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Kai Kronenberg, Matthias Fuchs and Maria Lexhagen
Previous studies on tourism input-output (IO) primarily focus on a single year’s snapshot or utilize outdated IO coefficients. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the…
Previous studies on tourism input-output (IO) primarily focus on a single year’s snapshot or utilize outdated IO coefficients. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the multi-period development of regional tourism capacities and its influence on the magnitude of the industry’s regional economic contribution. The paper highlights the importance of applying up-to-date IO coefficients to avoid estimation bias typically found in previous studies on tourism’s economic contribution.
For the period 2008-2014, national IO tables are regionalized to estimate direct and indirect economic effects for output, employment, income and other value-added deffects. A comparison of Leontief inverse matrices is conducted to quantify estimation bias when using outdated models for analyzing tourism’s economic contribution.
On the one hand, economic linkages strengthened, especially for labour-intensive sectors. On the other hand, sectoral recessions in 2012 and 2014 led to an economy-wide decline of indirect effects, although tourists’ consumption was still increasing. Finally, estimation bias observed after applying an outdated IO model is quantified by approximately US$4.1m output, 986 jobs full-time equivalents, US$24.8m income and US$14.8m other value-added effects.
Prevailing assumptions on IO modelling and regionalization techniques aim for more precise survey-based approaches and computable general equilibrium models to incorporate net changes in economic output. Results should be cross-validated by means of qualitative interviews with industry representatives.
Additional costs for generating IO tables on an annual base clearly pay off when considering the improved accuracy of estimates on tourism’s economic contribution.
This study shows that tourism IO studies should apply up-to-date IO models when estimating the industry’s economic contribution. It provides evidence that applying outdated models involve the risk of estimation biases, because annual changes of multipliers substantially influence the magnitude of effects.
Wolfram Höpken, Marcel Müller, Matthias Fuchs and Maria Lexhagen
The purpose of this study is to analyse the suitability of photo-sharing platforms, such as Flickr, to extract relevant knowledge on tourists’ spatial movement and point…
The purpose of this study is to analyse the suitability of photo-sharing platforms, such as Flickr, to extract relevant knowledge on tourists’ spatial movement and point of interest (POI) visitation behaviour and compare the most prominent clustering approaches to identify POIs in various application scenarios.
The study, first, extracts photo metadata from Flickr, such as upload time, location and user. Then, photo uploads are assigned to latent POIs by density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) and k-means clustering algorithms. Finally, association rule analysis (FP-growth algorithm) and sequential pattern mining (generalised sequential pattern algorithm) are used to identify tourists’ behavioural patterns.
The approach has been demonstrated for the city of Munich, extracting 13,545 photos for the year 2015. POIs, identified by DBSCAN and k-means clustering, could be meaningfully assigned to well-known POIs. By doing so, both techniques show specific advantages for different usage scenarios. Association rule analysis revealed strong rules (support: 1.0-4.6 per cent; lift: 1.4-32.1 per cent), and sequential pattern mining identified relevant frequent visitation sequences (support: 0.6-1.7 per cent).
As a theoretic contribution, this study comparatively analyses the suitability of different clustering techniques to appropriately identify POIs based on photo upload data as an input to association rule analysis and sequential pattern mining as an alternative but also complementary techniques to analyse tourists’ spatial behaviour.
From a practical perspective, the study highlights that big data sources, such as Flickr, show the potential to effectively substitute traditional data sources for analysing tourists’ spatial behaviour and movement patterns within a destination. Especially, the approach offers the advantage of being fully automatic and executable in a real-time environment.
The study presents an approach to identify POIs by clustering photo uploads on social media platforms and to analyse tourists’ spatial behaviour by association rule analysis and sequential pattern mining. The study gains novel insights into the suitability of different clustering techniques to identify POIs in different application scenarios.
