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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Danny Claro, Valter Afonso Vieira, Raj Agnihotri and Rafael Serer

As manufacturers and retailers aim to increase return on marketing investments, value- vs experience-related trade promotions gain attention. These two trade promotions…

Abstract

Purpose

As manufacturers and retailers aim to increase return on marketing investments, value- vs experience-related trade promotions gain attention. These two trade promotions become complicated in the presence of different retail format strategies (generalist vs specialist) and channel structures (direct to retailer vs distributors). Building on trade promotion literature, this study aims to show the main effect of value-related and experience-related trade promotions on retailers’ sales and the moderating role of different retail strategies and channel structures.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use unique panel data from 8 personal care brands with 1,920 observations to test the hypotheses. The authors investigate how consumer goods manufacturer sells products using different channels structures and retail strategies. Estimated panel regressions provide the empirical evidence and robustness analyzes provide extra confidence to the findings.

Findings

Results reveal higher retail sales when the manufacturer invests in value-related trade promotions rather than experience-related trade promotions. The results also demonstrate how the manufacturer successfully invests in trade promotion by adequately accounting for channel structure and retail strategy. While temporary price reduction’s positive effect on retail sales is enhanced in generalist retailers (e.g. supermarket stores), shelf display’s positive impact is enhanced in specialist retailers (drug stores).

Research limitations/implications

The authors used unique panel data accounting for 15 months, limiting the findings. The results supported the investment allocation decisions in each period. However, future research may evaluate the effectiveness over a longer period and thoroughly address each investment’s seasonal effects.

Practical implications

The authors unveil how retailers achieve higher sales with value-related trade promotions when compared to experience-related trade promotions. The authors also shed light on the way manufacturers design their relationships with generalist and specialist retailers by working in direct and indirect channels. Trade promotions yield better results when the direct channel structure couples with a retailer’s generalist strategy.

Originality/value

The empirical findings help manufacturers achieve success in trade promotions by developing an equitable evaluation to contrast value- and experience-related promotions accounting for generalist and specialist retail strategies and direct and indirect channels.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Guangyuan Xing, Yi Li, Haixu Bao, Guoxing Zhang and Zhenguo Li

Public crisis often generates new knowledge that should be incorporated into a government’s macro-control to ensure the relief supply. From the perspective of public…

Abstract

Purpose

Public crisis often generates new knowledge that should be incorporated into a government’s macro-control to ensure the relief supply. From the perspective of public crisis knowledge management, the Chinese system of Government relief supplies can be considered as a special case of the knowledge system. This paper aims to investigate the supply and production mechanism of relief goods and explore the advantages of the Chinese system when a sudden public crisis occurs.

Design/methodology/approach

Under the Chinese system, the authors construct a relief supply chain model consisting of the Chinese Government, one manufacturer and one supplier, where the supplier has no capital constraints. Given the demand for relief goods, the government purchases from the manufacturer with a guide price. Then, the manufacturer decides on its order quantity and offers a wholesale price to the supplier. The supplier has a random capacity and decides on the level of knowledge acquisition to improve its capacity.

Findings

The authors first obtain the analytical solution for the manufacturer to motivate a high level of knowledge acquisition from the supplier. Specifically, the manufacturer’s optimal order quantity is equal to the demand and the optimal wholesale price has a cost-plus form that reimburses the supplier for its production cost and knowledge-acquisition cost. Next, the authors derive the optimal guide price for the government, which should be set to subsidize the manufacturer with a proportion of the sourcing cost. Finally, the authors compare the Chinese system with the market mechanism where the supplier has capital constraints and confirm that the Chinese system is more beneficial to both the manufacturer and the government.

Originality/value

Quantitative research on the Chinese system of Government relief supplies is difficult to be conducted. This paper provides feasible and practical methods to quantify the benefits of the Chinese system. The results reveal that the Chinese system is an effective mechanism of public crisis knowledge management, which can be helpful to the government’s policy-making in practice.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 9 September 2021

Zhaojun Han, Baofeng Huo and Xiande Zhao

The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of backward supply chain information sharing (SCIS) on the performance of different parties along supply chains.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of backward supply chain information sharing (SCIS) on the performance of different parties along supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data collected from 617 Chinese manufacturers, this study examines the effect of information sharing from manufacturers to suppliers (ISMS) on supplier and manufacturer responsiveness in both two- and three-tier supply chains and the transferrable effect of information sharing from customers to manufacturers (ISCM) on supplier responsiveness. The authors use structural equation modeling and regression analysis to estimate the proposed relationships.

Findings

ISMS is positively related to supplier responsiveness in both two- and three-tier SCIS, whereas its effect on manufacturer responsiveness is conditional, indicating that upstream receiving parties benefit more from backward SCIS. ISCM is positively related to supplier responsiveness, demonstrating the transferable effect of backward SCIS.

Practical implications

When designing SCIS strategies, managers should take into account the unequal distribution of benefits from SCIS and the transferable effect of backward SCIS. Specifically, companies should always motivate their downstream partners to engage in SCIS, while they themselves need to be cautious with information sharing. They should also be aware that their information sharing behavior may benefit a third upstream party.

