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Article
Publication date: 24 November 2021

Kebing Chen, Qi Wang and Shengbin Wang

The paper aims to explore how the participants in the closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) select collecting strategies under the scenarios of information symmetry and…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to explore how the participants in the closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) select collecting strategies under the scenarios of information symmetry and asymmetry, and to investigate the value of corporate social responsibility (CSR) cost information for participants.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper constructs a two-echelon CLSC Stackelberg game consisting of one manufacturer and one retailer, where the manufacturer undertakes CSR and is responsible for the remanufacturing of used products. First, the authors establish two collecting models under information symmetry: manufacturer-collecting and retailer-collecting. Second, the authors construct two collecting models under information asymmetry and propose a two-part tariff contract to coordinate the participants’ profits. Finally, the authors make a numerical analysis to verify the results.

Findings

Under information symmetry, the profit of the participant who does not undertake collecting is positively related to the collecting rate, and the other participant may not benefit from the increase in the collecting rate. Under information asymmetry, the manufacturer will still select the retailer-collecting channel. Asymmetric information only affects the retailer’s selection. In addition, the manufacturer’s private CSR cost information is always valuable to the retailer.

Originality/value

This paper first explores the influence of the CSR cost information value on the selection of collecting channel under information asymmetry in the CLSC. The results can help company managers choose optimal collecting channel under information symmetry or under information asymmetry.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2021

Qinyi Zhang, Wen Cao and Zhichao Zhang

With the rapid growth of the economy, people have increasingly higher living standards, and although people simply pursued material wealth in the past, they now pay more…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid growth of the economy, people have increasingly higher living standards, and although people simply pursued material wealth in the past, they now pay more attention to material quality and safety and environmental protection. This paper discusses the lack of motivation for investing in fresh-keeping technology for agricultural products by individual members of an agricultural supply chain composed of a supplier and a retailer by means of mathematical models and data simulations and discuss the optimal price-invest strategies under different sales models.

Design/methodology/approach

First, based on the model of no investment by both sides (NN), this paper considers three models: supplier only (MN), retailer only (NR) and cooperative investment (MR). Then, the authors analyze the influence of consumer price sensitivity and freshness sensitivity on the investment motivation of agricultural products under four models. Subsequently, the paper makes a sensitivity analysis of the optimal strategies under several models, and makes a game analysis of the suppliers and retailers of agricultural products. Finally, we conduct an empirical analysis through specific values.

Findings

The results show that (a) when the two sides cooperate, the amount of investment is largest, the freshness of the agricultural products is highest, and the sales volume is greatest; however, when both sides do not invest, the freshness of agricultural products and sales volume are lowest. (b) The price and freshness sensitivity of the consumer have an impact on investment decisions. Greater freshness sensitivity corresponds to a higher investment, higher agricultural product price, greater sales volume, and greater supply chain member income and overall income; however, greater price sensitivity corresponds to a lower investment, lower agricultural product price, lower sales volume, fewer supply chain members and lower overall income. (c) The investment game between the supplier and retailer is not only related to the sensitivity to price and freshness but also to the coordination coefficients of interest. At the same time, the market position of agricultural products should be considered when making decisions. The market share of agricultural products will affect the final game equilibrium and then affect the final benefit of the supply chain and individual members.

Practical implications

These results provide managerial insights for enterprises preparing to invest in agricultural products preservation technology.

Originality/value

At present, the main problem is that member enterprises of agricultural supply chains operate based on their own benefits and are resistant to investing alone to improve the freshness of agricultural products. Instead, they would prefer that other members invest so that they may reap the benefits at no cost. Therefore, the enterprises in each node of the agricultural product supply chain are not motivated enough to invest, and competition and game states are observed among them, and such behavior is definitely not conducive to improving the freshness of agricultural products. However, the current research on agricultural products is more about price, quality and greenness, etc., and there are few studies on agricultural investment. Through the establishment of the model, this paper is expected to provide theoretical suggestions for the supply chain enterprises that plan to invest in agricultural products preservation technology.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2021

Junyi Wei and Chuanxu Wang

The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of the information sharing of the dynamic demand on green technology innovation and profits in supply chain from a…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of the information sharing of the dynamic demand on green technology innovation and profits in supply chain from a long-term perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors consider a supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a retailer. The retailer has access to the information of dynamic demand of the green product, whereas the manufacturer invests in green technology innovation. Differential game theory is adopted to establish three models under three different scenarios, namely (1) decentralized decision without information sharing of dynamic demand (Model N-D), (2) decentralized decision with information sharing of dynamic demand (Model S-D) and (3) centralized decision with information sharing of dynamic demand (Model S-C).

Findings

The optimal equilibrium results show that information sharing of dynamic demand can improve the green technology innovation level and increase the green technology stocks only in centralized supply chain. In the long term, the information sharing of dynamic demand can make the retailer more profitable. If the influence of green technology innovation on green technology stocks is great enough or the cost coefficient of green technology innovation is small enough, the manufacturer and decentralized supply chain can benefit from information sharing. In centralized supply chain, the value of demand information sharing is greater than that of decentralized supply chain.

