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The purpose of this paper is to find Batak Toba society’s local wisdom of mutual cooperation in Toba Lake area: a linguistic anthropology study.
The purpose of this paper is to find Batak Toba society’s local wisdom of mutual cooperation in Toba Lake area: a linguistic anthropology study.
This research employed qualitative paradigm. As a qualitative research, it employed four methods of data collection, namely in-depth open-ended interview, direct participatory observation, focus group discussion which is often abbreviated as FGD, and written documents. In-depth and open-ended interviews were applied to obtain data from the informants who understand the local wisdom of mutual cooperation, the traditional expressions as the collective memory of mutual cooperation, and the terms of mutual cooperation in Batak Toba society.
Based on the research findings, Batak Toba society has terms for gotong royong (mutual cooperation). They are marsirimpa or marsirumpa (cohesive, in unison, and together). It means that the basic rule of gotong royong (mutual cooperation) in Batak Toba society is the cohesion, synchrony, and togetherness. In other words, gotong royong (mutual cooperation) in Batak Toba society is working cohesively, in unison, and together, which is practiced in the life cycles, livelihood cycles, and public works.
This paper presents a new and significant contribution to the social and economic activity, especially socio-anthropology. People do not consider the implementation of mutual cooperation anymore. They forget that marsirimpa (the local term for mutual cooperation) can be used as a non-material capital to improve the socio-economic development. Marsirimpa can improve the social activity because its main principles are based on the “solidarity” and “harmony.” This research gives contribution economically to the people in the research area (Tippang village) compared to the neighboring area (Bakkara village). People in Tippang village get better income because they believe that many works, for instances, irrigating, paddy planting, until paddy cutting should be done together; they do not need to spend money for workers. Each clan has its own representative to manage irrigation. The activities of land digging and paddy cutting are collectively done. In relation to social anthropology, the tradition around the research area is still maintained because it makes people value the social interaction.
Presents a special issue, enlisting the help of the author’s students and colleagues, focusing on age, sex, colour and disability discrimination in America. Breaks the…
Presents a special issue, enlisting the help of the author’s students and colleagues, focusing on age, sex, colour and disability discrimination in America. Breaks the evidence down into manageable chunks, covering: age discrimination in the workplace; discrimination against African‐Americans; sex discrimination in the workplace; same sex sexual harassment; how to investigate and prove disability discrimination; sexual harassment in the military; when the main US job‐discrimination law applies to small companies; how to investigate and prove racial discrimination; developments concerning race discrimination in the workplace; developments concerning the Equal Pay Act; developments concerning discrimination against workers with HIV or AIDS; developments concerning discrimination based on refusal of family care leave; developments concerning discrimination against gay or lesbian employees; developments concerning discrimination based on colour; how to investigate and prove discrimination concerning based on colour; developments concerning the Equal Pay Act; using statistics in employment discrimination cases; race discrimination in the workplace; developments concerning gender discrimination in the workplace; discrimination in Japanese organizations in America; discrimination in the entertainment industry; discrimination in the utility industry; understanding and effectively managing national origin discrimination; how to investigate and prove hiring discrimination based on colour; and, finally, how to investigate sexual harassment in the workplace.
Employee Assistance Programmes areexplained and their potential in meeting theconcerns of female employees is described inthe framework of the issues confrontingworking…
Employee Assistance Programmes are explained and their potential in meeting the concerns of female employees is described in the framework of the issues confronting working women in the US. Employee Assistance Programmes and women in the workforce are both relatively recent occurrences. Women began entering the workforce en masse at the turn of the century. Employee Assistance Programmes began in the United States in the early 1940s, but have only developed and been adopted in the 1970s and 1980s. The ways in which they offer a special source of support and help to women in the workforce are explored. Although some of the content may not be relevant to women in Great Britain, in the authors′ opinions the readers will probably see more similarities than differences since a woman′s role is, for the most part, universal.
The paper offers a survey of major Italian accounting scholars and their work for the period from 1900 to 1950. Apart from the late works of Rossi and Besta, the main…
The paper offers a survey of major Italian accounting scholars and their work for the period from 1900 to 1950. Apart from the late works of Rossi and Besta, the main focus is on the contributions by Zappa, who undoubtedly dominated the scene. In this period, as well as later, most Italian accountants and “aziendalisti” adopted the so‐called “income system”. Although its premises originated with Fabio Besta, master of the so‐called “patrimonial or proprietorship system”, the Italian School under Zappa gave this system a new theoretical basis that differed fundamentally from that of Besta. Zappa also developed the dynamic aspect of accounting and business economics that still prevails in Italy. The paper also devotes attention to other Italian scholars, less well‐known abroad. In the area of cost accounting it concentrates on the views of De Minico and his disciple Amodeo, but also mentions other contributors. The final Section deals with Italian contributions to accounting history during this period
Outlines the development of the Asia Pacific Economic Co‐operation Forum (APEC), which began as a deliberately informal discussion group in 1989, and traces the evolution…
Outlines the development of the Asia Pacific Economic Co‐operation Forum (APEC), which began as a deliberately informal discussion group in 1989, and traces the evolution of its membership and organizational structure. Summarizes the research and planning work undertaken to date, pointing out that decisions are consensus‐based and not binding on members. Lists the issues identified as crucial to the Asian economic crisis by the 1998 APEC meeting and discusses its role in Asia and in the global economy. Admits that significant, tangible results have been few so far and considers the reasons why; but believes it has the potential to “establish itself as a viable force in dealing with the economic problems of its members”.
The Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food has approved for publication a Supplementary Report presented to the Food Standards Committee by their Preservatives Sub‐Committee, making recommendations about the use of colouring matters in foods. An earlier Report on this subject by the Sub‐Committee was published in January, 1955. The main recommendation in that Report was that the Public Health (Preservatives, etc., in Food) Regulations, 1925–1953, should be amended so as to permit the use in foods of specified colours only. The present position under the Preservatives Regulations is that, with a few specified exceptions, the addition of any colouring matters to articles of food is permitted.
In this chapter, I will first conceptualize social movement theory before examining the importance of student movements and student activism. I then will link social…
In this chapter, I will first conceptualize social movement theory before examining the importance of student movements and student activism. I then will link social movement theory to the university in Egypt. Next, I will contextualize university activism by describing the authoritarian structures of Egypt’s university system. Then, using secondary data sources, I will characterize university activism during the three transitional political periods (under the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SACF), under President Morsi, and after the ousting of Morsi), and conclude with a discussion on the implications of student activism on future university reform.
This study aims to investigate the practice of bay’ ‘inah contract in personal and home financing products by some Islamic Finance Institutions (IFIs) and examine the…
This study aims to investigate the practice of bay’ ‘inah contract in personal and home financing products by some Islamic Finance Institutions (IFIs) and examine the differences in the selection of contracts in banking products amongst IFIs mainly involving personal financing. The study will also propose a solution to the problem of differences and simultaneously standardise personal financing contracts in Malaysia.
The methodology of this study is qualitative, in which the data are collected through library research and field studies. The library research is done by examining books of usul al-fiqh (principles of Islamic jurisprudence), mura’aht al-khilaf, maqasid shariah (objectives of Islamic law) articles, statutes and related circulars, while field studies are conducted in an unstructured interview method with some members of Shariah Advisory Council (SAC) and academicians from Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM), IFIs and public university.
The findings show that there is a difference in views amongst SAC members in IFIs on bay’ ‘inah contract that effects the differences in the execution of such contract in banking applications. The study found that the bay’ ‘inah contract was non Shariah (Islamic law) compliant based on Shariah’s arguments and the opinion of the majority of past and present Islamic scholars. The study found that the BNM’s SAC did not allow the bay’ ‘inah contract to be practiced in personal and home financing products. Hence, this study proposes standardisation steps based on differences in the problems studied. The study also suggested that the SAC of BNM make improvements and updates on its solution regarding the bay’ ‘inah contract so that it is not misunderstood especially amongst IFIs.
The study is only looking at one case study, which is the bay’ ‘inah contract practiced by the IFIs in Malaysia.
This study proposes the standardisation of personal financing products practiced by the IFIs. The results of this study can reduce Sharīʿah non-compliance products in the market. The results of this study have gained a deep understanding of the solution of bay’ ‘inah contract made by the SAC of BNM. The findings also reduce the conflict between Shariah scholars locally and internationally and can restore the image of Islamic banking in Malaysia from engaging with controversy products or contracts.
The confidence of the public in Islamic banking is increasing as there is no contractual engagement with serious controversial issues and contracts similar to the concept of riba and hilah (trick) that is prohibited by Islamic law in IFIs.
This study analyses the differences of fatwa (a ruling on the point of Islamic law) about bay’ ‘inah contract decided by some SACs of IFI based on the discipline of usul al-fiqh. The study found that the bay’ ‘inah contract is not allowed by Islamic law. The study has proposed the standardisation of the fatwa differences based on the concept of mura’aht al-khilaf and the concept of standardisation in Islamic finance and to standardise personal financing products amongst IFIs in Malaysia.
The paper proposes a model that will enable us to go deeper into the study of organizations, bringing forth a framework that will allow us to make many propositions…
The paper proposes a model that will enable us to go deeper into the study of organizations, bringing forth a framework that will allow us to make many propositions explicit and thus provide a contrast to the alignment theory. We test the model in the Spanish hotel industry. We have been able to identify the internal processes and behavior that fit into each strategic pattern, which go deeper into the process of putting each strategy into practice (first objective: first set of hypotheses). Furthermore, the analysis of the internal processes and behavior that bring about the different degrees of effectiveness in each strategic type makes it possible to build or maintain the complementary nature of business strategy and internal process, and guarantee its success (second objective: second and third sets of hypotheses).
Tourism has become one of the important events in the world with travel taking less time and becoming ever cheaper. Today many people are travelling to see new places or…
Tourism has become one of the important events in the world with travel taking less time and becoming ever cheaper. Today many people are travelling to see new places or to have new experiences, and these movements result in considerable changes in community life (Do_an, 1987). From the beginning of tourism movements different inputs and mutual interactions have been faced. These emerge in some changes in community structures. When congress tourism and tourism movements are studied together, it can be seen that they have many common parts. In congress tourism, varying types can be seen: conferences, seminars, symposiums. A comprehensive name can be given for all these efforts: a “meeting”. Meetings can be summarized as conversations for information exchange among people gathered in a meetingplace. Sometimes the congress tourism concept can be used instead of meeting. Meeting delegates have high income levels and their spending amounts are generally higher than those of normal tourists. With only limited time, meeting delegates depart quickly after the meeting. Beside the meeting delegates, there are also accompanying people, and these people are also a good potential in meeting efforts (Tekeli, 2001). Since the importance of tourism is increasing day by day, this importance brings strong competition. Countries have to compete for new tourism markets as well as keep existing markets. In this context, congress tourism can be evaluated as one important type of tourism. In this article, congress tourism movements are examined in the world and in Turkey. Developments, the important countries, cities, and efforts related to this subject have been investigated.