Originality/value

This study provides deep insights into the distribution of the benefits from SCIS among supply chain partners and suggests that the direction and the role supply chain partners play (as receiving or disclosing parties) in SCIS matter.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Xue Li

Private labels (PLs) have flowed into a wide range of categories and continue to expand especially in the mass channel. This paper aims to investigate the optimal PL…

Abstract

Purpose

Private labels (PLs) have flowed into a wide range of categories and continue to expand especially in the mass channel. This paper aims to investigate the optimal PL sourcing strategy for a retailer and the impact of different sourcing strategies on the interaction between the upstream national brand (NB) manufacturer and the downstream retailer in a dyadic supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop a game-theoretic model that allows for vertical differentiation, where a retailer may choose between two types of PL sourcing strategies, i.e. fringe and NB manufacturer sourcing (NBMS). Under fringe manufacturer sourcing, the procurement cost is low but the PL recognition is also low. There exists a group of loyal consumers who only choose the NB. Under NBMS, the procurement cost is high but the loyal consumers may switch between two products. The channel members engage in a three-stage sequential game and the authors analyze the subgame perfect equilibrium by comparing the retailer’s best profits in the two subgames, i.e. fringe and NBMS.

Findings

The model shows that the retailer inclines to source from the NB manufacturer if the size of the loyal consumer group is relatively large, which provides a rationale for the existence of NBMS. It is also shown that the NB quality plays a positive role on NBMS. As the NB quality becomes higher, the retailer is more likely to procure the PL from the NB manufacturer instead of the fringe manufacturer. In addition, both channel members can be better off and more consumer surplus is provided by expanding the market under NBMS. Overall, sourcing from the NB manufacturer may improve channel profit, consumer welfare and social welfare.

Originality/value

The research contributes to explaining why the practice of sourcing PLs from NB manufacturers is widely adopted by retailers and can help retailers to make appropriate PL sourcing strategies under various circumstances.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Zonghuo Li, Wensheng Yang and Yinyuan Si

This paper investigates a dual-channel supply chain in which a manufacturer offers coupons in the online channel and the retailer in the offline channel. The optimal…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates a dual-channel supply chain in which a manufacturer offers coupons in the online channel and the retailer in the offline channel. The optimal pricing and coupon promotion policies are explored, and the brand image under different promotion scenarios is studied.

Design/methodology/approach

Three differential game models, namely no coupon is offered, coupons offered by the manufacturer and coupons offered by the retailer, are constructed.

Findings

The results show that the manufacturer and retailer intend to conduct coupon promotions under a large coupon redemption rate. Coupon promotion derives a higher price and profit for the issuers, and the manufacturer can free-ride on the retailer's coupon promotion. The retailer's profit in the retailer-promotion scenario may be lower than that in the manufacturer-promotion scenario in some special conditions. Besides, price, coupon face value, brand image and profit increase over time. After multiple cycles game, the operational strategy evolves to an optimal equilibrium status.

Originality/value

This paper provides guidance and advice for dual-channel supply enterprises to implement joint pricing and coupon promotion strategies under multiple sales seasons.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Lu Yang, Baofeng Huo, Min Tian and Zhaojun Han

Digitalization encourages the manufacturer to engage in inter-organizational technological activities (i.e. supplier IT integration and supply visibility) with its major…

Abstract

Purpose

Digitalization encourages the manufacturer to engage in inter-organizational technological activities (i.e. supplier IT integration and supply visibility) with its major supplier, which influences supply chain (SC) governance. This study tests a moderated mediation model that considers supplier IT integration and supply visibility as mediators between supply-side digitalization and supplier opportunism, and relational ties as a moderator in the relationship between inter-organizational technological activities and supplier opportunism.

Design/methodology/approach

Ordinary least square (OLS) regression is used to examine data from 200 firms in China describing their supply chain management (SCM) practices and perceived relationships with their major suppliers.

Findings

Supply-side digitalization is positively related to supplier IT integration and supply visibility. Supply-side digitalization has a positive indirect effect on supplier opportunism through supplier IT integration but a negative indirect effect through supply visibility. Relational ties weaken the positive effect of supplier IT integration and the positive indirect effect of supply-side digitalization on supplier opportunism. Relational ties also weaken the negative effect of supply visibility and the negative indirect effect of supply-side digitalization on supplier opportunism.

Originality/value

This study enriches understanding of SC governance in the digital age by empirically confirming that digital transformation brings both challenges and opportunities to SC governance and by clarifying the interplay of relational governance and technological activities. In addition, this study contributes to the SC digitalization literature by empirically validating the role of digitalization in promoting inter-organizational technological activities, as well as by revealing its potential dark side.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 41 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2021

Huailiang Zhang, Yan Zhou and Minghui Jiang

Based on the idea of part standardisation and product differentiation in lean management, this paper answers the question when integrate firms should choose market…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the idea of part standardisation and product differentiation in lean management, this paper answers the question when integrate firms should choose market foreclosure to maximise profits by studying a two-tier supply chain, which contains three types of firms: suppliers, manufacturers and integrated firms. Moreover, the effect of the substitutability between final products and the competition among firms in the supply chain would be investigated from the perspective of dynamic analysis.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering the decision order of integrated firms and manufacturers in the downstream of the supply chain, the authors build three competition models. In each model, integrated firms compete with manufacturers in Bertrand–Nash fashion. And, suppliers compete with each other in Cournot fashion, so do integrated firms and manufacturers. The authors further discuss how the competitive relationship between firms affect the equilibrium result.

