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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1999

Luiz Gonzaga Godoi Trigo

The international tourism options have been enriched due to several factors: new transport technology, more flexible legislation, the globalization process, and political…

Abstract

The international tourism options have been enriched due to several factors: new transport technology, more flexible legislation, the globalization process, and political openness regarding some areas dominated by dictatorship regimes. Antarctica is one of the new possibilities for adventure and ecological travel. It is the wildest, most well‐preserved and most isolated continent on the planet. About 10,000 tourists can appreciate its dazzling landscapes each austral summer and tourism operations have increased considerably in the region during the 1990s. This article presents a history of travel to Antarctica, an analysis of the tour operators and of the Antarctic Treaty on tourism, and reports an experience on board one of the cruise ships in the Antarctica Peninsula.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 54 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Shailja Agnihotri and K.R. Ramkumar

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into various swarm intelligence-based routing protocols for Internet of Things (IoT), which are currently available for the…

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426

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into various swarm intelligence-based routing protocols for Internet of Things (IoT), which are currently available for the Mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANETs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs). There are several issues which are limiting the growth of IoT. These include privacy, security, reliability, link failures, routing, heterogeneity, etc. The routing issues of MANETs and WSNs impose almost the same requirements for IoT routing mechanism. The recent work of worldwide researchers is focused on this area.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides the literature review for various standard routing protocols. The different comparative analysis of the routing protocols is done. The paper surveys various routing protocols available for the seamless connectivity of things in IoT. Various features, advantages and challenges of the said protocols are discussed. The protocols are based on the principles of swarm intelligence. Swarm intelligence is applied to achieve optimality and efficiency in solving the complex, multi-hop and dynamic requirements of the wireless networks. The application of the ant colony optimization technique tries to provide answers to many routing issues.

Findings

Using the swarm intelligence and ant colony optimization principles, it has been seen that the protocols’ efficiency definitely increases and also provides more scope for the development of more robust, reliable and efficient routing protocols for the IoT.

Research limitations/implications

The existing protocols do not solve all reliability issues and efficient routing is still not achieved completely. As of now no techniques or protocols are efficient enough to cover all the issues and provide the solution. There is a need to develop new protocols for the communication which will cater to all these needs. Efficient and scalable routing protocols adaptable to different scenarios and network size variation capable to find optimal routes are required.

Practical implications

The various routing protocols are discussed and there is also an introduction to new parameters which can strengthen the protocols. This can lead to encouragement of readers, as well as researchers, to analyze and develop new routing algorithms.

Social implications

The paper provides better understanding of the various routing protocols and provides better comparative analysis for the use of swarm-based research methodology in the development of routing algorithms exclusively for the IoT.

Originality/value

This is a review paper which discusses the various routing protocols available for MANETs and WSNs and provides the groundwork for the development of new intelligent routing protocols for IoT.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2017

Gene Callahan and Andreas Hoffmann

In this chapter, we explore whether various true, endogenous social cycle theories share common patterns and characteristics.We examine a number of prominent social…

Abstract

In this chapter, we explore whether various true, endogenous social cycle theories share common patterns and characteristics.

We examine a number of prominent social theories describing cyclical patterns, and attempt to abstract an ideal type common to all of them, based on the idea of two populations disrupting each other and adjusting to the other’s disruptions.

At the core of such theories we typically find a variation of a two-population model. In these theories, cycles emerge when one of the populations seems to disrupt the other population’s plans, leading to recurring adjustments and disruptions that constitute the cycle.

Finding such commonalities in the world of theories can be useful for several reasons. For one thing, noticing that two theories share certain traits may help us understand each of them better. Furthermore, we show that agent-based modelers using modern object-oriented programming techniques can benefit from finding common patterns in theories.

Details

Including a Symposium on New Directions in Sraffa Scholarship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-539-9

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2010

Antonio Díaz Andrade and Cathy Urquhart

This paper seeks to use actor network theory (ANT) to examine the different phases – i.e. translation process – of an information and communication technology (ICT…

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3890

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to use actor network theory (ANT) to examine the different phases – i.e. translation process – of an information and communication technology (ICT) initiative intended to bring development to underserved rural communities in the Peruvian Andes by providing access to computers and the internet.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a holistic‐multiple case study based on cross‐sectional data collected between July and November 2005 by means of in‐depth interviews, field notes and photographs gathered in eight rural communities in Peru, plus demographic data and background reports obtained from the sponsor of an ICT for development (ICT4D) project. The collected data are analysed through the lens of ANT.

