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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Amy Yong, Maree Roche and Anna Sutton

Previous studies have demonstrated that an autonomy-supportive supervision style is associated with improved well-being and positive behaviours for supervisees. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous studies have demonstrated that an autonomy-supportive supervision style is associated with improved well-being and positive behaviours for supervisees. However, autonomy-supportive training (AST) has yet to be tailored to suit supervisors in low-skilled occupations for whom traditional pedagogical approaches may be inappropriate. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and preliminary evaluation of AST for these supervisors, using self-determination theory (SDT) and andragogical principles of adult learning.

Design/methodology/approach

SDT and andragogical principles were systematically integrated to develop (a 3 h) AST programme. The training sessions were trialled with 11 first-line supervisors in New Zealand as a preliminary evaluation of AST. The evaluation used open-ended questions following Kirkpatrick’s evaluation model and incorporated the trainer’s reflections.

Findings

Supervisors found AST relevant, easy to understand and suited to their approach to learning. Trainer’s reflections also provided insight into the challenges in conducting such training for supervisors in low-skilled occupations and the article makes suggestions to address these challenges.

Research limitations/implications

AST can be successfully tailored to first-line supervisors, indicating that an autonomy-supportive style of leadership is relevant for those employed in low-skilled occupations. This initial evaluation provides a foundation for future studies to conduct higher-level assessment of AST.

Practical implications

AST can be utilised to provide first-line supervisors with access to improved leadership development opportunities. Challenges of conducting this kind of training programme in a context of low-skilled occupations are addressed and recommendations made for organisations and trainers.

Originality/value

This study is novel as it demonstrates the development of AST, a leadership skills training, tailored to suit the needs of an understudied group, supervisors in low-skilled occupations.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 51 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2018

Steven L. Grover, Stephen T.T. Teo, David Pick, Maree Roche and Cameron J. Newton

The purpose of this paper is to demystify the role of the personal resource of psychological capital (PsyCap) in the job demands-resources model. The theory suggests that…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demystify the role of the personal resource of psychological capital (PsyCap) in the job demands-resources model. The theory suggests that personal resources directly influence perceptions of job demands, job resources, and outcomes. Alternatively, personal resources may moderate the impact of job demands and job resources on outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 401 nurses working in the Australian healthcare sector explores the relations among PsyCap, job demands and resources, and psychological well-being and work engagement.

Findings

The results suggest that PsyCap directly influences perceptions of job demands and resources and that it directly influences the outcomes of well-being and engagement. Furthermore, job demands and job resources mediate the relation of PsyCap with well-being and engagement, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The moderation effect of PsyCap was not supported, which suggests that PsyCap relates to perceptions as opposed to being a coping mechanism. This finding therefore narrows the scope of personal resources in this important model.

Originality/value

The importance of this study lies in its exploration of various ways that personal resources can influence this dominant model and in analyzing the global construct of PsyCap as opposed to some of its constituent parts.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Maree Roche and Jarrod Haar

Increasingly, leaders are faced with complex, difficult and demanding situations that challenge their very sense of self, including their workplace wellbeing. It has been…

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Abstract

Purpose

Increasingly, leaders are faced with complex, difficult and demanding situations that challenge their very sense of self, including their workplace wellbeing. It has been suggested that this challenge can be mitigated for leaders by pursuing goals and activities that reflect their beliefs, interests and values. As such, leaders whose motivations reflect intrinsic and self-congruent beliefs and values are likely to experience beneficial wellbeing, yet, reviewing this from a self-determination theory (SDT) lens, the authors find this assertion remains to be fully tested. Concurrently, the work–family enrichment (WFE) literature highlights that potential positive synergies exist between work and home. The authors further argue that this synergy may also provide greater insight and understanding into the quality of leaders’ motivation and wellbeing, and as such also requires attention. As such, the purpose of this paper is to examine the path to wellbeing for leaders and includes leaders’ “whole lives” (including enrichment) and not just their work lives (motivations).

