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This research aims to empirically analyze the spatial bank branch network in Canada. The authors study the market structure (both industrial and geographic concentrations…
This research aims to empirically analyze the spatial bank branch network in Canada. The authors study the market structure (both industrial and geographic concentrations) via its own or adjacent postal areas. The empirical framework of this study considers branch density (the ratio of the total number of branches to area size) by employing a spatial two-way fixed effects model. The main finding of this study is that there are no effects associated with market structure, however, there are strong spatial within and nearby effects associated with the socioeconomic variables. In addition, the authors also study the effect of spatial competition from rival banks: they find that large banks and small banks tend to avoid markets dominated by their competitors.
This chapter uses the nonlinear difference-in-difference (NL-DID) methodology developed by Athey and Imbens (2006) to estimate the effects of a treatment program on the…
This chapter uses the nonlinear difference-in-difference (NL-DID) methodology developed by Athey and Imbens (2006) to estimate the effects of a treatment program on the entire distribution of an outcome variable. The NL-DID estimates the entire counterfactual distribution of an outcome variable that would have occurred in the absence of treatment. This chapter extends the Monte Carlo results in Athey and Imbens's (2006) to assess the efficacy of the NL-DID estimators in finite samples. Furthermore, the NL-DID methodology recovers the entire outcome distribution in the absence of treatment. Further, we consider the empirical size and power of tests statistics for equality of mean, medians, and complete distributions as suggested by Abadie (2002). The results show that the NL-DID estimator can effectively be used to recover the average treatment effect, as well as the entire distribution of the treatment effects when there is no selection during the treatment period in finite samples.
“The Elephant in the Corner: A Cautionary Tale About Measurement Error in Treatment Effects Models” by Daniel L. Millimet discusses the current use of the unobserved-outcome framework to estimate population-averaged treatment effects, and it exposes the sensitivity of these estimators to assumption of no measurement error. The Monte Carlo simulation evidence in this chapter indicates that “nonclassical measurement error in the covariates, mean-reverting measurement error in the outcome, and simultaneous measurement errors in the outcome, treatment assignment, and covariates have a dramatic, adverse effect on the performance of the various estimators even with relatively small and infrequent errors” (Millimet article, p. 1–39). To some extent, all the estimators analyzed by Millimet are based on weak functional form assumptions and use semiparametric or nonparametric methods. Millimet's results indicate the need for measurement error models be they parametric or nonparametric models, see Schennach (2007), Hu and Schennach (2008), and Matzkin (2007) for some recent research in nonparametric approaches. Chapter 7 develops a Bayesian estimator that can handle some of the measurement errors discussed in this chapter.
This chapter develops a set of two-step identification methods for social interactions models with unknown networks, and discusses how the proposed methods are connected…
This chapter develops a set of two-step identification methods for social interactions models with unknown networks, and discusses how the proposed methods are connected to the identification methods for models with known networks. The first step uses linear regression to identify the reduced forms. The second step decomposes the reduced forms to identify the primitive parameters. The proposed methods use panel data to identify networks. Two cases are considered: the sample exogenous vectors span Rn (long panels), and the sample exogenous vectors span a proper subspace of Rn (short panels). For the short panel case, in order to solve the sample covariance matrices’ non-invertibility problem, this chapter proposes to represent the sample vectors with respect to a basis of a lower-dimensional space so that we have fewer regression coefficients in the first step. This allows us to identify some reduced form submatrices, which provide equations for identifying the primitive parameters.
The authors generalize the standard linear-in-means model to allow for multiple types with between and within-type interactions. The authors provide a set of…
The authors generalize the standard linear-in-means model to allow for multiple types with between and within-type interactions. The authors provide a set of identification conditions of peer effects and consider a two-stage least squares estimation approach. Large sample properties of the proposed estimators are derived. Their performance in finite samples is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations.
Evidence suggests that, in the presence of imperfect market institutions, individuals devote resources to the establishment of reliable connections to attenuate the…
Evidence suggests that, in the presence of imperfect market institutions, individuals devote resources to the establishment of reliable connections to attenuate the frictions that reduce trading and insurance opportunities. In this chapter, the author surveys the relevant literature on strategic formation of networks and use it to study this particular economic situation. A simple model is built to show that the investment in strong ties often, though not always, produces stable configurations that manage to improve upon the imperfections of market institutions.
This chapter proposes an approach toward the estimation of cross-sectional sample selection models, where the shocks on the units of observation feature some…
This chapter proposes an approach toward the estimation of cross-sectional sample selection models, where the shocks on the units of observation feature some interdependence through spatial or network autocorrelation. In particular, this chapter improves on prior Bayesian work on this subject by proposing a modified approach toward sampling the multivariate-truncated, cross-sectionally dependent latent variable of the selection equation. This chapter outlines the model and implementation approach and provides simulation results documenting the better performance of the proposed approach relative to existing ones.
The efficient distribution of bank notes is a first-order responsibility of central banks. The authors study the distribution patterns of bank notes with an administrative…
The efficient distribution of bank notes is a first-order responsibility of central banks. The authors study the distribution patterns of bank notes with an administrative dataset from the Bank of Canada’s Currency Inventory Management Strategy. The single note inspection procedure generates a sample of 900 million bank notes in which the authors can trace the length of the stay of a bank note in the market. The authors define the duration of the bank note circulation cycle as beginning on the date the bank note is first shipped by the Bank of Canada to a financial institution and ending when it is returned to the Bank of Canada. In addition, the authors provide information regarding where the bank note is shipped and later received, as well as the physical fitness of the bank note upon return to the Bank of Canada’s distribution centers. K–prototype clustering classifies bank notes into types. A hazard model estimates the duration of bank note circulation cycles based on their clusters and characteristics. An adaptive elastic net provides an algorithm for dimension reduction. It is found that while the distribution of the duration is affected by fitness measures, their effects are negligible when compared with the influence exerted by the clusters related to bank note denominations.