Findings

The ANT analysis dissects the history of the translations of the ICT4D project. ANT analytic dimensions of convergence and devices afford a great deal of insight into the underlying anatomy of the project and its assumptions. The study shows that when actors' interests are not aligned and the network procedures defined by the ICT4D initiative sponsors are unfamiliar to local people, the network cannot be established.

Practical implications

Since ICT4D projects invariably superimpose technological networks over existing networks, ANT analytic dimensions do provide some unique and useful understandings for such projects. ANT overall affords visibility of the actions of both humans and non‐humans, and their disparate goals. The focus on the alignment of disparate goals is particularly important in ICT4D research, where the recipients need to be engaged in a different way. Often in ICT4D projects, participants are using ICT for the first time, and there is no compulsion for them to do so. So the process of translation is very important in an ICT4D context; while there are many ways to engage participants, ANT gives particular insight into how that process might play out.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates the usefulness of ANT's concepts for analysing a rural telecentre project and itemises how the use of each ANT analytical concept might contribute to ICT4D research.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2020

Brian Leavy

This interview introduces the concept of the “AI first company”, a new breed of organization that is transforming the economy and defining the emergence of a new age.

Abstract

Purpose

This interview introduces the concept of the “AI first company”, a new breed of organization that is transforming the economy and defining the emergence of a new age.

Design/methodology/approach

An interview with Harvard digital strategy experts, Marco Iansiti and Karim Lakhani, about their new book, Competing in the Age of AI: Strategy and Leadership When Algorithms and Networks Run the World. Marco Iansiti is the David Sarnoff Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School (HBS) and heads the school’s Technology and Operations Management Unit and the Digital Initiative. Karim R. Lakhani is the Charles E. Wilson Professor of Business Administration at HBS, and the founder and co-director of the Laboratory for Innovation Science and co-founder of the Digital Initiative at Harvard. 10; 10;The authors were interviewed by Brian Leavy, emeritus professor of strategy at Dublin City University Business School and a Strategy & Leadership contributing editor.

Findings

Digital transformation is not about creating a digital function or spinning off a digital unit, it’s about fundamentally restructuring the core of the firm by building a data-centric operating architecture supported by an agile organization that enables on-going change.

Practical implications

Essentially, we are moving away from an era of core competencies that differ from industry to industry to an age shaped by data and analytics and powered by algorithms. The concept of network is superceding the concept of industry in defining strategic options for firms.

Originality/value

The emergence of the “Age of AI” has possibly created the greatest entrepreneurial opportunity in the history of civilization and the world is literally jammed with entrepreneurial activity. Marco Iansiti and Karim Lakhani suggest ways to maximize that opportunity.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Cinthia Beccacece Satornino, Demetra Andrews, Rebeca Perren and Michael K. Brady

Previous research studies assume that influential consumers (“influentials”), who play a powerful role in the marketplace, are persuasive (or not) based on innate, static…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous research studies assume that influential consumers (“influentials”), who play a powerful role in the marketplace, are persuasive (or not) based on innate, static personality traits. By contrast, this paper proposes an emergence-based view of influentials. Grounded in dynamic self-concept theory, this research establishes that individuals possess an “influential” self-concept that can be activated by firm-originated communications. Specifically, the authors examine the impact of firm feedback on the three dimensions of influentials (and the corresponding traits and behaviors): who they are (propensity to connect with others), who they know (WOM) and what they know (expert power).

Design/methodology/approach

The study tests whether an influential self can be evoked by marketers using a longitudinal experimental test with data collected in three periods. The data are analyzed using a multi-mediation model and partial least squares structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results reveal that even after controlling for the extroversion trait, firm-originated positive feedback increases perceived expert power of participants, which increases word-of-mouth behavior in a subsequent period, both directly and indirectly via an enhanced propensity to connect with others.

Research limitations/implications

Cultivating the influential self-concept requires time to ensure that the self-concept is sufficiently realized to become an enduring self-concept.

Practical implications

By cultivating influentials, practitioners are able to leverage diffusion mechanics and reduce costs and inefficiencies associated with traditional customer relationship management marketing strategies focused on finding them.

Social implications

These findings have implications across all domains that rely on the diffusion and adoption of ideas or products via influentials, including but not limited to public policy, politics, public health and sustainability, in that influentials can be evoked and leveraged to diffuse ideas in these important social domains.

