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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Adam Hehr, Paul J. Wolcott and Marcelo J. Dapino

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a fabrication technology based on ultrasonic metal welding. As a solid-state process, temperatures during UAM fabrication reach…

Abstract

Purpose

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a fabrication technology based on ultrasonic metal welding. As a solid-state process, temperatures during UAM fabrication reach a fraction of the melting temperatures of the participating metals. UAM parts can become mechanically compliant during fabrication, which negatively influences the ability of the welder to produce consistent welds. This study aims to evaluate the effect of weld power on weld quality throughout a UAM build, and develop a new power-compensation approach to achieve homogeneous weld quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes mechanical push-pin testing as a metric of delamination resistance, as well as focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy to analyze the interface microstructure of UAM parts.

Findings

Weld power was found to negatively affect mechanical properties and microstructure. By keeping weld power constant, the delamination energy of UAM coupons was increased 22 per cent along with a consistent grain structure. As a result, to ensure constant properties throughout UAM component construction, maintaining weld power is preferable over the conventional strategy based on amplitude control.

Research limitations/implications

Further characterization could be conducted to evaluate the power control strategy on other material combinations, though this study strongly suggests that the proposed approach should work regardless of the metals being welded.

Practical implications

The proposed power control strategy can be implemented by monitoring and controlling the electrical power supplied to the welder. As such, no additional hardware is required, making the approach both useful and straightforward to implement.

Originality/value

This research paper is the first to recognize and address the negative effect of build compliance on weld power input in UAM. This is also the first paper to correlate measured weld power with the microstructure and mechanical properties of UAM parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2021

Gowtham Venkatraman, Adam Hehr, Leon M. Headings and Marcelo J. Dapino

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state joining technology used for three-dimensional printing of metal foilstock. The electrical power input to the…

Abstract

Purpose

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state joining technology used for three-dimensional printing of metal foilstock. The electrical power input to the ultrasonic welder is a key driver of part quality in UAM, but under the same process parameters, it can vary widely for different build geometries and material combinations because of mechanical compliance in the system. This study aims to model the relationship between UAM weld power and system compliance considering the workpiece (geometry and materials) and the fixture on which the build is fabricated.

Design/methodology/approach

Linear elastic finite element modeling and experimental modal analysis are used to characterize the system’s mechanical compliance, and linear system dynamics theory is used to understand the relationship between weld power and compliance. In-situ measurements of the weld power are presented for various build stiffnesses to compare model predictions with experiments.

Findings

Weld power in UAM is found to be largely determined by the mechanical compliance of the build and insensitive to foil material strength.

Originality/value

This is the first research paper to develop a predictive model relating UAM weld power and the mechanical compliance of the build over a range of foil combinations. This model is used to develop a tool to determine the process settings required to achieve a consistent weld power in builds with different stiffnesses.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2011

David Schick, Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, Daniel R. Foster, Marcelo Dapino, Matt Short and John C. Lippold

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a rapid prototyping process through which multiple thin layers of material are sequentially ultrasonically welded together to…

Abstract

Purpose

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a rapid prototyping process through which multiple thin layers of material are sequentially ultrasonically welded together to form a finished part. While previous research into the peak temperatures experienced during UAM have been documented, a thorough examination of the heating and cooling curves has not been conducted to date.

Design/methodology/approach

For this study, UAM weldments made from aluminum 3003‐H18 tapes with embedded Type‐K thermocouples were examined. Finite element modeling was used to compare the theoretical thermal diffusion rates during heating to the observed heating patterns. A model was used to calculate the effective thermal diffusivity of the UAM build on cooling based on the observed cooling curves and curve fitting analysis.

Findings

Embedded thermocouple data revealed simultaneous temperature increases throughout all interfaces of the UAM build directly beneath the sonotrode. Modeling of the heating curves revealed a delay of at least 0.5 seconds should have existed if heating of lower interfaces was a result of thermal diffusion alone. As this is not the case, it was concluded that ultrasonic energy is absorbed and converted to heat at every interface beneath the sonotrode. The calculated thermal diffusivity of the build on cooling was less than 1 percent of the reported values of bulk aluminum, suggesting that voids and oxides along interfaces throughout the build may be inhibiting thermal diffusion through thermal contact resistance across the interface.

Originality/value

This work systematically analyzed the thermal profiles that develop during the UAM process. The simultaneous heating phenomenon presented here has not been documented by other research programs. The findings presented here will enable future researchers to develop more accurate models of the UAM process, potentially leading to improved UAM bond quality.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2019

Adam Hehr and Mark Norfolk

This paper aims to comprehensively review ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) process history, technology advancements, application areas and research areas. UAM, a…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to comprehensively review ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) process history, technology advancements, application areas and research areas. UAM, a hybrid 3D metal printing technology, uses ultrasonic energy to produce metallurgical bonds between layers of metal foils near room temperature. No melting occurs in the process – it is a solid-state 3D metal printing technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is formatted chronologically to help readers better distinguish advancements and changes in the UAM process through the years. Contributions and advancements are summarized by academic or research institution following this chronological format.

Findings

This paper summarizes key physics of the process, characterization methods, mechanical properties, past and active research areas, process limitations and application areas.

Originality/value

This paper reviews the UAM process for the first time.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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