Erosion is the main cause of soil and water degradation, which demands investments for the recovery of such natural resources. The purpose of this paper is to quantify and…
Erosion is the main cause of soil and water degradation, which demands investments for the recovery of such natural resources. The purpose of this paper is to quantify and spatialize soil losses in a municipality with large areas of monoculture of sugarcane.
The Universal Soil Loss Equation was applied for the identification of areas susceptible to erosion in the municipality of Jahu, SP, Brazil. Soil maps, statistical census data from Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, radar images from SRTM, rainfall data from Fatec-Jahu hydrometeorological station and digital satellite images from Landsat 5 TM were used for the analyses. Four basic parameters were evaluated: topography of the terrain, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, and soil use and management factors. The analyses were conducted in the Geographic Information System (ArcView software).
The results show most of the municipality (91 percent) consists of areas of erosion potential. However, the remaining 9 percent can potentially produce 40 percent of the sediment load, which indicates the need for conservation practices and environmental recovery for a reduction in the erosion process acceleration.
In view of the expansion of sugarcane culture in the cities of São Paulo, the results show the importance of a master plan for new areas of sugarcane planting and the need for restoration of riparian vegetation in the surrounding streams and springs for the reduction of erosion.
The main goal of the paper is to explore the origins and developments of the first community cellular network in Mexico.
Data were gathered in 2015 and 2016 through in-depth interviews, participant observation, workshops, photos, official documents, and informal interviews in the state of Oaxaca in southern Mexico. Data was also drawn from the work of two activists, P. Bloom and E. Huerta, working with the community assemblies of a number of Indígena communities: Villa Talea de Castro, Santa María Yaviche, San Juan Yaee, San Ildefonso Villa Alta, San Bernardo Mixetepec, Santa Ana Tlahuitoltepec, San Jerónimo Progreso, Santiago Ayuquililla, San Miguel Huautla, Santa Inés de Zaragoza, Santo Domingo Xagacia, San Pablo Yaganiza, San Pedro Cajonos, San Francisco Cajonos, San Miguel Cajonos, San Mateo Cajonos, Santa María Alotepec, and San Juan Tabaá. To analyze the data, using codes created in Atlas.TI and relying on an inductive approach, we analyzed the history of this network within a theoretical framework informed by Actor-Network Theory.
Participants in the enactment of this cellular network followed two programs of actions, one technical and one legal. Together, the community assemblies and activists took advantage of available devices, free software and ordinary computers, on the one hand, and communal rules, national laws, constitutional reforms and tacit knowledge, on the other hand. They brought about a new, non-profit, communitarian, and self-organized network that allows for inexpensive communication between members of small, marginalized Indígena communities in the state of Oaxaca in Mexico.
The arrangement of actants that the case illustrates is replicable in other parts of the country and outside of Mexico. The new community cellular network reduces the economic costs of communication, facilitates some jobs and family bonds, expands the range of community-owned projects, encourages self-organization and ways of situated conflict resolution, and empowers communities in relation to external powerful telecommunication corporations.
This is a novel account of a highly unusual set of community-led institutional innovations based on firsthand information drawn from the main actants of the new network.
Due to the recovery of the quality of life coming from a real estate boom and due to the extensive possibilities for leisure and work, the young generation in Spain looks…
Due to the recovery of the quality of life coming from a real estate boom and due to the extensive possibilities for leisure and work, the young generation in Spain looks with more optimism into the future as did generations before. Still, Spain is a nation with low employment prospects. This puts many professionals in a difficult position, having to sacrifice family relations for a better job. Another problem is the rate of university degrees, which is over the European average. Therefore, Generation Z has higher goals for their lives than previous generations. One of the traditional problems is that young people get high marks in their professional degrees but have a lack of employability skills and are therefore not always success in their first apprenticeship contract with companies. Generation Z has social skill problems with respect to empathy, communication and conflict management. Due to their digital style of life, they have substituted the gregarious relationships leisure for the bedroom culture of social networks.
