This paper reports the findings of a case study undertaken in the Scottish hospitality industry of which the process of accrediting competencies has been positively experienced by employees and managers of Montpelier (Edinburgh) Ltd. The paper begins by reviewing some of the British and American theoretical and practical literature on the accreditation of competencies to raise some of the issues which are addressed by our data. The study draws on both quantitative and qualitative methodologies in order to evaluate the value of Scottish vocational qualifications (SVQs) to both the employee and employer. The findings suggest that, on balance, the competence approach has proven to be a popular and useful method of job and career development for those people participating in the programme and provides a useful development framework for the employer.
The technical and economic feasibility of providing selective notifications of current books to specialised libraries by extraction from MARC tapes has been explored. An…
The technical and economic feasibility of providing selective notifications of current books to specialised libraries by extraction from MARC tapes has been explored. An experimental on‐line system ‘MARCAS’ was used to test profile construction and the utility of the various elements in MARC records as search keys. The programs allowed both weighted and Boolean searching on the title and author, LC classification and subject headings, and the BNB Precis indexing terms and Reference Index Numbers. Test profiles were constructed for nine libraries covering a range of subject fields, and run on six weeks of BNB and six weeks of LC MARC tapes. The output was assessed for relevance and recall, and the results analysed in terms of precision and recall for various combinations of searchable fields. The best performance, with recall and precision both about 50%, was given by searching all verbal fields together—title and author, LC subject headings, and (BNB tapes only) Precis indexing terms. Costs for the experimental on‐line system, and a batch version of the system, are identified.
In beginning its work at the end of the 1950s, the Aslib Research and Development Department inevitably faced the task of identifying the most significant problems for investigation, at the same time having the need to establish appropriate experimental techniques. Most of the projects undertaken since that time have dealt with current problems, and to an extent the advent of new technologies and techniques to the information world (mechanization in the 'sixties, management studies in the early 'seventies, on‐line working and publication problems in more recent years) is reflected in the work reported below. What follows is a complete bibliography of publications by members of the Department from its formation up to the end of 1977.
From this issue onwards all major articles appearing in VINE will include an abstract, and I hope that this will be of use to many readers. I am greatly indebted to Gordon Hynd, Information/Research Assistant in Perth and Kinross District Council's Planning Department for agreeing to undertake the task of preparing the abstracts, often from copy of enormous illegibility and at very short notice.
The purpose of this paper is to propose a tool that generates authority files to be integrated with linked data by means of learning rules. AUTHORIS is software developed…
The purpose of this paper is to propose a tool that generates authority files to be integrated with linked data by means of learning rules. AUTHORIS is software developed to enhance authority control and information exchange among bibliographic and non-bibliographic entities.
The article analyzes different methods previously developed for authority control as well as IFLA and ALA standards for managing bibliographic records. Semantic Web technologies are also evaluated. AUTHORIS relies on Drupal and incorporates the protocols of Dublin Core, SIOC, SKOS and FOAF. The tool has also taken into account the obsolescence of MARC and its substitution by FRBR and RDA. Its effectiveness was evaluated applying a learning test proposed by RDA. Over 80 percent of the actions were carried out correctly.
The use of learning rules and the facilities of linked data make it easier for information organizations to reutilize products for authority control and distribute them in a fair and efficient manner.
The ISAD-G records were the ones presenting most errors. EAD was found to be second in the number of errors produced. The rest of the formats – MARC 21, Dublin Core, FRAD, RDF, OWL, XBRL and FOAF – showed fewer than 20 errors in total.
AUTHORIS offers institutions the means of sharing data with a high level of stability, helping to detect records that are duplicated and contributing to lexical disambiguation and data enrichment.
The software combines the facilities of linked data, the potency of the algorithms for converting bibliographic data, and the precision of learning rules.
The case is based on a real $25 million project at a major U.S.-based computer manufacturer. For confidentiality reasons the company has been disguised as A&D High Tech…
The case is based on a real $25 million project at a major U.S.-based computer manufacturer. For confidentiality reasons the company has been disguised as A&D High Tech. The Web-based online ordering system project is required by sales and marketing for the fall holiday season. If the project misses this window, the firm will lose substantial market share to competitors. The A&D High Tech case examines how to create and analyze a project plan in Microsoft Project. Specifically, data is given to build the project plan step-by-step and then analyze the plan using the Microsoft project management tool. In order to make the case manageable for students we reduced the size of the project, and corresponding number of resources, to approximately $1 million, but retained all of the features of the original project. The project plan that students construct from the data given in the case is fraught with risks, and students must apply risk management techniques to diagnose the plan. Ultimately, students must answer the management question: Will the project be completed for the holiday shopping season? This case is the first in a series; the second is the case entitled “A&D High Tech (B): Managing Scope Change.” The case can also be taught using other project management software tools, such as Primavera.