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative research including two studies of 386 junior/senior leaders and 205 CEOs, investigated the role of motivation as defined by SDT and WFE towards leaders’ job satisfaction. Hypotheses were tested using SEM in AMOS to assess the direct and meditational effects of the study variables.

Findings

A partial mediation model was found to best fit the data for both studies. In study 1, the effects of self-determined motivation dimensions on job satisfaction were fully mediated by WFE and family–work enrichment (FWE). However, the non-self-determined dimensions of SDT motivations were directly and negatively related to job satisfaction and enrichment. In study 2, self-determined forms of motivation were positively related to WFE and FWE and job satisfaction, while only WFE was positively related to job satisfaction. The non-self-determined dimensions of SDT motivations were directly and negatively related to WFE and job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Overall, both studies show that the influence of motivations on job satisfaction of leaders is better understood through enrichment. As such organisations are encouraged to enhance both leader’s motivations, and enrichment, in order to facilitate a path to job satisfaction.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to test over two studies and levels of leadership, motivation and enrichment for leaders. As such this paper provides a novel “path” to wellbeing that includes aspects of the leaders’ motivation, as well as the importance of leaders’ enrichment and home domain. Overall the authors suggest that leaders’ “whole” lives play a role in their job satisfaction, and this is important to understand as the authors try to resource leaders, who work in an increasingly demanding workplace environment.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Dianne Gardner, Maree Roche, Tim Bentley, Helena Cooper-Thomas, Bevan Catley, Stephen Teo and Linda Trenberth

Workplace bullying involves a power imbalance, and despite laws in New Zealand which prohibit discrimination on the grounds of gender, women remain under-represented in…

Abstract

Purpose

Workplace bullying involves a power imbalance, and despite laws in New Zealand which prohibit discrimination on the grounds of gender, women remain under-represented in top-level roles. The aim of the study was to examine whether gender and role (managerial/non-managerial) were related to the bullying experienced by women and men.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey collected data from 991 (41%) men and 1,421 (59%) women. The survey provided a definition of bullying and asked participants whether they had been bullied at work. If they replied yes, then follow-up questions asked for the gender and role of the perpetrator.

Findings

Women were more likely than men to self-identify as having been bullied. Male employers, senior managers, middle managers, supervisor and peers bullied men and women about equally, whereas women bullied women far more than they bullied men. The largest group of bullies of women were female peers, who rarely bullied male peers, while male peers bullied both genders about equally. Female clients bullied female staff but almost never male staff; male clients bullied both men and women but the numbers were small.

Research limitations/implications

These data relied on self-report, and people may be reluctant to identify themselves as targets or may not recognize that the negative behaviours they have been facing amount to bullying. Qualitative data can help explore these issues from societal, organizational and policy perspectives.

Practical implications

While men and women may differ in how often they recognize or admit to having been bullied, the gendered nature of power in the workplace is well established and reinforced in the findings here. It is clear that organizational leaders, both male and female, need to understand gender and power imbalance and act as role models. Currently, the authors’ findings show that the behaviour of at least some of those at the top of New Zealand organizations needs to improve.

Social implications

The problem of bullying at work will not be easy to solve. The solutions lie, not with “fixing” individuals via training, stress management and well-being programmes but with effective systems, procedures, policies and leadership that recognize the power dynamics at work.

Originality/value

Little is known at present about the relationships between gender and bullying behaviour. The paper focusses on who bullies whom in the workplace and finds that men tend to bully both men and women while women tend to bully women. Importantly, the authors’ works suggest that instead of structural and organizational measures to manage bullying, greater initiatives to manage bullying need to consider how gender and power dynamics interact at work.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2019

Timothy Andrew Bentley, Stephen T. Teo, Bevan Catley, Kate Blackwood, Maree Roche and Michael P. O’Driscoll

The engagement and retention of older workers is a major concern for organisations and has been an increasing focus for human resource scholars internationally. Drawing on…

