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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Margaret B. Takeda and Marilyn M. Helms

An analysis of the way the bureaucratic management system responded to the Tsunami disaster of December 26, 2004 was repeated in handling of the aftermath of Hurricane…

4421

Abstract

Purpose

An analysis of the way the bureaucratic management system responded to the Tsunami disaster of December 26, 2004 was repeated in handling of the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in the USA at the end of 2005. This research note aims to follow up on the original paper “Bureaucracy meet catastrophe: analysis of the Tsunami disaster relief efforts and their implications for global emergency governance”, to be published in early 2006. It again highlights the severe shortcomings of the bureaucratic model as a paradigm for responding to situations in which the magnitude of the system's task is overwhelmingly complex and the timing process is bounded by urgency.

Design/methodology/approach

Evidence of the findings for this research is driven by primary references, namely news reports and web site information provided in the aftermath of the fall 2005 hurricane.

Findings

Like in the Tsunami disaster, the reports from Hurricane Katrina highlight the key problems of bureaucratic management including slow decision making, inability to absorb and process outside information, and escalation of commitment to failed courses of action.

Research limitations/implications

Suggestions for future research are provided.

Practical implications

It is this very requirement (absorbing and processing outside information and escalation of commitment to failed initial courses of action) which may undermine all relief efforts when such a high magnitude event occurs.

Originality/value

The tragic irony of this analysis is that most emergency relief organizations of the proper size and complexity to effectively deal with “shocking” events must work within the bureaucratic systems created by large federal relief organizations (such as FEMA) as the “price” for staying in operation.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Margaret B. Takeda, Marilyn M. Helms, Paul Klintworth and Joanie Sompayrac

Hair colour stereotyping is well documented in countless jokes as well as in the psychological literature. Blondes, for example, are stereotyped as incompetent, but…

2525

Abstract

Hair colour stereotyping is well documented in countless jokes as well as in the psychological literature. Blondes, for example, are stereotyped as incompetent, but likeable. Those with red hair are stereotyped as competent but cold or with a fiery temper. These and other stereotypes may affect job progression, mobility, and the rise to the corporate suite. To test this research question, the hair colour of CEOs of the Fortune 500 was recorded and analysed. The results support the pre conceived hair colour stereotypes. Of this group, only 11 CEOs (2.2%) were blonde while 17 CEOs (3.4%) had red hair. The remainder of the 460 male non‐minority CEOs (92%) had either brown or black hair. Do ste reo types or per cep tions be come reality? Is awareness the first step in correcting the disparity? Is the disparity a problem? Does it point to discrimination in lower organisational ranks? Is this bias warranted? The article discusses the possible implications of these findings. Areas for further research are also included.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Margaret B. Takeda and Marilyn M. Helms

An analysis of the way the bureaucratic management system responded to the tsunami disaster of December 26, 2004 is used as an example to highlight the severe shortcomings…

3331

Abstract

Purpose

An analysis of the way the bureaucratic management system responded to the tsunami disaster of December 26, 2004 is used as an example to highlight the severe shortcomings of the bureaucratic model as a paradigm for responding to situations in which the magnitude of the system's task is overwhelmingly complex and the timing process is bounded by urgency.

Design/methodology/approach

Evidence of the findings for this research is driven by primary references, namely news reports and web site information provided in the aftermath of the disaster.

Findings

These reports from the tsunami disaster highlight the key problems of bureaucracies, including slow decision‐making, inability to absorb and process outside information, and escalation of commitment to failed courses of action.

Research limitations/implications

Suggestions for future research are provided.

Practical implications

It is this very requirement that may undermine all relief efforts when such a high magnitude event occurs.

