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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2020

Marcelo José Carrer, Rodrigo Lanna Franco da Silveira, Marcela de Mello Brandão Vinholis and Hildo Meirelles De Souza Filho

The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of agricultural insurance adoption by farmers of the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of agricultural insurance adoption by farmers of the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data from the 2015/2016 crop season was collected from a sample of 175 farmers. Logit econometric models were applied to identify the variables that affect the probability of agricultural insurance adoption.

Findings

The empirical results show that the education level, access to technical assistance, use of management tools and farm size positively affect the probability of adopting agricultural insurance. In addition, farmers who produce soybean and/or corn are more likely to use insurance. On the other hand, the higher the farmers’ propensity to take risk the lower the likelihood of using insurance.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical analysis is based on cross-sectional data of a sample of 175 farmers of the state of São Paulo. The use of panel data with a larger sample of farmers, considering a period of years, could provide additional information.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge, this is the first empirical analysis about determinants of agricultural insurance adoption by Brazilian farmers, considering behavioral factors. The findings provide useful insights for policymakers in formulating risk management programs in the Brazilian agricultural markets. A better understanding about the determinants of insurance adoption is also relevant for private companies that sell insurance to farmers. Therefore, the paper may contribute with the diffusion of rural insurance as risk management tool in Brazilian agriculture.

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. 55 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

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Book part
Publication date: 9 August 2012

Angélica Forero-Quintana and Sara E. Grineski

Purpose – One-third of the world's population is infected with tuberculosis (TB) and there are two million TB-related deaths worldwide every year. Along the U.S.-Mexico…

Abstract

Purpose – One-third of the world's population is infected with tuberculosis (TB) and there are two million TB-related deaths worldwide every year. Along the U.S.-Mexico border, migration patterns, and reduced access to health care contribute to high rates of TB. Delayed diagnosis of TB, the focus of this chapter, increases the likelihood that a patient will progress to more advanced stages of the disease and heightens the risk of TB transmission to others as patients are contagious for longer periods of time.

Approach – Despite the seriousness of these consequences, few sociological studies have examined delayed diagnosis of TB and why people affected by TB symptoms delay care. Because of this, we take a health narratives approach to understanding the experiences of 15 TB patients of Mexican descent in a high-risk border community (e.g., El Paso, Texas) in order to discover why delayed diagnoses happen and how they impact patients.

Findings – Fourteen of the fifteen patients experienced delayed diagnosis. Analysis of these fourteen narratives revealed two broad themes: (1) provider lack of awareness, including repeated misdiagnosis and TB test errors, and (2) patient disadvantage, including fear of U.S. immigration authorities and few economic resources for care.

Implications – Findings from this study suggest that prompt diagnosis of TB could be achieved if providers were more cognizant of TB and its symptoms and public health policies increased access to health care regardless of immigration status or socioeconomic status.

Details

Issues in Health and Health Care Related to Race/Ethnicity, Immigration, SES and Gender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-125-0

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 May 2020

Marcela do Carmo Silva, Helder Gomes Costa and Carlos Francisco Simões Gomes

The purpose of this paper is to observe how to invest in upper-middle income countries via an innovation perspective following global innovation index (GII) by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to observe how to invest in upper-middle income countries via an innovation perspective following global innovation index (GII) by multicriteria decision aid (MCDA) approach, once MCDA was designed to support subjective decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Pearson’s correlation was the milestone for understanding innovation indicators at upper-middle income countries profiles. In a MCDA first step, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was applied to obtain the criteria weight. In this step, the judgments or evaluations inputted in AHP were collected from a sample composed by five experts in GII. After getting the criteria weights compose to GII, Borda and Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMÉTHÉE) methods were applied to obtain an MCDA-based GII. The inputs for this second step were: the weights come from AHP output; and the countries performance came from GII data.