Findings

Numerical analysis reveals that under other conditions unchanged, the increased competition between downstream firms leads to the rise in the willingness of selling parts for integrated firms, while the increase in the number of suppliers has the opposite effect. In addition, due to the market change before and after the vertical merger, it may lead to the transition from profitable to unprofitable for the vertical merger.

Originality/value

This paper provides a theoretical analysis and managerial implication for integrated firms' market foreclosure decision. From the perspective of dynamic analysis, this paper demonstrates the result of vertical mergers and provides an explanation for the failure of vertical mergers.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Xiaoping Xu, Yugang Yu, Guowei Dou and Xiaomei Ruan

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the operational decisions of a manufacturer who produces multiple products and the government's selection of cap-and-trade and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the operational decisions of a manufacturer who produces multiple products and the government's selection of cap-and-trade and carbon tax regulations.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explores the production decisions of a multi-product manufacturer under cap-and-trade and carbon tax regulations in a cap-dependent carbon trading price setting and compares carbon emission, the manufacturer's profits and social welfare under the two regulations. Game theory and extreme value theory are used to analyze our models.

Findings

First, the authors find that the optimal profit of the manufacturer (the optimal cap) increases and then decreases with the cap (the unit carbon emission of product). Second, if the environmental damage coefficient is moderate, the optimal cap of unit environmental damage coefficient is independent of the product carbon emission or other related product parameters. Ultimately, cap-and-trade regulation always generates more carbon emission than carbon tax regulation. And cap-and-trade regulation (carbon tax regulation) can generate more social welfare if the environmental damage coefficient is low (high), and the social welfare under the two regulations is equal to each other, or otherwise.

Originality/value

This paper contributes the prior literature by considering the inverse relationship of the allocated cap and the carbon trading price and discusses the social welfare under cap-and-trade and carbon tax regulations. Some important and new results are found, which can guide the government's implementation of the two regulations.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2021

Lingchen Huang, Ting Feng and Zongsheng Huang

Responding to the store brand (SB) introduction by the retailer, the manufacturer may adopt the strategic choice of incorporating the fairness concern behavior of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Responding to the store brand (SB) introduction by the retailer, the manufacturer may adopt the strategic choice of incorporating the fairness concern behavior of the retailer. This paper aims to examine how the manufacturer can counteract the retailer’s SB introduction by strategically choosing to or not to incorporating the retailer’s fairness concern.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper considers the SB introduction problem in a two-echelon supply chain consisting of one manufacturer and one retailer with fairness concern behavior. This paper resolves the pricing strategies under four strategic scenarios regarding fairness concern incorporation and SB introduction and examine the influences from the fairness concern on pricing strategies and profits. This paper further investigates the strategic choice equilibrium of the manufacturer and retailer on fairness concern and SB introduction decision.

Findings

The results show that the retailer can be better off by the introduction of the SB only when the acceptance degree of the SB is high enough. And whether the manufacturer should incorporate the retailer's fairness concern depends on the consumer's acceptance of the SB: Only when the consumer's acceptance is moderate, the manufacturer is able to counteract the SB by strategically not incorporating the retailer’s fairness concern behavior. Otherwise, the manufacturer cannot prevent the retailer from introducing the SB and can be better off by incorporating the retailer’s fairness concern behavior.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by examining whether the manufacturer can adopt the strategic incorporation of the retailer's fairness concern to counteract the retailer's SB introduction.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2021

Dan Shi, Weijia Zhang, Guangyu Zou and Jinkun Ping

The purpose of this paper is to explore the operation strategies of a manufacturer who produces brown and green product simultaneously.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the operation strategies of a manufacturer who produces brown and green product simultaneously.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors establish three models to examine the joint decisions of pricing and advertising. Three advertising strategies are: non-advertising investment (NA), advertising investment for brown product (BA) and advertising investment for green product (GA).

Findings

The theoretical analysis shows that advertising investment can substantially increase the product greening level and manufacturer's profit. More importantly, we find that the GA strategy is more likely to be the best strategy as the advertising investment efficiency increases. The BA strategy is more likely to be preferred as the R&D cost increases. Finally, the modeling results are verified by numerical experiments, and more insights are obtained.

Research limitations/implications

This paper considers the case in which a single manufacturer produces the brown and green product simultaneously. In fact, many manufacturers in the market produce brown and green product at the same time. Furthermore, in addition to advertising investment for brown product and green product, manufacturers can also invest in advertising for brands.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the investigations on green production and advertising decisions of a manufacturer who produces brown and green products simultaneously.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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