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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2008

John O'Sullivan and Teresa Dana

The purpose of the study is to investigate the process of economic development within a Maori context in order to identify successful processes for economic development

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to investigate the process of economic development within a Maori context in order to identify successful processes for economic development that can be utilised by Maori for future economic progress. This study seeks insights into how to set up an appropriate framework to achieve suitable outcomes for these peoples, taking into account their world view.

Design/methodology/approach

The research study followed the tiaki or “mentor” model, where authoritative Maori individuals facilitate the research process. To ensure that the individuals interviewed were appropriate spokespeople, and that a variety of views on the topic of Maori economic development was solicited, judgment sampling was utilised to identify a list of potential interviewees.

Findings

Maori economic development requires that appropriate structures be put in place and that these structures must involve identifying the Maori community and meeting community aspirations. Achieving sovereignty and economic independence are goals of Maori economic development. Maori also seek acknowledgment of their authority in managing natural resources within the boundaries of historical tribal land. For Maori, it is important to view economic development as a vehicle for achieving social outcomes and reducing disparities.

Originality/value

This study uncovers underlying issues that need to be addressed when developing social‐ and economicdevelopment structures for an indigenous group.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2000

Ann Sullivan and Dimitri Margaritis

This paper considers the implications of the liberalization of the New Zealand economy for entrepreneurial development by indigenous New Zealand Maori tribal…

1146

Abstract

This paper considers the implications of the liberalization of the New Zealand economy for entrepreneurial development by indigenous New Zealand Maori tribal organizations. Since 1984 the economic objective of the State has been to create a modern market economy free of price distortions, bureaucratic management and government protectionism. One of the State’s responses to enabling tribal organizations to provide for increased self‐determination and to lessen Maori State dependency was to seriously address the issue of compensation to Maori of resources that had been expropriated or confiscated during the past 150 years. While there have been difficulties in reaching agreement on appropriate or adequate allocations of Crown‐owned resources or compensation, the transferal of resources to private (but collective) Maori ownership is now providing a substantial economic base to build corporate and other entrepreneurial activities. It is argued that such willingness and commitment to transfer resources from the State back to the original owners was a manifest outcome of government’s adoption of liberal economic policies.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 6 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2019

Jason Paul Mika, Graham Hingangaroa Smith, Annemarie Gillies and Fiona Wiremu

This paper aims to examine indigenous governance and economies of iwi Maori (Maori tribes) in Aotearoa New Zealand. Research into persisting inequities amongst iwi that…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine indigenous governance and economies of iwi Maori (Maori tribes) in Aotearoa New Zealand. Research into persisting inequities amongst iwi that have settled treaty claims and the potential for intervention through new governance models and indigenous entrepreneurship contextualise the paper.

Design/methodology/approach

Kaupapa Maori (Maori philosophy) is used as an indigenous methodology to facilitate and empower transformative change, underpinned by Maori knowledge, language and culture. A multi-level approach is used to collect data from international, national and local tribal organisations. Validity is established through stakeholder engagement.

Findings

A central challenge in the post-treaty settlement context is exponentialising tribal capabilities because of the multiple purposes ascribed to post-settled iwi. Four themes, characterised as “unfolding tensions”, offer a critique and basis for solving tribal development challenges: how do tribes create culturally grounded global citizens; how do tribes rebalance wealth creation and wealth distribution; how do tribes recalibrate tribal institutions; and how do tribes embed entrepreneurship and innovation within their economies?

Research limitations/implications

As data collection is still underway, the paper is conceptual.

Practical implications

Five strategies to address unfolding tensions are identified for tribes to consider.

Social implications

Tribal governors and tribal members are implicated in the analysis, as well as the architects of post-treaty settlement governance models.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to theorising about tribal governance, economies and entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2019

Jason Paul Mika, Nicolas Fahey and Joanne Bensemann

This paper aims to contribute to indigenous entrepreneurship theory by identifying what constitutes an indigenous enterprise, focussing on Aotearoa New Zealand as a case.