Findings

As a result, it was found out the upper-middle countries’ rank to invest and groups with countries acting like “hubs” or “bridges” for economic sectors in near countries; when they are grouped according to their maximum and minimum scores profiles, observing not only a particular region but also similar profiles at diverse world areas.

Originality/value

Pearson-AHP-PROMÉTHÉE works as a supportive decision tool for several and complex investment perspectives from criteria and alternatives analysis regarding innovation indicators for upper-middle income countries. This combination also demonstrates grouping possibilities, aligning profiles and not only ranking countries for investment and eliminating others but also grouping countries with similar profiles via innovation indicators MCDA combined application.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

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Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2020

Ana Marcela Ardila Pinto, Marcos Fontoura De Oliveira, Bruna Barradas Cordeiro and Laíse Lorene Hasz Souza e Oliveira

Since the 1990s, several policy instruments have been produced in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, to improve accessibility to urban mobility systems, especially for people with…

Abstract

Since the 1990s, several policy instruments have been produced in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, to improve accessibility to urban mobility systems, especially for people with disabilities. However, the city still faces important shortcomings in understanding the demands of the population with disabilities and in implementing an appropriate urban structure. The present work identifies mobility practices and demands for accessibility of this population based on a descriptive analysis of the city’s origin/destination survey (2012) and results of a focus group with representatives of the population with disabilities and public authorities. The analysis demonstrates that the demands of persons with reduced mobility are characterised first by a high level of immobility, comparing to people without disabilities, which has important consequences on access to urban goods, especially jobs and health and educational services. Second, mobility has a relevant role in producing forms of discrimination and exclusion. Third, in addition to the problems faced by the general population, people with reduced mobility also face greater challenges in using transport systems. Ultimately, this analysis points out that the main needs for people with disabilities are related to the problems of articulation between public places and transportation systems, both in terms of infrastructure and in terms of attitude and behaviour of service providers and other citizens.

Details

Urban Mobility and Social Equity in Latin America: Evidence, Concepts, Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-009-7

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Marcela A. Cruchaga, Carlos Ferrada, Nicolás Márquez, Sebastián Osses, Mario Storti and Diego Celentano

The present work is an experimental and numerical study of a sloshing problem including baffle effects. The purpose of this paper is to assess the numerical behavior of a…

Abstract

Purpose

The present work is an experimental and numerical study of a sloshing problem including baffle effects. The purpose of this paper is to assess the numerical behavior of a Lagrangian technique to track free surface flows by comparison with experiments, to report experimental data for sloshing at different conditions and to evaluate the effectiveness of baffles in limiting the wave height and the wave propagation.

Design/methodology/approach

Finite element simulations performed with a fixed mesh technique able to describe the free surface evolution are contrasted with experimental data. The experiments consist of an acrylic tank of rectangular section designed to attach baffles of different sizes at different distance from the bottom. The tank is filled with water and mounted on a shake table able to move under controlled horizontal motion. The free surface evolution is measured with ultrasonic sensors. The numerical results computed for different sloshing conditions are compared with the experimental data.

Findings

The reported numerical results are in general in good agreement with the experiments. In particular, wave heights and frequencies response satisfactorily compared with the experimental data for the several cases analyzed during steady state forced sloshing and free sloshing. The effectiveness of the baffles increases near resonance conditions. From the set of experiments studied, the major reduction of the wave height was obtained when larger baffles were positioned closer to the water level at rest.

Practical implications

Model validation: evaluation of the effectiveness of non-massive immersed baffles during sloshing.

Originality/value

The value of the present work encompass the numerical and experimental study of the effect of immersed baffles during sloshing under different imposed conditions and the comparison of numerical results with the experimental data. Also, the results shown in the present work are a contribution to the understanding of the role in the analysis of the proposed problem of some specific aspects of the geometry and the imposed motion.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 26 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Sandriane Pizato, Raquel Costa Chevalier, Marcela Félix Dos Santos, Tailine Saturnino Da Costa, Rosalinda Arévalo Pinedo and William Renzo Cortez Vega

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the shelf-life of minimally processed pineapple when subjected to the use of different edible coatings.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the shelf-life of minimally processed pineapple when subjected to the use of different edible coatings.