Originality/value

The tragic irony of this analysis is that most emergency relief organizations of the proper size and complexity to effectively deal with “shocking” events must work within the bureaucratic systems created by large federal relief organizations (such as FEMA) as the “price” for staying in operation.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Richard S. Allen, Marilyn M. Helms, Holly Jones, Margaret B. Takeda and Charles S. White

The Japanese government is promoting a move towards a variety of generic business strategies based on the Porter Prize as a way to regain global competitiveness and end…

6594

Abstract

Purpose

The Japanese government is promoting a move towards a variety of generic business strategies based on the Porter Prize as a way to regain global competitiveness and end their long economic recession. The purpose of this paper is to report on the current state of Japanese business strategies to a practitioner audience based on the authors' previous academic‐oriented research.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 101 Japanese respondents was conducted to determine their relative use of Porter's generic business strategies. Examples of implementation are presented to illustrate use of the critical strategies.

Findings

The Japanese are using two of Porter's generic strategies, namely cost leadership and differentiation and they are using two variations of Porter's focus strategies.

Research limitations/implications

As is typical with all survey research, the convenience sample of organizations used in this survey may not be representative of all Japanese organizations.

Practical implications

Managers, consultants and policy makers will gain insights into the impact national policy can have on corporate strategy. This understanding is important when conducting business in a global environment. More specifically, readers will gain a better understanding of how Japanese firms are presently implementing competitive strategies as a result of a Japanese national strategy to promote the use of Porter's generic strategies.

Originality/value

This article is a practitioner‐oriented translation of an academic research study. The value of the current article is to share findings with the practitioner community and present examples of strategic implementation to managers, consultants and policy makers in a less technical format than a typical academic journal.

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

Margaret B. Takeda and Marilyn M. Helms

After a thorough literature review on multinational learning, it is apparent organizations “learn” when they capitalize on expatriate management, a “learning strategy”…

5997

Abstract

Purpose

After a thorough literature review on multinational learning, it is apparent organizations “learn” when they capitalize on expatriate management, a “learning strategy” (international work teams, employee involvement and other human resource policies), technology transfer and political environment and cross‐cultural adaptation. This suggests learning is possible when control mechanisms are relaxed or reduced, resulting in an ambiguous relationship between multinational learning and control. There has been no research on the relationship between learning and control largely due to this assumption of ambiguity and this paper attempts to overcome this gap by presenting a holistic approach to multinational learning and control. This paper posits that focusing on optimizing learning and control through flexible IHRM policies is a globally sustainable approach to MNE management. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework designed to address two major issues in international management: organizational learning and managerial control.

Design/methodology approach

Multinational organizations are often faced with a perceived ambiguous choice of promoting learning throughout the organization in a way that facilitates local adaptation of corporate knowledge, while maintaining control over subsidiary corporate culture (control). This paper presents a new model designed to facilitate a balanced approach to learning and control in the multinational enterprise.

Findings

The proposed model is one of sustainable management focusing on dynamic IHRM learning and control. The pillars of the proposed model thus include: National Culture, HRM policies and practices and IHRM strategies of the parent MNE; National Culture, locally developed HRM policies and practices, and transferred IHRM policies and practices in the affiliate unit; sharing of learning oriented IHRM policies and/or among MNE affiliates only; and global IHRM control and learning IHRM policies and practices (uniform across MNE units).

Originality/value

While the literature in this realm addresses these issues separately, managers are faced with a delicate balancing act of promoting learning among multinational units while maintaining corporate control over key aspects of the company's core competencies.

Details

The Learning Organization, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-6474

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2010

W. Richard Scott

Most of my work focusing on educational systems – including universities, public elementary schools, private schools, and training programs in organizations – was…

Abstract

Most of my work focusing on educational systems – including universities, public elementary schools, private schools, and training programs in organizations – was supported by Stanford University centers and grants separate from the Training Program, for example, the Stanford Center for Research and Development in Teaching (1968–1977) and the Institute for Research on Educational Finance and Governance (1979–1986). Faculty collaborators in these studies included Elizabeth Cohen and Terrence Deal in the School of Education, and John W. Meyer, my colleague in Sociology. A number of NIMH trainees participated in these studies, including Andrew Creighton, Margaret Davis, and Brian Rowan. Other doctoral students involved in this research included Sally Cole, Joanne Intili, Suzanne E. Monahan, E. Anne Stackhouse, and Marc Ventresca.

