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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Camila Fernandes Higa, Thatyanne Gradowski, Selene Elifio-Esposito, Marcelo Fernandes de Oliveira, Paulo Inforçatti, Jorge Vicente Lopes da Silva, Fred Lacerda Amorim and Michelle Sostag Meruvia

This study aims to investigate the production of scaffolds by selective laser sintering (SLS) using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer, for in vitro studies, a relatively…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the production of scaffolds by selective laser sintering (SLS) using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer, for in vitro studies, a relatively new and growing area in which scaffolds could be used in the design of three-dimensional models for in vitro disease model or tissue equivalent for safety and effectiveness tests.

Design/methodology/approach

The influence of the SLS process parameters laser power, 26 W and 32 W, and number of laser scans, 1, 2, 4 and 6, on the surface microstructure of the samples and on the degree of crystallinity and chemical stability of PVA material, was investigated using powder with particle size of 20-320 µm. Laser sintered PVA samples were subjected to cell culture tests using osteoblastic cells derived from human osteosarcoma (SaOs-2).

Findings

The laser power has no significant influence on the microstructure of the laser-sintered samples, however the number of scans has a considerable influence on the sintering degree; the SLS process causes a decrease in the degree of crystallinity and changes the chemical structure of the as-received PVA, especially when using higher laser power and more number of scans. Preliminary in vitro cell culture tests show that the laser-sintered PVA material is biocompatible with SaOs-2 cells.

Originality/value

SLS offers good potential for the fabrication of scaffolds and thus, may be applied as an alternative to conventional scaffold fabrication processes to overcome their limitations.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 19 May 2021

Marcelo Fernandes Pacheco Dias and Juliany Souza Braga

Literature on eco-innovation brings insights that help to understand which factors trigger innovation focused on sustainability in companies. However, when analyzing the…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature on eco-innovation brings insights that help to understand which factors trigger innovation focused on sustainability in companies. However, when analyzing the studies that comprise such drivers, it appears that most of them were focused only on describing them in isolation. Therefore, this study aims to understand which are the combinations of drivers that favor the adoption of eco-innovation in slaughterhouses located in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.

Design/methodology/approach

This study has used the crisp-set qualitative comparative analysis (csQCA) as the data analysis technique, in addition to the previous application of Most Similar Different Outcome/Most Different Same Outcome (MSDO/MDSO).

Findings

This study identified eight internal and external drivers that explain the differences in performance of eco-innovative and non-innovative slaughterhouses. These drivers generate 13 combinations of factors capable of favoring the adoption of five types of eco-innovation.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation identified was the difficulty to obtain information held by companies on environmental issues. In addition, in each company the authors only approached one respondent.

Practical implications

The use of combinations is identified by companies and governmental and non-governmental organizations to promote eco-innovation in slaughterhouses.

Originality/value

This study may be considered original for its contribution to the improvement of eco-innovation literature by describing how the drivers identified combine to favor the adoption of certain types of eco-innovation. In addition, the authors also made an original use of csQCA, linked with MSDO/MDSO, in the field of eco-innovation.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Jiju Antony, Olivia McDermott, Michael Sony, Marcelo Machado Fernandes and Renan Vilella Cardoso Ribeiro

The main purpose of this study is to revisit Dr. Ishikawa's statement: “95% of problems in processes can be accomplished using the seven quality control (QC) tools” from…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is to revisit Dr. Ishikawa's statement: “95% of problems in processes can be accomplished using the seven quality control (QC) tools” from his book “What is Quality Control?”. The authors are interested in critically investigating if this statement is still valid nowadays. It involves the analysis of the usage of the seven QC tools in the manufacturing and service sectors and the benefits, challenges and critical success factors (CSFs) for the application of the seven QC tools.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to evaluate Kaoru Ishikawa's statement and how valid his statement is for manufacturing and service industries nowadays, an online survey instrument was developed, and data collection was performed utilising a stratified random sampling strategy. The main strata/clusters were formed by senior quality professionals working in operational excellence, quality consultants, quality directors, quality engineers, quality managers and quality supervisors working in both manufacturing and service sectors from South American companies. A total of 97 participants from different countries in South America responded to the survey.