Design/methodology/approach

The pineapples were peeled and cut into cubes. The gums were prepared by dissolving them in distilled water and then heated to total dissolution. After calcium chloride, citric acid and ascorbic acid and glycerol were added in the solutions. The pieces of pineapple were completely submerged in the respective solutions and then drained. Four treatments were obtained, namely: T1 – control treatment (pineapple without coating); T2 – pectin; T3 – tara; T4 – xanthan. The cubes were stored in PET by 12 days at 4±1°C. Analyzes were carried out of mass loss, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, microbiological and sensory analysis.

Findings

It was possible to observe that the use of evaluated coatings was efficient to maintain the conservation of minimally processed pineapple in all analyzes, when compared with the control sample. The treatment with tara gum showed the best results to those obtained by the other studied gums.

Practical implications

The study may help small-scale establishments to increase the shelf-life of minimally processed pineapple.

Originality/value

Tara gum reduced the mass loss, delayed the microbial growth and maintained the sensorial quality of minimally processed pineapples for a longer time.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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Abstract

Purpose

Because dietary fibre has been recognized as a major ally to the maintenance of a healthy body as well as to help against the development of some chronic diseases, this paper aims to study the level of knowledge of a relatively wide range of people about the health effects related to the ingestion of dietary fibre in appropriate dosages.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken on a non-probabilistic sample of 6,010 participants. The data were collected from 10 countries in three different continents (Europe, Africa and America) and measured the level of knowledge regarding different health benefits from dietary fibre. The questionnaires were applied by direct interview after verbal informed consent.

Findings

The results obtained considering the general level of knowledge revealed a considerable degree of information about the benefits of fibre (average score of 3.54 ± 0.5, on a scale from 1 to 5). There were significant differences between genders (p < 0.001), with higher average score for women, and also for level of education (p < 0.001), with higher score for university level. The living environment also showed significant differences (p < 0.001), with people living in urban areas showing a higher degree of knowledge. Also for countries the differences were significant (p < 0.001), with the highest score obtained for Portugal (3.7), and the lowest for Croatia, Italy, Latvia, Macedonia and Romania (3.5). However, despite these differences, the results showed that for all the countries the degree of knowledge was good (above 3.5), corresponding to a minimum level of knowledge of 70 per cent.

Originality/value

This work is considered important due to the wide coverage, including so many countries inclusive with different social and cultural settings. The study allowed concluding that, in general, the participants in the study were quite well informed about the benefits of dietary fibre for the improvement of human health, regardless of gender, level of education, living environment or country. This finding is very relevant considering the diversity of people that composed the sample and reinforces the necessity of continuing with educational policies aimed at providing the general population with the knowledge that might help them make appropriate food choices.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Book part
Publication date: 29 January 2013

Johanna Zmud, Martin Lee-Gosselin, Marcela Munizaga and Juan Antonio Carrasco

This book provides an international perspective on improving information to support transportation decision making. It comprises a selection of papers plus workshop…

Abstract

This book provides an international perspective on improving information to support transportation decision making. It comprises a selection of papers plus workshop syntheses from the 9th International Conference on Transport Survey Methods in Chile in November 2011. The conference was organized into 14 workshops with both paper presentations and discussions in the workshops forming the majority of the conference activity. The papers reported primarily on research pertaining to continuous improvement in transport survey methods — the backbone of the transportation data pipeline in most countries. But some papers also addressed the new ways in which innovation — notably technological innovation — is being applied to the capture and analysis of data to produce necessary information faster, better, and less expensively. The conference program built on a rich legacy of intellectual pursuits spanning the past two decades, and it is anticipated that the conference will continue into the future. Thus, the contents of this book represent a 5–10 year view through a moving window on the international state of the practice and concerns in transport survey methods.

