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One hears sometimes of precocious children who can read before the average baby can talk, and this raises the interesting speculation as to when a child is old enough for books. Picture books and story‐telling undoubtedly make early appeal and educationists now consider book provision in nursery schools important in order to make the “under fives” book conscious before their schooling proper begins. More and more librarians now provide attractive A.B.C.'s such as Eileen Mayo's Nature's A.B.C. (Universal Text Books, Ltd., 6/‐) with its beautiful printing and illustrations; and gay picture books like Mary Shilla‐beer's We Visit the Zoo (Hutchinson, 4/6) in which there is just enough text to satisfy the young mind. Some librarians seem to have an objection to odd‐shaped books because of the shelving difficulty but the artist's requirements and the child's partiality for large‐size books should outweigh the slight inconvenience of arranging special shelving.
IN order to be able to discriminate with certainty between butter and such margarine as is sold in England, it is necessary to carry out two or three elaborate and delicate chemical processes. But there has always been a craving by the public for some simple method of determining the genuineness of butter by means of which the necessary trouble could be dispensed with. It has been suggested that such easy detection would be possible if all margarine bought and sold in England were to be manufactured with some distinctive colouring added—light‐blue, for instance—or were to contain a small amount of phenolphthalein, so that the addition of a drop of a solution of caustic potash to a suspected sample would cause it to become pink if it were margarine, while nothing would occur if it were genuine butter. These methods, which have been put forward seriously, will be found on consideration to be unnecessary, and, indeed, absurd.
The purpose of this paper is to challenge how we have traditionally thought about organisations and introduce two frameworks to enable us to understand how change in…
The purpose of this paper is to challenge how we have traditionally thought about organisations and introduce two frameworks to enable us to understand how change in organisations might be facilitated better.
The paper discusses organisations as complex adaptive systems and uses complexity theory to inform two new frameworks for facilitating organisational learning and change.
In order for organisational learning to occur we need to change our mind-set of how we see organisations and to think of learning not just as individual but also as generative “communicative action” that emerge out of collaborative relationships.
The frameworks proposed are grounded in organisational learning literature and the experience of the author. The proposed agenda for organisational learning has yet to be acted upon and evaluated.
The frameworks can be used to enhance understanding of learning and change in organisations. The agenda for enabling organisational transformation identifies key steps to put the ideas developed in the paper into practice.
The approach advocated for use within organisations is one of empowerment and collaboration rather than top down direction.
The paper introduces new frameworks and a practical agenda to bring about organisational transformation through work-applied learning.
An appeal under the Food and Drugs Acts, reported in the present number of the BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL, is an apt illustration of the old saying, that a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. In commenting upon the case in question, the Pall Mall Gazette says: “The impression among the great unlearned that the watering of the morning's milk is a great joke is ineradicable; and there is also a common opinion among the Justice Shallows of the provincial bench that the grocer who tricks his customers into buying coffee which is 97 per cent. chicory is a clever practitioner, who ought to be allowed to make his way in the world untrammelled by legal obstructions. But the Queen's Bench have rapped the East Ham magistrates over the knuckles for convicting without fining a milkman who was prosecuted by the local authority, and the case has been sent back in order that these easygoing gentlemen may give logical effect to their convictions.”
The 150th anniversary of Thomas Hardy′s birth is briefly noted and a number of recent publications on the author and his work are noted in the context of his corpus of critical material on him.
In 1899 the medical practitioners of Dublin were confronted with an outbreak of a peculiar and obscure illness, characterised by symptoms which were very unusual. For want of a better explanation, the disorder, which seemed to be epidemic, was explained by the simple expedient of finding a name for it. It was labelled as “beri‐beri,” a tropical disease with very much the same clinical and pathological features as those observed at Dublin. Papers were read before certain societies, and then as the cases gradually diminished in number, the subject lost interest and was dropped.
Minicomputers provide an alternative means to access on‐line bibliographic retrieval systems. As the use of on‐line retrieval continues to grow and to spread into the…
Minicomputers provide an alternative means to access on‐line bibliographic retrieval systems. As the use of on‐line retrieval continues to grow and to spread into the nontechnical community, users and potential users will find it imperative to establish new methods to maximize the benefits of available on‐line systems. The paper explores the effects minicomputers can have on the on‐line retrieval environment. The experience at Editec indicates that minicomputers used in on‐line retrieval offer substantial benefits not possible using computer terminals, the major benefit being the increased acceptance of the on‐line search product by the end user community. Variable costs are held down to acceptable limits, the major consideration for those interested in their use being their high capital cost. The primary difference in using minicomputers rather than computer terminals is the ability to work at higher speeds. This enables many changes to be made which can affect the on‐line retrieval product. The decision to use minicomputers for on‐line retrieval entails lengthy analysis of current and projected use of on‐line retrieval within an organization, the availability of qualified staff, the costs of equipment and software development. It is hoped that some of the considerations in the paper may be helpful in analyzing these questions.