Originality/value

This paper provides empirical evidence that firms can evoke influential consumer behavior challenging existing views of influence as a static personality trait. It casts a line to connect influential consumers to the nascent study of social emergence.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2010

Jhojan Enrique Rojas, Othmane Bendaou, Abdelkhalak El Hami and Domingos Rade

The purpose of this paper is to present a deterministic, stochastic and reliability analysis through numerical simulations in 2D and 3D dynamic fluid‐structure interaction…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a deterministic, stochastic and reliability analysis through numerical simulations in 2D and 3D dynamic fluid‐structure interaction problems.

Design/methodology/approach

The perturbation methods allied to reliability analysis are applied to fluid‐structure finite element models. Reliability analysis couples finite element analysis with first and second order reliability methods and ant colony optimization in a modified first order reliability method.

Findings

Results obtained show the potentialities of the proposed methodology and encourage improvement of this procedure for use in complex coupled fluid‐structure systems.

Originality/value

The understanding of the mechanical interaction between a fluid and an elastic solid has a capital importance in several industrial applications. In order to couple the behaviour of two different media, deterministic models have been proposed. However, stochastic analysis has been developed to deal with the statistical nature of fluid‐structure interaction parameters. Moreover, probabilistic‐based reliability analysis intends to find safe and cost‐effective projects.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Giacomo Manetti, Marco Bellucci and Stefania Oliva

This article aims to contribute to the critical accounting literature by reviewing how previous studies have addressed the topic of dialogic accounting (DA), examining the…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to contribute to the critical accounting literature by reviewing how previous studies have addressed the topic of dialogic accounting (DA), examining the main themes investigated and discussing potential further developments of the DA research agenda.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study builds on a systematic literature review of 186 research products indexed on Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar that were published between 2004 and 2019 in 55 accounting or non-accounting scientific journals and 14 books.

Findings

First, a content analysis of each contribution informs a classification in terms of research design, methodology, geographical setting and sector of analysis. Second, a bibliometric analysis provides several visual representations of the network of research products included in our review using bibliographic coupling, cooccurrence and coauthorship analyses. Third, and most importantly, the main narrative review discusses the development of the research strand on DA from the seminal works that introduced the topic, through the core of critical contributions inspired by the struggle between democracy and agonism, to the most recent contributions, in which new topics emerge and innovative methodologies are applied to the study of DA.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this manuscript is twofold. In addition to providing a systematic, bibliometric and narrative review of the evolution of nearly two decades of literature on DA, the present study is intended to collect ideas for further research and to discuss how the advent of new technologies and the peculiarities of various institutional contexts can shape the future research agenda on this critical form of accounting.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 34 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2019

Fareeha Rasheed and Abdul Wahid

The purpose of this paper is to identify the different sequence generation techniques for learning, which are applied to a broad category of personalized learning…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the different sequence generation techniques for learning, which are applied to a broad category of personalized learning experiences. The papers have been classified using different attributes, such as the techniques used for sequence generation, attributes used for sequence generation; whether the learner is profiled automatically or manually; and whether the path generated is dynamic or static.

Design/methodology/approach

The search for terms learning sequence generation and E-learning produced thousands of results. The results were filtered, and a few questions were answered before including them in the review. Papers published only after 2005 were included in the review.

Findings

The findings of the paper were: most of the systems generated non-adaptive paths. Systems asked the learners to manually enter their attributes. The systems used one or a maximum of two learner attributes for path generation.

Originality/value

The review pointed out the importance and benefits of learning sequence generation systems. The problems in existing systems and future areas of research were identified which will help future researchers to pursue research in this area.

Details

The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4880

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

Jialiang Huang and Liyun Zhou

Recently, both practitioners and researchers are beginning to recognize the great potential of social gamification in green information technology (IT) services. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Recently, both practitioners and researchers are beginning to recognize the great potential of social gamification in green information technology (IT) services. This study focuses on the roles of three social gamification affordances (interactivity, cooperation and competition) in gamified green IT services use, from the perspectives of recognition and social overload.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey is conducted to examine the research model using structural equation modeling with users of Ant Forest, which is an example of green IT services in China.

Findings

Results indicate that interactivity, cooperation and competition can positively affect recognition, which further positively affects green IT services use; however, interactivity and cooperation can increase social overload, which negatively affects green IT services use.

Originality/value

This study provides new insights into the effects of social gamification affordances in green IT services by investigating the effects of interactivity, cooperation and competition on recognition and social overload. In addition, this study highlights the positive effect of recognition and negative effect of social overload on gamified green IT services use, extending the literature reviews surrounding gamified services use.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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