Findings

The main finding of this study is that only about 20% of respondents felt that the original seven basic tools of QC can solve above 80% of quality related problems in their businesses. This is quite different from the findings reported by Dr Ishikawa in his work in between 1970 and 1980s. Another relevant finding presented in this paper is that Pareto analysis, histograms and cause and effect analysis are the most used tools in both manufacturing and service sectors. This paper also revealed that the seven QC tools proposed by Dr. Ishikawa were least used by human resources (HR), information technology (IT) and finance functions. This work presents a list of critical success factors required for the proper application of the seven QC tools.

Research limitations/implications

All data collected in the pilot survey came from professionals working for South American companies. So, this paper does present limitations in terms of generalisation of the results. Also, data were collected at an individual level, so parameters such as the inter reliability of judgements on a particular survey item could not be evaluated. It is important to highlight that n = 97 is a low sample size, enough for a preliminary survey but reinforcing the limitation in terms of generalisation of the results.

Originality/value

Authors understand that this is the very first research focused on challenging Dr. Ishikawa's statement: “95% of problems in processes can be accomplished using the seven quality control (QC) tools” from his book “What is Quality Control?”. The results of this study represent an important first step towards a full understanding of the applicability of these tools in manufacturing and service industries in a global scale.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2020

Jiju Antony, Elisabeth Viles, Alexandre Fonseca Torres, Marcelo Machado Fernandes and Elizabeth A. Cudney

The purpose of this study is to critically evaluate the current status of Design of experiments (DoE) in the service industry or non-manufacturing processes in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to critically evaluate the current status of Design of experiments (DoE) in the service industry or non-manufacturing processes in the manufacturing sector. This involves the identification of critical success factors and challenges in the use of DoE in the context of the service industry as well as the key skills needed for its successful applications.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to identify the critical success factors and challenges, an online survey instrument was developed and distributed across Six Sigma Black Belts (SSBB), Six Sigma Master Black Belts (SSMBB), process improvement champions, continuous improvement professionals, DoE experts and specialists as well as academics who are involved in DoE research and applications.

Findings

A total of 109 participants from over 20 countries responded to the study. One of the first findings of the study is that over 40% of the process improvement professionals in the service sector do not have any hands-on experience with the application of DoE. Further, this study highlights the following critical factors for successful DoE applications: dedicating adequate resources in terms of time, budget and people for the experiment; getting a clear understanding of the problem at hand; securing a reliable and validated measurement system for measuring the response or quality characteristics of interest; and identifying input independent variables, which influence the quality characteristics during the brainstorming stage. Some respondents also mention the importance of having training or education in DoE as a critical success factor. At the same time, the lack of adequate planning to experimentation, mathematical knowledge and statistical reasoning remains as challenge to be solved.

Research limitations/implications

As data were collected at an individual level, inter-reliability, which measures the consistency of judgements on a particular survey item, could not be gauged. Moreover, due to low sample size across some continents, an intercontinental comparative study on the extent of the application of DoE across various continents could not be performed.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first global survey carried out to understand the status of DoE in the service industry. The results of the global study can be used to encourage quality, continuous improvement and process improvement professionals in the service sector to drive wider acceptance of one of the most powerful tools in the Six Sigma toolkit for problem-solving scenarios. Moreover, senior managers in the service industry can take away some of the key benefits, challenges and success factors in the implementation of DoE.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2020

Jiju Antony, Elisabeth Viles, Alexandre Fonseca Torres, Taynara Incerti de Paula, Marcelo Machado Fernandes and Elizabeth A. Cudney

The purpose of the article is to present the results of a critical literature review (CLR) on Design of experiments (DoE) in the service industry.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the article is to present the results of a critical literature review (CLR) on Design of experiments (DoE) in the service industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A critical review of existing literature review across various databases including Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Emerald Insight were searched for the identification of relevant papers. The authors searched relevant journal articles for a time period of 25 years (1994–2019).