Abstract

Purpose

The engagement and retention of older workers is a major concern for organisations and has been an increasing focus for human resource scholars internationally. Drawing on social exchange theory (SET), the purpose of this paper is to examine the conditions under which retention and engagement of older workers could be enhanced, together with the potential for perceptions of age discrimination to negatively influence these outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The study surveyed a large sample of New Zealand workers aged 55 years and over from across 28 New Zealand organisations of varying size and from a wide range of industrial sectors. A moderated-mediation model was proposed to examine the relationship between perceived organisational support (POS) and intention to leave, the mediating effect of job engagement in this relationship, and the moderating influence of perceived age discrimination on this mediation.

Findings

While POS was negatively related to workers’ intention to quit, job engagement partially mediated this relationship. Age discrimination moderated this mediation. As perceived age discrimination increased, the mediation of job engagement was weakened as POS had less influence on the job engagement of older workers.

Research limitations/implications

Implications for human resource management practice include the importance of providing organisational support for older workers along with protections from age bias and discrimination.

Originality/value

The study is one of the first to apply SET to the context of older workers, and has extended the SET literature through its examination of the role of employee engagement as a mediator of this relationship, and how perceived age discrimination, as a negative aspect of the work environment, can negatively impact these relationships.

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2013

Maree Roche and Jarrod M. Haar

The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of leaders’ life goals on their work related wellbeing. Self‐determination theory (SDT) asserts aspirations (life…

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2965

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of leaders’ life goals on their work related wellbeing. Self‐determination theory (SDT) asserts aspirations (life goals) pursued in terms of personal growth, health, affiliation and community support psychological wellbeing, while aspirations of wealth, image and fame thwart wellbeing. However, little is understood about the influence of life goals towards leaders’ wellbeing at work, specifically job burnout.

Design

The study explores seven dimensions of aspirations on a sample of 386 New Zealand leaders towards emotional exhaustion and cynicism. Data were collected in two waves (1=predictors and 2=outcomes) and structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships between variables.

Findings

The study found that all extrinsic aspirations were significantly and positively correlated with job burnout, while mainly the intrinsic aspirations were significantly and negatively correlated. The structural model showed that wealth and image aspirations were positively related to emotional exhaustion and cynicism, while health aspirations were negatively related. Finally, relationship aspirations were negatively related to cynicism.

Implications

This study shows the importance of life goals and the role they play towards leaders’ job burnout. Leaders focussed on extrinsic aspirations are more likely to burnout at work than those focussed on intrinsic aspirations. Hence, what leaders focus on in terms of overall life objectives matter for their workplace wellbeing.

Originality/value

Findings are significant because, for the first time, relationships between the SDT dimensions associated with (a leader's) life goal orientations and job burnout has been established.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2016

Abstract

Details

The Aging Workforce Handbook
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-448-8

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Camelia Ilie and Guillermo Cardoza

Many studies have analyzed how gender diversity and local culture condition the cognitive styles of managers and affect decision-making processes in organizations. Gender…

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1235

Abstract

Purpose

Many studies have analyzed how gender diversity and local culture condition the cognitive styles of managers and affect decision-making processes in organizations. Gender diversity has been defended from an equality perspective; it has been argued to improve decision-making processes and to have a positive impact on companies’ return on investment. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the differences between the thinking styles of men and women, in Latin America and the USA that support decision-making processes. An argument is given in favor of gender diversity in management teams, because of its positive implications in decision making.

Design/methodology/approach

The measurement instrument used was the Neethling Brain Instrument, developed based on recent neuroscience discovery. The sample comprised 1,216 executives from the USA and several countries in Latin America and the Caribbean, who have participated in executive training programs.

Findings

The results show differences in thinking styles by gender, but no differences were found in thinking styles or decision making between men and women at the same managerial level in either of the two regions. Similarly, results suggest that executives in the USA tend to base their management models on strategic thinking styles that focus on interpersonal relations and involve risk taking, while executives in Latin American countries tend to prefer thinking and management styles focusing on data analysis, execution, planning, and process control.

