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Project business as a mode of operation is currently very prevalent on international business-to-business markets, and project-related services are an important part of…
Project business as a mode of operation is currently very prevalent on international business-to-business markets, and project-related services are an important part of most projects. However the way to market these types of services is under-researched in mainstream marketing literature. Therefore, via a multi-lingual literature review, this article scrutinizes four marketing schools for frameworks relevant to the marketing of project-related services: project, services, transaction, and interactive business-to-business marketing. The analysis shows that the project marketing concepts better capture key aspects of marketing project-related services internationally than do the mainstream service marketing concepts. However, the analysis also suggests that a pluralist approach may be useful when marketing of project-related services, as some frameworks from other marketing schools are also suitable. On this basis, suggestions for marketers of project-related services are presented, and a research agenda for academics concerning the study of project-related services both internationally and domestically is suggested.
Many types of commercial professional services are commonly sold as projects. Therefore this article draws on the project marketing literature to elucidate the…
Many types of commercial professional services are commonly sold as projects. Therefore this article draws on the project marketing literature to elucidate the international marketing of professional service projects. After an initial literature review, the project marketing milieu concept’s a priori territorial definition is critically examined on the basis of cases concerning the internationalization of Nordic architectural firms. It is hypothesized that territoriality plays the biggest role in situations where a firm is moving from one national milieu with well‐established norms, rules, and representations to another national milieu with similarly well‐developed norms, rules, and representations, yet that there also exist global milieux. Managerial implications concerning professional service firms’ preparation for entering a foreign milieu as well as subsidiary or office establishment abroad are provided.
Project operations are a dominating mode of international business. Managing relationships and networks is crucial to project marketing success both at the level of the…
Project operations are a dominating mode of international business. Managing relationships and networks is crucial to project marketing success both at the level of the individual project and at the level of multiple projects. This article first defines key characteristics of project business, identifies potentially relevant actors in the project marketing milieu, and emphasizes the importance of constantly nurturing project business relationships, also in “sleeping relationship” periods where concrete projects are not expected. Thereafter the points made are illustrated with a Finnish‐Chinese turnkey project case at the level of the individual project and a Danish‐German professional service project case at the level of multiple projects. It is concluded that project managers and marketers should focus their attention on the management of project relationships before, during, and after projects, as well as on relevant environmental factors in the project marketing milieu, instead of using resources on sporadic or last minute running after potential projects.
At the beginning of the nineties, the Danish construction market was in the midst of a severe slump (Eurostat, 1995). At the same time, the German market was beginning to…
At the beginning of the nineties, the Danish construction market was in the midst of a severe slump (Eurostat, 1995). At the same time, the German market was beginning to boom, due to the process of unifying the two German states (European Construction Research, 1995). Because of the poor home market circumstances, many Danish construction industry actors, including individual architects and architectural firms, attempted to find work in Germany (Halskov, 1995). However, the aspirations of most of these actors were dashed. By 1996, many of the largest Danish civil engineering and contracting firms had lost billions of Danish kroner, and a great number of small firms, typically architectural firms or subcontractors in the construction process, had also experienced severe losses, some of which had jeopardized the very existence of these firms (ibid.). This turn of events surprised both insiders in the Danish construction industry and the general Danish population as both groups believed that Denmark has high construction standards and that the most of the firms that had attempted operations in Germany were technically competent and had sound domestic business policies.
To model how resources and capabilities co‐evolved in a contract research provider's customer relationships and how this affected market orientation, and to develop…
To model how resources and capabilities co‐evolved in a contract research provider's customer relationships and how this affected market orientation, and to develop hypotheses for further testing.
Single qualitative and abductive longitudinal case study.
The provider focused on generating knowledge of current and near future customer needs through interactions with customers and other key actors. The provider also pursued the building of capabilities which would enable it to broaden the application areas to the needs of a larger group of potential customers. Exchanges with specific customers were used by the provider for the acquisition of resources and capabilities concerning details related to functions and, especially, applications, yet these resources and capabilities were subsequently broadened to all‐around solutions. In contrast, customer interactions were less important in acquiring resources and capabilities. Eight hypotheses were also formulated.
One cannot be certain of the external validity of the findings.
Knowledge‐intensive firms with a high degree of customer interaction must seek to balance their individual customer relationships and their customer relationship portfolio across time with regard to four customer types, so that the firm achieves the desired levels and balance of mutuality, particularity, mutual relationship capability (in the shorter term) and more generic capability and general market orientation (in the longer term).
It examines the interface between the resource‐based view of strategy and relationship marketing. It is relevant to strategy and marketing scholars as well as to practitioners in knowledge‐intensive organisations that have customer relationships.
Today, services officially represent more than 22% (or about USD 3 trillion) of world trade and are the fastest growing sector of world trade for the last two decades…
Today, services officially represent more than 22% (or about USD 3 trillion) of world trade and are the fastest growing sector of world trade for the last two decades (OECD, 2004; WTO, 2001). Optimist analysts believe that services will reach 50% of world trade by 2020 (Hibbert, 2003). Nearly half of the 100 biggest multinationals are service firms with an average revenue of over USD 50 million in 1997 (Hibbert, 2003; Keillor, Hult & Kandemir, 2004). The American McKinsey and Company in management consulting, the Danish ISS in facility management and the Dutch VNU in business information illustrate how service firms may succeed in gaining and holding a global dominant position. On top of the official service economy, the (hidden) service component of product markets is responsible for a major and increasing part of the total value of the world merchandise trade (Brown et al., 2001; Grönroos, 1990). Illustrative in this respect is the critical role of the global service systems of the Swedish/Swiss ABB in automation technology and of the American Caterpillar in construction and mining equipment.