Findings

A total of 29 industry case studies of DoE applications were identified spanning healthcare, retail, logistics, education, marketing, after sales and catering business. The industrial experimentation strategies adopted by the case study organisations were screening, factorial designs, Taguchi, response surface method and split-plot. It was apparent that there are only a handful number of papers showing the applications of DoE across the service sector and this motivates for pursuing further research into this topic by the authors.

Practical implications

The findings of the study can be very useful for middle and senior managers to understand the benefits of implementing this powerful technique for increased understanding of service processes, as well as for optimising service performance. Moreover, the paper presents some of the fundamental challenges, as well as skills needed for the successful application of DoE.

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first CLR on DoE and its applications in the service sector. The findings of the study can be beneficial to both academic and industrial communities to understand some of the challenges and fundamental gaps which need to be tackled in the future.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2019

Jiju Antony, Fabiane Letícia Lizarelli, Marcelo Machado Fernandes, Mary Dempsey, Attracta Brennan and Julie McFarlane

Process improvement initiatives, such as Lean, Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma, typically have common characteristics that are carried through projects. Whilst a project’s…

Abstract

Purpose

Process improvement initiatives, such as Lean, Six Sigma and Lean Six Sigma, typically have common characteristics that are carried through projects. Whilst a project’s performance is an important determinant of the successful implementation of continuous improvement (CI) initiatives, its failure can undermine the impact of any CI initiative on business performance. As a result, an understanding of the reasons of process improvement project failures is crucial. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a pilot survey highlighting the most common reasons for process improvement project failures.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a pilot survey of 42 Brazilian manufacturing specialists who have been involved in process improvement projects. The participants of this survey were Six Sigma Master Black Belts, Black Belts, Green Belts and Six Sigma champions from manufacturing companies in Brazil. The survey questionnaire was piloted with five experts in the field in order to ensure that the questions were valid and technically sound.

Findings

The execution of Six Sigma projects in organizations results in a moderate rate of project failures. These failures can cost organizations several millions of dollars especially within the context of larger organizations. The main reasons for project failure, as cited by the specialists include: resistance to change, lack of commitment and support from top management and incompetent teams.

Research limitations/implications

The authors report the findings from a pilot survey having a limited sample size. Moreover, the data have been collected from one country and primarily from large manufacturing companies.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first empirical study looking into the reasons for process improvement project failures. The authors argue that if the top reasons for such failures are understood, a framework can be developed in the future that can mitigate the chance of project failures during project execution. This could potentially lead to significant savings to the bottom-line of many organizations.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 36 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Grazielle de Oliveira Setti, Marcelo Fernandes de Oliveira, Izaque Alves Maia, Jorge Vicente Lopes da Silva, Raluca Savu and Ednan Joanni

The purpose of this paper is to compare the results from mechanical testing with measurements of surface-dependent properties performed on polyamide parts made by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the results from mechanical testing with measurements of surface-dependent properties performed on polyamide parts made by selective laser sintering (SLS) to assess a possible correlation between them.

Design/methodology/approach

Fabrication of Nylon 12 (Duraform PA®) samples using different laser power levels and their characterization by tensile testing, roughness and Raman scattering measurements.

Findings

Among the surface methods investigated, the results from Raman spectroscopy are the best ones, but methods dependent on surface analysis are not really suitable as indicators of the mechanical properties. The correlation coefficients for linear fitting obtained when the normalized results of mechanical properties are plotted against the surface properties are too low. Furthermore, the ambiguity between surface and mechanical data makes it impossible to use these surface properties for prediction purposes in the industrial environment.