Originality/value

The results of the present study show that, in all regions, men score higher in rational thinking styles associated with the cortical areas, while women gravitate toward thinking styles where emotional schemes prevail, related to subcortical areas. These results could be useful for organizational leaders in charge of allocating roles and tasks to people, based on their thinking style strengths. The results can also be very valuable for Latin American organizations to design specific training and development programs for men and women accordingly with their individual needs and their managerial roles. They can also support the argument that diverse gender teams will guarantee complete decision-making processes.

Propósito

Diversos estudios han analizado cómo la diversidad de género y las culturas locales condicionan los estilos cognitivos de los gerentes y afectan los procesos de toma de decisiones en las organizaciones. La diversidad de género se ha defendido desde una perspectiva de equidad y se ha argumentado que mejora los procesos de toma de decisiones e impacta positivamente en el retorno a las inversiones de las empresas. En el presente estudio se analizan las diferencias en los estilos de pensamiento entre hombres y mujeres en América Latina y Estados Unidos que sustentan los procesos de toma de decisiones en cada región y se argumenta en favor de la diversidad de género en los equipos gerenciales por sus implicaciones positivas en la toma de decisiones.

Metodología

El instrumento de medición utilizado es el Neethling Brain Instrument (NBI) desarrollado con base en descubrimientos recientes en las neurociencias. La muestra está compuesta de 1216 ejecutivos de Estados Unidos y varios países de América Latina y el Caribe, participantes en programas de formación ejecutiva.

Resultados

Los resultados muestran diferencias en los estilos de pensamientos según el género de los ejecutivos, pero no se encontraron diferencias en los estilos de pensamiento y la toma de decisiones entre hombres y mujeres para los mismos niveles gerenciales en las dos regiones. De igual manera, los resultados sugieren que los ejecutivos de Estados Unidos tienden a basar sus modelos de gestión en estilos de pensamiento estratégicos centrados en las relacionales interpersonales y que involucran toma de riesgos, mientras que los ejecutivos de los países latinoamericanos, suelen preferir los estilos de pensamiento y gestión enfocados en el análisis de datos, la ejecución, la planificación y el control de los procesos.

Impacto

Los resultados del estudio muestran que en todas las regiones los hombres puntúan más alto en los estilos de pensamiento racionales asociados al ámbito cortical y las mujeres en los estilos de pensamiento donde tienden a prevalecer esquemas emocionales asociados a las áreas subcorticales. Estos resultados serían de utilidad para los líderes de las organizaciones responsables de asignar los roles y las tareas a las personas según sus fortalezas en estilos de pensamiento.

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1954

Pierre Defert

L'objet de cet article est de ramener les regards sur le fait touristique et sur les circonstances qui l'entourent. Celles‐ci sont très diverses. Il en est qui intéressent…

Abstract

L'objet de cet article est de ramener les regards sur le fait touristique et sur les circonstances qui l'entourent. Celles‐ci sont très diverses. Il en est qui intéressent l'histoire diplomatique des Etats (telle la tension entre le Gouvernement français et les vallées d'Andorre dans l'été 1953, agissant négativement sur la fréquentation touristique estivale de ce coin des Pyrénées). D'autres sont en relation avec des faits d'actualité politique (la crise de Trieste en novembre 1953 a rempli les hôtels de Viareggio de touristes américains). Une mesure administrative (l'avancement des dates de vacances scolaires en France de 15 jours en 1953) se répercute sur le chiffre d'affaires des hôteliers bretons. Le progrès technique est partout décisif: l'ouverture d'une route pour aller, en Suisse, de Viège à Saas‐Fee change radicalement l'équation touristique de cette station. Quelque fois le tourisme repousse le tourisme: la création de services touristes aériens entre Paris et la Scandinavie porte tort aux services de première classe et conduit la compagnie aérienne à les rétablir (octobre 1953).

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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