本论文旨在分析图片分享平台Flickr对截取游客空间动线信息和景点（POI）游览行为的适用性, 并且对比最知名的几种聚类分析手段, 以确定不同情况下的POI。
本论文首先从Flickr上摘录下图片大数据, 比如上传时间、地点、用户等。其次, 本论文使用DBSCAN和k-means聚类分析参数来将上传图片分配给POI隐性变量。最后, 本论文采用关联规则挖掘分析（FP-growth参数）和序列样式勘探分析（GSP参数）以确认游客行为模式。
本论文以慕尼黑城市为样本, 截取2015年13,545张图片。POIs由DBSCAN和k-means聚类分析将其分配到有名的POIs。由此, 本论文证明了两种技术对不同用法的各自优势。关联规则挖掘分析显示了显著联系（support：1%−4.6%；lift：1.4%−32.1%）, 序列样式勘探分析确立了相关频率游览次序（support：0.6%−1.7%。
本论文的理论贡献在于, 根据图片数据, 通过对比分析不同聚类分析技术对确立POIs, 并且证明关联规则挖掘分析和序列样式勘探分析各有千秋又互相补充的分析技术以确立游客空间行为。
本论文的现实意义在于, 强调了大数据的来源, 比如Flickr,证明了其对于有效代替传统数据的潜力, 以分析在游客在一个旅游目的地的空间行为和动线模式。特别是这种方法实现了实时自动可操作性等优势。
本论文展示了一种方法, 这种方法通过聚类分析社交媒体上的上传图片以确立POIs, 以及通过关联规则挖掘分析和序列样式勘探分析来分析游客空间行为。本论文对于不同聚类分析以确立不同适用情况下的POIs的确立提出了独到见解。
Szilvia Gyimóthy, Christine Lundberg, Kristina N. Lindström, Maria Lexhagen and Mia Larson
Tourism in the wake of films, literature, and music is gaining interest among academics and practitioners alike. Despite the significance of converging tourism and media…
Tourism in the wake of films, literature, and music is gaining interest among academics and practitioners alike. Despite the significance of converging tourism and media production and popcultural consumption, theorizing in this field is weak. This chapter explores complex relationships among popcultural phenomena, destination image creation, and tourism consumption. By taking a broader social science approach, it revisits and connects research themes, such as symbolic consumption, negotiated representations, fans and fandom, technology mediation, and media convergence. The chapter concludes with an integrative model, or “popcultural placemaking loop,” which is qualified through six propositions.
Maria Lexhagen, Mia Larson and Christine Lundberg
This chapter focuses on the importance of social media for pop culture fans. A web survey for fans of the Twilight Saga is implemented, using the concepts of cognitive…
This chapter focuses on the importance of social media for pop culture fans. A web survey for fans of the Twilight Saga is implemented, using the concepts of cognitive, affective, and evaluative social identity and personal, product, and situational involvement. The purpose is to examine to what degree social identity and involvement can explain pop culture fans’ future intention to travel, make recommendations to others, and use social media. Findings show that pop culture fans use social media to a large extent and that these means are important for making decisions about traveling and event participation. Moreover, the chapter shows that involvement dimensions are more important than social identity dimensions to explain future intention to travel, to recommend to others, and to use social media.
Ana María Munar, Szilvia Gyimóthy and Liping Cai
Ana María Munar and Szilvia Gyimóthy
This chapter analyzes the subject of critical digital tourism studies and envisions an agenda for technology research and education. Inspired by the insights of this book…
This chapter analyzes the subject of critical digital tourism studies and envisions an agenda for technology research and education. Inspired by the insights of this book and the work of scholars in digital humanities and communication (Baym, 2010; Hayles, 2012), the study presents “embedded cognition” as a framework to comprehend the interdependencies between people’s actions and discourses, and technological affordances. It introduces the concept of “turistus digitalis,” discusses theories for conceptualizing society and technology relations, and examines the challenges of transdisciplinarity. This investigation contributes to increasing research reflexivity in understanding how tourism is enacted through digital worlds and how digital technologies evolve through tourism practices.