Details

Stanford's Organization Theory Renaissance, 1970–2000
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-930-5

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Richard S. Allen, Margaret Takeda and Charles S. White

This study aims to examine the cross‐cultural differences in equity sensitivity between the USA and Japan.

4828

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the cross‐cultural differences in equity sensitivity between the USA and Japan.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 390 Americans and 202 Japanese were surveyed to determine their equity sensitivities and how each group would likely respond to under‐payment scenarios.

Findings

The findings support the notion that the Japanese are in fact more entitled in their equity orientation than Americans. Furthermore, the Japanese were also significantly more likely to respond with overt actions to reduce their feelings of inequity.

Research limitations/implications

Foremost among these limitations is the fact that the situation presented to the subjects was hypothetical rather than real. Since it would be considered unethical to manipulate subjects in real work settings a first person scenario approach was utilized consistent with other equity theory literature. While the scenario was easily identifiable by the student subjects, it is unknown if the findings from this research would apply to adults working in real world organizations.

Practical implications

The results may have important implications for international human resource strategies and practices. Equity sensitivity may affect perceived value of rewards (compensation), promotion (selection), and motivation (performance management) all of which are critical issues in the effective management of human resources. This study illustrates that cross‐cultural differences exist in regard to equity sensitivity and these differences may affect the efficacy of human resource strategies in global organizations.

Originality/value

This paper offers a significant contribution to the literature on equity sensitivity by testing the theory in a cross‐cultural setting.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 20 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Stanford's Organization Theory Renaissance, 1970–2000
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-930-5

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 January 2010

Christopher Gibbins, Margaret D. Weiss, David W. Goodman, Paul S. Hodgkins, Jeanne M. Landgraf and Stephen V. Faraone

This is the first study to evaluate ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. The Quality of Life, Effectiveness, Safety and…

Abstract

This is the first study to evaluate ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. The Quality of Life, Effectiveness, Safety and Tolerability (QuEST) study included 725 adults who received clinician diagnoses of any ADHD sub-type. Cross-sectional baseline data from 691 patients diagnosed with the hyperactive/impulsive (HI), inattentive (IA) and combined sub-types were used to compare the groups on the clinician administered ADHD-RS, clinical features and health-related quality of life. A consistent pattern of differences was found between the ADHD-I and combined subtypes, with the combined subtype being more likely to be diagnosed in childhood, more severe symptom severity and lower HRQL. Twenty-three patients out of the total sample of 691 patients (3%) received a clinician diagnosis of ADHD -hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Review of the ratings on the ADHD-RS-IV demonstrated, however, that this group had ratings of inattention comparable to the inattentive group. There were no significant differences found between the ADHD-HI and the other subtypes in symptom severity, functioning or quality of life. The hyperactive/impulsive subtype group identified by clinicians in this study was not significantly different from the rest of the sample. By contrast, significant differences were found between the inattentive and combined types. This suggests that in adults, hyperactivity declines and inattention remains significant, making the hyperactive/impulsive sub-type as defined by childhood criteria a very rare condition and raising questions as to the validity of the HI subtype in adults.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2009

Jean M. Bartunek is the Robert A. and Evelyn J. Ferris chair and professor of organization studies at Boston College as well as a Fellow (since 1999) and a past president…

Abstract

Jean M. Bartunek is the Robert A. and Evelyn J. Ferris chair and professor of organization studies at Boston College as well as a Fellow (since 1999) and a past president (2001–2002) of the Academy of Management. Her Ph.D. in social and organizational psychology is from the University of Illinois at Chicago. Her substantive research interests focus on organizational change, conflict associated with it, and organizational cognition, and her methodological interests center around ways that external researchers can collaborate with insider members of a setting to study the setting. She is an associate editor of the Journal of Applied Behavioral Science and on the editorial boards of multiple other journals. She has published more than 100 journal articles and book chapters and 5 ([co]authored or co-edited) books.

Details

Research in Organizational Change and Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-547-1

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