Search results

1 – 5 of 5
Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Marc von Boemcken is a senior researcher at the Bonn International Center for Conversion, Germany. His areas of expertise include the international arms trade as well as…

Abstract

Marc von Boemcken is a senior researcher at the Bonn International Center for Conversion, Germany. His areas of expertise include the international arms trade as well as the privatization of security provision.

Details

Putting Teeth in the Tiger: Improving the Effectiveness of Arms Embargoes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-202-9

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Marc von Boemcken

In the early 1990s, the single-party regime of the Mouvement Révolutionnaire Nationale pour le Développement (MRND), headed by President Juvénal Habyarimana, came under…

Abstract

In the early 1990s, the single-party regime of the Mouvement Révolutionnaire Nationale pour le Développement (MRND), headed by President Juvénal Habyarimana, came under growing pressure both internally and externally. Rwanda experienced widespread destitution and famine as state revenues from coffee exports fell from an annual US $144 million in 1985 to a mere US $30 million in 1993 (Debiel, 2003, p. 166). A Structural Adjustment Program (SAP), imposed upon Rwanda by the Bretton Woods institutions in September 1991, was largely irrelevant, if not conducive, to the rising impoverishment of the Rwandan people (Chossudovsky, 1994, p. 21). Between 1989 and 1993, the proportion of the population consuming less than 1,000 calories a day doubled from 15 percent to 31 percent (Maton, 1994).

Details

Putting Teeth in the Tiger: Improving the Effectiveness of Arms Embargoes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-202-9

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Marc von Boemcken

Only two days before the UN imposed a mandatory arms embargo on Eritrea and Ethiopia, the German Minister for Development, Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, issued a communiqu…

Abstract

Only two days before the UN imposed a mandatory arms embargo on Eritrea and Ethiopia, the German Minister for Development, Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul, issued a communiqué wherein she described the ongoing absence of international export restrictions against the warring countries as nothing less than a “scandal” (Agence France Press, May 15, 2000). Indeed, the war between Eritrea and Ethiopia had pre-dated the embargo by two years.

Details

Putting Teeth in the Tiger: Improving the Effectiveness of Arms Embargoes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-202-9

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Abstract

Details

Putting Teeth in the Tiger: Improving the Effectiveness of Arms Embargoes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-202-9

Click here to view access options
Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Michael Brzoska and George A. Lopez

Collective sanctions have long been a contested instrument of international politics, especially since 1990, when United States and large power use of the technique…

Abstract

Collective sanctions have long been a contested instrument of international politics, especially since 1990, when United States and large power use of the technique increased to the point where Richard Haass declared that a “sanctions epidemic” had emerged (Haass & O'Sullivan, 1999). Regional bodies, most notably by the European Union (EU), paralleled this trend through a dramatic increase in their own resort to sanctions (Kreutz, 2005). The imposition of sanctions by the United Nations (UN) reached the point that, in comparison to pre-1989 behavior, the 1990s were labeled “the sanctions decade” (Cortright & Lopez, 2000).

Details

Putting Teeth in the Tiger: Improving the Effectiveness of Arms Embargoes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-202-9

1 – 5 of 5