1033

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contribute to indigenous entrepreneurship theory by identifying what constitutes an indigenous enterprise, focussing on Aotearoa New Zealand as a case.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper combines policy (quantitative survey) and academic research (qualitative interviews) to answer the same question, what is an indigenous enterprise in Aotearoa New Zealand?

Findings

The authors found a degree of consistency as to what counts as an indigenous enterprise in the literature (e.g., identity, ownership, values), yet a consensus on a definition of Maori business remains elusive. They also found that an understanding of the indigenous economy and indigenous entrepreneurial policy are impeded because of definitional uncertainties. The authors propose a definition of Maori business which accounts for indigenous ownership, identity, values and well-being.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation is that the literature and research use different definitions of indigenous enterprise, constraining comparative analysis. The next step is to evaluate our definition as a basis for quantifying the population of indigenous enterprises in Aotearoa New Zealand.

Practical implications

The research assists indigenous entrepreneurs to identify, measure and account for their contribution to indigenous self-determination and sustainable development.

Social implications

This research has the potential to reconceptualise indigenous enterprise as a distinct and legitimate alternative institutional theory of the firm.

Originality/value

The research challenges assumptions and knowledge of entrepreneurship policy and practice generally and the understanding of what is the nature and extent of an indigenous firm.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Russell Craig, Rawiri Taonui and Susan Wild

The indigenous Māori culture of New Zealand offers valuable insights for the development of ideas about the concept of asset. To highlight such insights, and to encourage…

3460

Abstract

Purpose

The indigenous Māori culture of New Zealand offers valuable insights for the development of ideas about the concept of asset. To highlight such insights, and to encourage a rethinking, this paper aims to explore the meaning of the closest Māori term to asset, taonga.

Design/methodology/approach

The critical review the authors conduct fuses Western literature‐based scholarship with an indigenous scholarly method that utilises oral information and the written literature of Māori scholars who have recognised traditional and scholarly credentials.

Findings

Taonga includes a sacred regard for the whole of nature and a belief that resources are gifts from the gods and ancestors for which current generations of Māori are responsible stewards. Taonga emphasises guardianship over ownership, collective and co‐operative rights over individualism, obligations towards future generations, and the need to manage resources sustainably.

Originality/value

The insights offered by Māori culture are beneficial in addressing a range of vexing environmental and social issues in ways that embrace a broader set of principles than those based on individual property rights and economic values.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2014

Catherine Savage, Eruera Tarena, Hemi Te Hemi and John Leonard

This chapter describes and examines how Iwi (tribe)-led projects in Higher Education settings might advance Iwi aspirations and lead to authentic collaboration. Two recent…

Abstract

This chapter describes and examines how Iwi (tribe)-led projects in Higher Education settings might advance Iwi aspirations and lead to authentic collaboration. Two recent developments in higher education, Mau ki te Ako – Culturally responsive professional learning and development for teachers and He Toki ki te Rika – a Māori trade training initiative, are discussed. Both initiatives are Iwi-led partnerships facilitated by Te Tapuae o Rehua between partner tertiary institutions. These projects or sites in which Iwi engage with tertiary institutions can be seen to reflect society at large as sites of struggle where power is negotiated, aspirations are articulated and values inherent in the way in which projects are progressed.

Details

Māori and Pasifika Higher Education Horizons
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-703-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Tremane Lindsay Barr, John Reid, Pavel Catska, Golda Varona and Matt Rout

Tribal economic development in post-settlement era Aoteroa/New Zealand has opened up opportunities for Maori to invest in the sustainable commercial utilisation of their…

Abstract

Purpose

Tribal economic development in post-settlement era Aoteroa/New Zealand has opened up opportunities for Maori to invest in the sustainable commercial utilisation of their traditional economic resources. Mahinga kai (traditional food and food sources) has always been at the heart of the Maori tribe Ngāi Tahu’s spiritual, cultural, social and economic existence. The purpose of this research is to revitalise mahinga kai enterprise through the commercial development of traditional and contemporary food and food resources in a culturally commensurate manner.

