, supplemental experts, novices, and core experts, and the interaction between their knowledge and compatibility with the technological innovation. Compatibility occurs when a potential adopter perceives the innovation as being consistent with his/her existing values, past experiences, and needs. The model presented is intended to help researchers and practitioners successfully identify potential adopters of a technological innovation.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

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Article

Dr Brian Young

Abstract

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

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Article

Maria Sääksjärvi and Kaj P.N. Morel

The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale for measuring consumer doubt toward new products.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale for measuring consumer doubt toward new products.

Design/methodology/approach

The scale was developed in several steps. A large pool of items to represent consumer doubt was generated. Experts reviewed the scale items for conciseness and clarity. An exploratory factor analysis to examine the unidimensionality, convergent validity, and discriminant validity of each construct was conducted. The model was then validated using partial least squares modeling. Finally, the scale and its form were validated, and potential response biases assessed. Data from three studies were used.

Findings

The results show that by focusing on reasons for deference, rather than acceptance, the scale yields new insight into innovation success and failure. The CDNP scale is a reliable and valid measurement instrument to assess consumer doubt toward new products.

Research limitations/implications

For researchers, the results show that only considering positive aspects on innovation adoption can lead to only a partial understanding of how innovation diffuses in the market.

Practical implications

By overcoming consumer doubt at early stages of innovation launch, companies could overcome problems related to innovation failure.

Originality/value

The literature on innovation adoption has almost exclusively focused on why innovations succeed by examining consumer acceptance of innovations. Yet, a potentially more serious issue that would need to be tackled is why innovations fail. This paper focuses on consumer doubt toward new products, i.e. a lack of conviction that a new product will fulfill its promises. Three studies show that the scale of consumer doubt is valid, and it provides new insights into innovation adoption.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article

Anna Saraneva and Maria Sääksjärvi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the emotions young compulsive buyers experience while shopping.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the emotions young compulsive buyers experience while shopping.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a digital ethnography study by communicating with 22 young compulsive buyers for two weeks using their cell phones while they were engaged in the shopping activity.

Findings

The results show that the emotions experienced by compulsive buyers are much more complex than previously thought. The emotions young consumers go through during the shopping process are not predominantly negative or positive. Instead, young consumers move up and down on an emotional continuum during shopping. The trigger involved with the emotions is linked to finding a bargain. A bargain is defined as a good deal, or a situation in which the consumers perceive they get mental satisfaction from their purchase. If young compulsive shoppers find a bargain, they feel pride, happiness, and goal achievement. However, if they do not manage to find a bargain, they feel disappointed, sad, and unsuccessful.

Research limitations/implications

This study was focused on adolescent consumers. Although this age group is considered suitable for conducting a study of compulsive buying, the results cannot be generalized to other age groups.

Originality/value

Compared to previous studies, the paper uncovers emotions and emotional shifts in much greater detail, providing new insights to the phenomenon of compulsive buying, considering the range of emotions that consumers experience, and the triggers involved with their emotional shifts.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

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