The case teaches students how to build a project plan in Microsoft Project (or other project management software tools). More important, the case teaches prospective executives how to analyze a project plan and identify risks of the plan, and define strategies to mitigate these risks. Students learn that in the planning stage of any project the risks are highest, but this is the best opportunity for proactive management intervention.
Beginning with a brief history and explanation of the project, this article goes on to discuss the system in some detail, emphasising its simplicity and flexibility, and…
Beginning with a brief history and explanation of the project, this article goes on to discuss the system in some detail, emphasising its simplicity and flexibility, and stresses the implications of the system for library management. The evaluation, although relevant, is already out of date because the system is now working successfully on an “in‐house mini”. Written for librarians by a librarian, this paper should be of interest and assistance to those who are involved in or are considering automating their systems.
Quality, an abstract concept, requires concrete definition in order to be actionable. This chapter moves the quality discussion from the theoretical to the workplace…
Quality, an abstract concept, requires concrete definition in order to be actionable. This chapter moves the quality discussion from the theoretical to the workplace, building steps needed to manage quality issues.
The chapter reviews general data studies, web quality studies, and metadata quality studies to identify and define dimensions of data quality and quantitative measures for each concept. The chapter reviews preferred communication methods which make findings meaningful to administrators.
The chapter describes how quality dimensions are practically applied. It suggests criteria necessary to identify high priority populations, and resources in core subject areas or formats, as quality does not have to be completely uniform. The author emphasizes examining the information environment, documenting practice, and developing measurement standards. The author stresses that quality procedures must rapidly evolve to reflect local expectations, the local information environment, technology capabilities, and national standards.
This chapter combines theory with practical application. It stresses the importance of metadata and recognizes quality as a cyclical process which balances the necessity of national standards, the needs of the user, and the work realities of the metadata staff. This chapter identifies decision points, outlines future action, and explains communication options.
Sociological Approaches to Organizational Learning: Applications to Process Innovations in Management Accounting Systems
Advances in Management Accounting, Forthcoming 2014. First submission October 2012; Revised submission May 2013; Accepted October 2013. This paper introduces our book titled, An Organizational Learning Approach to Process Innovations: The Extent and Scope of Diffusion and Adoption in Management Accounting Systems, Emerald Studies in Managerial and Financial Accounting, Volume 24, 2012 (Sisaye & Birnberg, 2012). We are very grateful for the continued editorial assistance and support that we have received from the editors: Marc J. Epstein and John Y. Lee over the years. We have benefited from the comments of the two external reviewers in preparing the manuscript for publication. The authors assume full responsibility for the final product.
The paper extends the organizational learning framework: Structural-Functional (SF)-single-loop or Conflictual-Radical (CR)-double-loop learning to the management…
The paper extends the organizational learning framework: Structural-Functional (SF)-single-loop or Conflictual-Radical (CR)-double-loop learning to the management accounting literature. The sociological approach of organizational learning is utilized to understand those contingent factors that can explain why management accounting innovations succeed or fail in organizations.
We view learning as enhancing an organization’s strategic competitive advantage by making it better able to adopt and diffuse innovation in respond to changes in its environment in order to manage improved performance. The success of management accounting innovations is contingent upon whether its learning process involves SF-single-loop or CR-double-loop learning to adopt and diffuse process innovation.
The paper suggests that the learning strategy that the organization chooses is the reason why some management accounting innovations are more successfully adopted than others and why some innovations are easily diffused in some organizations but not in others. We propose that the sociological approaches to learning provide an alternative framework with which to better understand the adoption and diffusion of process innovations in management accounting systems.
It has become evident that management accounting researchers need to pay particular attention to an organization’s approach to adoption and diffusion of innovation strategies, particularly when they are designing and implementing process innovation programs for an organization. According to Schulz (2001), there are two interrelated stages of the learning that can shape the outcome of the innovation process in an organization. The first stage is related to the acquisition/production (adoption) of knowledge that results in gathering information, codification, and exploration. This is followed by the second stage which is the distribution or dissemination (diffusion) processes. When these two stages – adoption and diffusion – are applied within an accounting context, they address issues that are commonly associated with the successes and/or failures of management accounting innovations.
Although innovation involves learning, the nature of the learning process does not completely describe the manner in which an innovation affects the organization. Accordingly, we suggest that the two interrelated organizational sociological dimensions of innovations processes, namely, (1) the adoption and diffusion theories of Rogers (1971 and 1995), to approach organizational learning, and (2) the SF (single loop) and CR (double loop) approaches to learning be used simultaneously to describe management accounting innovations.
When an innovation is implemented, it initially can be introduced as an incremental change, one that can be limited in both in its scope and its breadth of administrative changes. This means that situations which are most likely to benefit from its initiation can serve as the prototype for its adoption by the organization. If successful, this can be followed by systemic accounting innovations to instituting broader administrative changes within the existing accounting reporting and control systems.