The purpose of this paper is to develop an approach within the guidance of the Mental Capacity Act (2005) to meaningfully include people diagnosed with dementia (PDwD) in…
The purpose of this paper is to develop an approach within the guidance of the Mental Capacity Act (2005) to meaningfully include people diagnosed with dementia (PDwD) in research endeavours.
As part of a broader study of self-authored narratives of care experiences, PDwD were involved in the development and implementation of a process method of consent, in which consent conversations were contextual, responsive and ongoing, and were audited with the use of field diaries.
Working within people’s relational contexts (i.e. care staff and family), eight participants with a range of dementia diagnoses and care needs made and verbally communicated research-related decisions. A desire to participate was consistently conveyed across research encounters, regardless of the extent of memory problems. Participants also demonstrated keen awareness of the links between memory problems, rights and inclusion, alongside a sense of personal identity and the capacities to clearly communicate this.
A process model of consent encouraged formal reflection upon ethical and pragmatic complexities, and is relevant to persons diagnosed with dementia making both care- and research-related decisions. Further work is needed to include people with a broader range of communication support needs.
This research demonstrates substantial possibilities for eliciting and responding to the views of people with dementia diagnoses (previously excluded from research). Results open opportunities for genuine long-term research and care partnerships with PDwD for practice, service and policy development.
Established following the Reed Report (1991) recommendations, Redford Lodge is an independent psychiatric hospital offering medium secure provision for mentally ill…
Established following the Reed Report (1991) recommendations, Redford Lodge is an independent psychiatric hospital offering medium secure provision for mentally ill patients and offenders. For this study social and behavioural data were collected on admission and discharge for the 166 patients admitted over the three years 1995‐1998 and 49 discharged patients were reassessed at six‐month follow‐up. Predictors of length of stay, discharge and success at follow‐up were examined in relation to social and demographic factors and engagement in therapy programmes.Patients' socio‐demographic variables were not significantly related to their length of stay, place of discharge or success at follow‐up. One predictor of progress after discharge was employment. Contact with family was identified as a significant factor associated with shorter stay and positive place of discharge but not associated with success at follow‐up. Engagement in psychological therapies and/or group activities was directly related to length of stay, general progress and improvement in mental state but not to subsequent involvement in community services or general success in independent living at follow‐up.Although the findings suggest treatment is successful, further research is needed to identify specific treatment variables that have a positive long‐term effect.
Although many educators feel insecure about reporting suspected child maltreatment, educators are in a unique position to identify and, subsequently, intervene in such…
Although many educators feel insecure about reporting suspected child maltreatment, educators are in a unique position to identify and, subsequently, intervene in such cases. This is particularly true for those working in early childhood education settings, as the youngest children – those most vulnerable to the effects of maltreatment – are at the greatest risk for being victims of most types of maltreatment. Thus, early childhood educators should be familiar with child maltreatment and be prepared to act in these cases. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a general overview of child maltreatment. Definitions and prevalent issues will be discussed, and the potential effects of child maltreatment across a variety of domains, including cognitive, academic, social, and behavioral functioning, will be highlighted. Finally, the authors explore various responsibilities, such as mandated reporting and intervention and prevention activities, of early childhood educators.
This chapter is about an analysis and reflection on the actions, programs, and regulatory frameworks of the Mexican government for the promotion of entrepreneurial…
This chapter is about an analysis and reflection on the actions, programs, and regulatory frameworks of the Mexican government for the promotion of entrepreneurial activity during the twentieth century. A documentary review is presented based mainly on the presidential reports available in the virtual legal library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, the Center for Documentation, Information, and Analysis of the Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados), and various publications of experts on economic history, considering the twentieth century: from the year 1900 with the end of the Porfiriato until the six-year term of Ernesto Zedillo that ended in 2000. The public policies of these 100 years were reviewed and based on this, was analyzed the importance assigned to the creation, development, and consolidation of companies and their importance in public policies. Special emphasis is given to instruments for the creation of new businesses or the development and strengthening of small- and medium-sized enterprises.