Originality/value

The authors used game theory to investigate demand information sharing and the green technology innovation in a supply chain. Specially, the demand information is dynamic, which is a variable that changes over time. Moreover, our research is based on a long-term perspective. Thus, differential game is adopted in this paper.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2021

Jun Wang, Song Yao, Xin Wang, Pengwen Hou and Qian Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal operational strategies in a green platform supply chain and provide suggestions on the selection of sales and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the optimal operational strategies in a green platform supply chain and provide suggestions on the selection of sales and financing modes for the capital-constrained manufacturer.

Design/methodology/approach

This study combines different sales channels with financing modes and investigates three sales-financing modes, i.e. traditional sales-prepayment financing (TSPF), traditional sales-bank financing (TSBF) and online sales e-retailer financing (OSEF). By establishing and comparing Stackelberg game models of these sales-financing modes from the perspectives of economy, environment and social welfare, the optimal strategies of emission reduction, financing, pricing and service improvement are obtained.

Findings

The results suggest that as the commission rate increases to a certain level, a threshold of the cost coefficient of emission reduction can be found such that the manufacturer should choose OSEF below this threshold and TSBF above this threshold. OSEF is Pareto optimal when this cost coefficient is low, and this mode can lead to the highest social welfare when the platform loan interest rate is relatively low. The Pareto areas in TSBF and OSEF enlarge as the default coefficient decreases.

Practical implications

These results can provide operational insights on how to select sales channels and financing modes when manufacturer faces financial constraints in emission reduction.

Originality/value

This paper combines different sales and financing modes to study their comprehensive influence on the decision-makings of chain members and the resulting performance of economy, environment and social welfare.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

He Lifang and Chen Hongzhuan

The purpose of this paper is to find an incentive strategy to enhance the interests of the main manufacturer by inducing the suppliers to conflict the fixed incentive…

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181

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find an incentive strategy to enhance the interests of the main manufacturer by inducing the suppliers to conflict the fixed incentive provided by the main manufacturer.

Design/methodology/approach

The main manufacturer‐supplier model is widely applied in the R&D procedure of complex products such as aeroplanes. Because of the uncertainty in the R&D, the effort of the suppliers has an important effect on it. Considering the dynamic interaction between the main manufacturers and suppliers, with the main manufacturers as leaders and suppliers as followers, this paper establishes a Grey‐Stackelberg model to analyze the best change of the incentive strategies of the main manufacturers and the effort strategies under incentive‐conflict of suppliers under the uncertain environment. A numeric example is also computed in the last part of the paper.

Findings

The results show that the main manufacturer can increase its benefit without damaging the interests of suppliers by controlling the fixed incentives.

Originality/value

The paper succeeds in establishing the Grey‐Stackelberg model by analysing the grey area among the main manufacturer and the suppliers, and helps to develop grey systems theory.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1997

Jack M. Cadeaux

Suggests that gaps exist between the product ranges or lines offered by manufacturers and the assortments selected and stocked by retailers. Looks at the extent to which…

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761

Abstract

Suggests that gaps exist between the product ranges or lines offered by manufacturers and the assortments selected and stocked by retailers. Looks at the extent to which differing levels of “product volatility” affect retailers’ selectivity in stocking items from a manufacturer’s line. Provides a limited test of several hypotheses about how the degree of product volatility of the category within which a manufacturer’s line belongs might affect the number of items in the line that will be stocked by a retailer. Analysis of stock‐planning data for two retailers in each of two product categories offers some support for the hypotheses. Interprets these results in light of theories of distribution channel co‐ordination and retailer expertise. They may reflect an alternative explanation for widely observed increases in retailer power.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Sydney Roslow, Henry A. Laskey and J.A.F. Nicholls

Cooperative advertising is intended for the mutual benefit ofchannel partners. Shows that manufacturers and dealers/distributors inthe boating industry view this marketing…

Abstract

Cooperative advertising is intended for the mutual benefit of channel partners. Shows that manufacturers and dealers/distributors in the boating industry view this marketing activity very differently. Manufacturers see no connection between cooperative advertising and other aspects of the relationships with their dealers. On the other hand, dealers relate their views of cooperative advertising to other facets of their relationships with manufacturers. Consequently, when there is conflict over cooperative advertising, it is liable to have a negative effect on other arrangements that dealers have with manufacturers. Manufacturers may not understand how negativity creeps into other relationships between dealers and themselves.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Danny Claro, Valter Afonso Vieira, Raj Agnihotri and Rafael Serer

As manufacturers and retailers aim to increase return on marketing investments, value- vs experience-related trade promotions gain attention. These two trade promotions…

Abstract

Purpose

As manufacturers and retailers aim to increase return on marketing investments, value- vs experience-related trade promotions gain attention. These two trade promotions become complicated in the presence of different retail format strategies (generalist vs specialist) and channel structures (direct to retailer vs distributors). Building on trade promotion literature, this study aims to show the main effect of value-related and experience-related trade promotions on retailers’ sales and the moderating role of different retail strategies and channel structures.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use unique panel data from 8 personal care brands with 1,920 observations to test the hypotheses. The authors investigate how consumer goods manufacturer sells products using different channels structures and retail strategies. Estimated panel regressions provide the empirical evidence and robustness analyzes provide extra confidence to the findings.