Design/methodology/approach

Participant action research theory and practice were used by researchers from Toitū Te Kāinga (Regional Development Unit of Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu) between 2008 and 2012. This was informed by a Kaupapa Maori philosophy of respect and empowerment of the participants’ needs.

Findings

The development of the Ahikā Kai Indigenous business system shows that competitive advantage can be created for Indigenous businesses and enterprises through a four-pronged strategy based around: first, human rights that empower tribal members; second, product differentiation based on cultural principles; third, an internal accreditation system to help verify the ethical credibility of the products; and fourth, lowering producer costs through website marketing and direct-to-consumer selling.

Originality/value

This research adds to a growing (yet still evolving) body of literature on Indigenous entrepreneurship and the role of voluntary certification in Indigenous business development. The Ahikā Kai business system is an original world first for this type of Indigenous development based on creating a competitive advantage for multiple independent enterprises while maintaining the core integrity of its cultural brand and its operations.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2003

Howard H Frederick and Ella Henry

Polynesian settlers arrived in Aotearoa (in te reo, or Māori language, “Land of the Long White Cloud”) about the 10th century. Aotearoa was visited briefly by the Dutch…

Abstract

Polynesian settlers arrived in Aotearoa (in te reo, or Māori language, “Land of the Long White Cloud”) about the 10th century. Aotearoa was visited briefly by the Dutch navigator Abel Tasman in 1642. However, it was not until 1769 that the British naval captain James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to explore New Zealand’s coastline thoroughly. The word Māori meant “usual or ordinary” as opposed to the “different” European settlers. Before the arrival of Europeans, Māori, or indigenous Polynesian inhabitants of New Zealand, had no name for themselves as a nation, only a number of tribal names. The original meaning of Pākeha, the settlers, was a person from England. With time, Pākeha became the word to describe fair-skinned people born in New Zealand. We use the word Pākeha here in the sense of the New Zealand census as a European New Zealander.

Details

Ethnic Entrepreneurship: Structure and Process
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-220-7

Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Ruth Hephzibah Orhoevwri

This chapter focuses on exploring social innovation among Māori entrepreneurs. The notion that social entrepreneurship (SE) has always been a core part of Indigenous…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on exploring social innovation among Māori entrepreneurs. The notion that social entrepreneurship (SE) has always been a core part of Indigenous entrepreneurship is supported by existing literature. However, the role of Indigenous worldviews and the entrepreneurial ecosystem within which the Indigenous entrepreneur operates has been overlooked. A Case Study method was used, Case 1 was a whānau (kinship)-based social enterprise and Case 2 was a trust-based social enterprise. Both cases showed similarities in terms of cultural integration of Māoritanga into their values and how they created social innovation. Case 1 models a social engineer by designing architectural works that integrated Māori designs, but with a contemporary style that changed how the community designed projects. Case 2 also exemplified similar characteristics, but with more focus on creating economic development through community-based enterprise with a social goal using very innovative means such as community volunteering and youth engagement. Case 3 stood for a more shared-economy approach to social innovation. The entrepreneurial ecosystem is perceived by the cases quite similarly because they felt government policies were irrelevant because they did not integrate the core values of Māori. The implications of these findings are mainly policy-based because the Crown needs to re-evaulate how it engages with Māori social entrepreneurs.

Details

Clan and Tribal Perspectives on Social, Economic and Environmental Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-366-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2009

Patty McNicholas

This paper aims to provide a debate piece on recent approaches to Maori development and the participation of Maori in the accountancy profession.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a debate piece on recent approaches to Maori development and the participation of Maori in the accountancy profession.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper considers the relationship between “accounting”, “accountability” and cultural identity for those Maori wanting a career in accountancy.

Findings

The paper finds that, while Maori accountants have made some progress as members of the profession, they remain statistically unfavoured in terms of participation.

Originality/value

The paper raises challenging questions about whether the profession should provide Maori accountants with the opportunity to develop approaches based on their own priorities and culture to assist in building the capacity and capability of Maori organisations and Maori accountants as service professionals, thereby making a valuable contribution to Maori development.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

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