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The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical simulation of the hydrogen atomic effect on the steels fracture toughness, as well as on crack propagation using…
The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical simulation of the hydrogen atomic effect on the steels fracture toughness, as well as on crack propagation using fracture mechanics and continuous damage mechanics models.
The simulation was performed in an idealized elastic specimen with an edge crack loaded in the tensile opening mode, in a plane strain state. In order to simulate the effect of hydrogen in the steel, the stress intensity factor ahead of the crack tip in the hydrogenated material was obtained. The damage model was applied to simulate the growth and crack propagation being considered only two damage components: a mechanical damage produced by a static load and a non‐mechanical damage produced by the hydrogen.
The simulation results showed that the changes in the stress field at the crack tip and the reduction in the time of growth and crack propagation due to hydrogen effect occur. These results showed a good correlation and consistency with macroscopic observations, providing a better understanding of the hydrogen embrittlement phenomenon in steels.
The paper attempts to link the concepts of the continuous damage and fracture mechanics to achieve a better approach in the representation of the physical phenomenon studied, in order to obtain a more accurate simulation of the processes involved.
Cangaço was a form of banditry that occurred in the North-East of Brazil between 1870 and 1940. The movement has inspired many films over the years. This chapter explores…
Cangaço was a form of banditry that occurred in the North-East of Brazil between 1870 and 1940. The movement has inspired many films over the years. This chapter explores the contribution of Cangaço-inspired productions to Brazilian cinema, as well as the particular characteristics of what constitutes the Cangaço genre.
Following a historical survey of the Cangaço, the films were divided into different categories and ranked in terms of relevance. Only the most important are discussed in this chapter.
The Cangaço has been portrayed in Brazilian cinema through the decades in diverse ways, dating back to the 1920s. After becoming a consolidated film genre in the 1950s, then known as Nordestern, the Cangaço finally acquired a proper structure, featuring multiple Western references among its common characteristics. In the 1960s, Glauber Rocha, one of the most prominent filmmakers of the Cinema Novo avant-garde movement, added his own symbolism to the genre. Eventually, the Cangaço was also revisited by directors who combined it with other genres such as comedy, documentary, and erotic films. Another relevant reinterpretation came in the 1990s, when filmmakers of the so-called New Brazilian Cinema offered a new view on the subject.
Despite its strong association with Brazil, the Cangaço has not been thoroughly investigated by researchers. This chapter presents a historical survey and analysis of Cangaço films, highlighting their relevance to Brazilian cinema.