The paper starts with a review of constitutive equations for rubber‐like materials, formulated in the invariants of the right Cauchy—Green deformation tensor. A general framework for the derivation of the stress tensor and the tangent moduli for invariant‐based models, for both the reference and the current configuration, is presented. The free energy of incompressible rubber‐like materials is extended to a compressible formulation by adding the volumetric part of the free energy. In order to overcome numerical problems encountered with displacement‐based finite element formulations for nearly incompressible materials, three‐dimensional finite elements, based on a penalty‐type formulation, are proposed. They are characterized by applying reduced integration to the volumetric parts of the tangent stiffness matrix and the pressure‐related parts of the internal force vector only. Moreover, hybrid finite elements are proposed. They are based on a three‐field variational principle, characterized by treating the displacements, the dilatation and the hydrostatic pressure as independent variables. Subsequently, this formulation is reduced to a generalized displacement formulation. In the numerical study these formulations are evaluated. The results obtained are compared with numerical results available in the literature. In addition, the proposed formulations are applied to 3D finite element analysis of an automobile tyre. The computed results are compared with experimental data.
The Sixteenth International Online Information Meeting was held in London on 8–10 De‐cember 1992. Here Online & CDROM Review offers the second set of abstracts of selected…
The Sixteenth International Online Information Meeting was held in London on 8–10 De‐cember 1992. Here Online & CDROM Review offers the second set of abstracts of selected papers. The first set was published in the February issue of the journal, pp.50–52.
Over the last few decades, technological development has had a major impact on libraries. Nowadays many libraries use electronic support for operations such as acquiring…
Over the last few decades, technological development has had a major impact on libraries. Nowadays many libraries use electronic support for operations such as acquiring and cataloguing material, searching, and retrieval. Information technology is an aid for both the librarian, in order to organise the material, and for the user in order to gain access to the broad storehouse. Information is still physically stored in the library. This represents an intermediate step in the process of library automation which leads to a completely electronic library, where a timely provision of selected materials to individuals, when and where they need them, is guaranteed. An electronic library houses different kinds of electronic information: in addition to text, there is an extensive use of multimedia collections, such as sound archives, video material, slide collections and so on. The electronic library is the result of complex changes which have affected and which still affect the publishing world (Barker 1994; Clement 1994; Raitt 1993).
Current publication practices in the scholarly (International) Business and Management community are overwhelmingly anti-Popperian, which fundamentally frustrates the…
Current publication practices in the scholarly (International) Business and Management community are overwhelmingly anti-Popperian, which fundamentally frustrates the production of scientific progress. This is the result of at least five related biases: the verification, novelty, normal science, evidence, and market biases. As a result, no one is really interested in replicating anything. In this essay, the author extensively argues what he believes is wrong, why that is so, and what we might do about this. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
This is an essay, combining a literature review with polemic argumentation.
Only a tiny fraction of published studies involve a replication effort. Moreover, journal authors, editors, reviewers and readers are not interested in seeing nulls and negatives in print. This replication crisis implies that Popper’s critical falsification principle is actually thrown into the scientific community’s dustbin. Behind the façade of all these so-called new discoveries, false positives abound, as do questionable research practices meant to produce all this allegedly cutting-edge and groundbreaking significant findings. If this dismal state of affairs does not change for the good, (International) Business and Management research is ending up in a deadlock.
A radical cultural change in the scientific community, including (International) Business and Management, is badly needed. It should be in the community’s DNA to engage in the quest for the “truth” – nothing more, nothing less. Such a change must involve all stakeholders: scholars, editors, reviewers, and students, but also funding agencies, research institutes, university presidents, faculty deans, department chairs, journalists, policymakers, and publishers. In the words of Ioannidis (2012, p. 647): “Safeguarding scientific principles is not something to be done once and for all. It is a challenge that needs to be met successfully on a daily basis both by single scientists and the whole scientific establishment.”
Publication practices have to change radically. For instance, editorial policies should dispose of their current overly dominant pro-novelty and pro-positives biases, and explicitly encourage the publication of replication studies, including failed and unsuccessful ones that report null and negative findings.
This is an explicit plea to change the way the scientific research community operates, offering a series of concrete recommendations what to do before it is too late.