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2021

Yully Marcela Sepúlveda-Alzate, María Antonia García-Benau and Mauricio Gómez-Villegas

This paper aims to propose a measurement of the materiality of environmental, social and governance information (ESG) reported by listed companies belonging to sensitive…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a measurement of the materiality of environmental, social and governance information (ESG) reported by listed companies belonging to sensitive industries in Colombia, Mexico, Brazil, Chile and Argentina. This analysis is carried out from the insights of stakeholder theory, legitimacy theory and institutional theory. The research questions addressed are: What type of information is considered as material by Latin American companies? Does this information respond to the environmental and social issues within the context of Latin American companies and the needs of their stakeholders?

Design/methodology/approach

A materiality index is developed from principal component analysis and factor analysis, which are multivariate analysis statistical techniques used in various fields to develop indices. The designed index examines materiality in the sustainability reports of 65 companies for 2017 and 67 companies for 2018. These firms belong to the energy, mining, chemical, construction, construction materials and public services industries in Colombia, Mexico, Chile, Argentina and Brazil.

Findings

The results show medium-high materiality indices, mostly in Chilean, Mexican and Colombian companies. In addition, issues such as water management, climate change and occupational health and safety are particularly interesting for companies. For the two years studied and from the perspective of material aspects for the company and its stakeholders, energy, mining and utilities (drinking water and sewage) sectors obtained the highest scores. This shows that the disclosure of ESG information is higher in industries related to the exploitation of natural resources that cause adverse effects on the environment such as extractive industries. Both the analysis presented in this paper and the materiality measurement developed, allow social responsibility managers to have a standard on the level of importance allotted to the different topics disclosed in sustainability reports. Additionally, this study provides a perspective of the material issues recognized by sensitive industries with great environmental impact. Similarly, an analysis of the issues considered material by stakeholders is provided. This allows such issues to be compared, identifying similarities and differences among the issues regarded as material by a company and its stakeholders.

Practical implications

The paper opens the debate is open as to whether the information disclosed response to the needs of stakeholders or whether, on the contrary, the materiality analysis is a process that emerges simply from the interests of the company. These demands for qualitative and field research to complement quantitative studies such as this one to research the stakeholders’ engagement processes in context.

Social implications

The paper’s purpose a challenge for future research is to strengthen the use of various methodologies that allow knowing the participation processes in the definition of materiality in the ESG information and the companies’ engagement with stakeholders. This stimulates research in the region, which is still in its infancy.

Originality/value

The international literature contains few studies related to the assessment of materiality for sustainability reporting. So this paper contributes proposes measurement of materiality for ESG information.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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Book part
Publication date: 29 January 2013

Flavio Devillaine, Marcela Munizaga, Carolina Palma and Mauricio Zúñiga

Purpose — Automated fare collection systems implemented in public transportation systems in the last decade have provided a massive, continuous and low-cost source of…

Abstract

Purpose — Automated fare collection systems implemented in public transportation systems in the last decade have provided a massive, continuous and low-cost source of reliable travel information. A direct and useful application of these data is the estimation of highly representative, although not bias-free, origin-destination (OD) matrices.

Methodology/approach — We discuss several issues with current OD matrix estimation methodologies, such as fare evasion and group travel, and their derived biases, specifically focusing on the Santiago (Chile) case. We also propose and apply two methods of validation: endogenous and exogenous validation. We elaborate on some methodological improvements that could be implemented to upgrade the activity estimation mechanics.

Findings — Several sources of bias in the estimation of OD matrix estimation from passive data are pointed and some solutions proposed. We apply improvements to existing methodologies and increase the success rate of trip estimations.

Practical implications — The reliable estimation of public transport OD matrices from passive data results in a valuable planning tool for both transit authorities and operators, much more representative and with less errors and biases that conventional data collecting techniques.

Originality/value of paper — This paper is one of the first works to deal with the subject.

Details

Transport Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-190288-2

Keywords

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