Originality/value

Quantitative evaluation and correlation between mechanical properties and surface properties of SLS-made samples.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2014

Grazielle de Oliveira Setti, Jorge Vicente Lopes da Silva, Marcelo Fernandes de Oliveira, Izaque Alves Maia, Dosil Pereira de Jesus, Raluca Savu, Thebano Emilio de Almeida Santos, Rita de Cássia Zacardi de Souza and Ednan Joanni

The purpose of this paper is to characterize polyamide parts prepared by the SLS process using techniques that are dependent on surface properties and compare the results…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to characterize polyamide parts prepared by the SLS process using techniques that are dependent on surface properties and compare the results to density measurements in order to assess which technique better reflects the degree of densification achieved using different laser power levels.

Design/methodology/approach

Fabrication of Nylon 12 (Duraform PA) samples and their characterization by apparent density measurements, perfilometry, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, specific surface area and contact angle measurements.

Findings

Methods dependent on surface analysis are not suitable indicators of the degree of sample densification. Among the surface methods, the results from Raman spectroscopy are the ones with the best performance. Incipient sintering of the superficial layers and raw material powder on the surface, inherent to the parts made by the SLS process, strongly interfere with the characterization.

Originality/value

Quantitative comparison of a number of surface probing methods for monitoring densification of SLS parts. Characterization of sample surfaces with and without raw material powder.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Grazielle de Oliveira Setti, Marcelo Fernandes de Oliveira, Izaque Alves Maia, Jorge Vicente Lopes da Silva and Ednan Joanni

This paper aims to demonstrate the functionalization of polyamide parts made by selective laser sintering (SLS) for application as substrates for chemical analysis by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to demonstrate the functionalization of polyamide parts made by selective laser sintering (SLS) for application as substrates for chemical analysis by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS).

Design/methodology/approach

Fabrication of Nylon 12 (Duraform PA®) samples using two laser power levels and deposition of a layer of gold-coated zinc oxide nanostructures. Performance of these substrates in the detection of a known compound was tested by Raman spectroscopy.

Findings

The hydrothermal synthesis proved to be a good method for functionalizing the surface of polyamide parts made by the SLS process. By varying the synthesis temperature, ZnO nanoparticles and nanorods attached to the sample surfaces could be obtained. The degree of sample sintering had an effect on the growth of the nanostructures. The gold-coated functionalized surfaces enhanced the Raman signal from crystal violet by more than three orders of magnitude. ZnO nanorods grown on well-sintered SLS parts showed the best performance from the set of samples tested in this work.

Originality/value

ZnO nanostructures were grown directly on untreated surfaces of SLS-made polyamide. These substrates were used for chemical analysis by SERS.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2012

Eugenio Avila Pedrozo, Marcelo Fernandes Pacheco Dias and Mônica C.S. de Abreu

Purpose – Agribusiness is crucial for the Brazilian trade balance surplus. Innovation, not only that focused on technology or productivity, is a basic condition for its…

Abstract

Purpose – Agribusiness is crucial for the Brazilian trade balance surplus. Innovation, not only that focused on technology or productivity, is a basic condition for its development. The context of the agribusiness activities in a developing country is dynamic and requires a multilevel and multifaceted view. This suggests that these features need to be incorporated both in the theories and methods. Therefore, we propose a method, from within the perspective of Configurations Theory, of capturing this dynamic multidimensionality. The method was applied in the context of the rice-farming business in Southern Brazil.

Methodology/approach – The proposed method, which we refer to as a Case Study Method with Multiple Units of Analysis and Mixed Methods, was applied in a research organization in an attempt to identify the evolution of innovation while considering a theoretical perspective based on multilevel rules.

Findings – Six different configurations in the temporal organization of research were identified. These six configurations describe the evolution of four emphases given to innovation, the drivers associated with the evolution of these emphases, and the changes that have occurred over time.

Social implications – The results may provide support for new public policies for rice farming and lead to improvements in the organization's strategies for innovation.

Originality/value of chapter – The combination of methods used (Case Study, Qualitative Comparative Analysis, Social Network Analysis, Path Dependence, and Patterns of Decision Making) to study configurations, together with the dynamic approach to innovation based on multilevel rule, is unique.

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