Findings

Results reveal higher retail sales when the manufacturer invests in value-related trade promotions rather than experience-related trade promotions. The results also demonstrate how the manufacturer successfully invests in trade promotion by adequately accounting for channel structure and retail strategy. While temporary price reduction’s positive effect on retail sales is enhanced in generalist retailers (e.g. supermarket stores), shelf display’s positive impact is enhanced in specialist retailers (drug stores).

Research limitations/implications

The authors used unique panel data accounting for 15 months, limiting the findings. The results supported the investment allocation decisions in each period. However, future research may evaluate the effectiveness over a longer period and thoroughly address each investment’s seasonal effects.

Practical implications

The authors unveil how retailers achieve higher sales with value-related trade promotions when compared to experience-related trade promotions. The authors also shed light on the way manufacturers design their relationships with generalist and specialist retailers by working in direct and indirect channels. Trade promotions yield better results when the direct channel structure couples with a retailer’s generalist strategy.

Originality/value

The empirical findings help manufacturers achieve success in trade promotions by developing an equitable evaluation to contrast value- and experience-related promotions accounting for generalist and specialist retail strategies and direct and indirect channels.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Guangyuan Xing, Yi Li, Haixu Bao, Guoxing Zhang and Zhenguo Li

Public crisis often generates new knowledge that should be incorporated into a government’s macro-control to ensure the relief supply. From the perspective of public…

Abstract

Purpose

Public crisis often generates new knowledge that should be incorporated into a government’s macro-control to ensure the relief supply. From the perspective of public crisis knowledge management, the Chinese system of Government relief supplies can be considered as a special case of the knowledge system. This paper aims to investigate the supply and production mechanism of relief goods and explore the advantages of the Chinese system when a sudden public crisis occurs.

Design/methodology/approach

Under the Chinese system, the authors construct a relief supply chain model consisting of the Chinese Government, one manufacturer and one supplier, where the supplier has no capital constraints. Given the demand for relief goods, the government purchases from the manufacturer with a guide price. Then, the manufacturer decides on its order quantity and offers a wholesale price to the supplier. The supplier has a random capacity and decides on the level of knowledge acquisition to improve its capacity.

Findings

The authors first obtain the analytical solution for the manufacturer to motivate a high level of knowledge acquisition from the supplier. Specifically, the manufacturer’s optimal order quantity is equal to the demand and the optimal wholesale price has a cost-plus form that reimburses the supplier for its production cost and knowledge-acquisition cost. Next, the authors derive the optimal guide price for the government, which should be set to subsidize the manufacturer with a proportion of the sourcing cost. Finally, the authors compare the Chinese system with the market mechanism where the supplier has capital constraints and confirm that the Chinese system is more beneficial to both the manufacturer and the government.

Originality/value

Quantitative research on the Chinese system of Government relief supplies is difficult to be conducted. This paper provides feasible and practical methods to quantify the benefits of the Chinese system. The results reveal that the Chinese system is an effective mechanism of public crisis knowledge management, which can be helpful to the government’s policy-making in practice.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2021

Nitty Hirawaty Kamarulzaman, Nurul Hasyima Khairuddin, Haslinda Hashim and Siti Rahayu Hussin

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between market orientation and innovative marketing strategies and the effect of innovative marketing strategies on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relationship between market orientation and innovative marketing strategies and the effect of innovative marketing strategies on the performance of agro-food manufacturers.

Design/methodology/approach

Systematic random sampling was used, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with 380 agro-food manufacturers. Several statistical analyses, including Pearson correlation analysis and logistic regression analysis, were used to analyze the relationship between market orientation and innovative marketing strategies, and the effect of innovative marketing strategies on the performance of agro-food manufacturers.

Findings

All dimensions of market orientation – customer orientation, competitor orientation and inter-functional coordination – have significant relationships with innovative marketing strategies (product, price, promotion and distribution), while customer orientation and promotion showed a very strong relationship among other variables measured. Innovative marketing strategies, specifically promotion, had the most effect on the performance of agro-food manufacturers.

Research limitations/implications

The sample for this study was selected among agro-food manufacturers in major locations in Peninsular Malaysia. Hence, the findings may only give an initial overview of the current state of the agro-food manufacturers.

Originality/value

This study highlighted the significance of market orientation and innovative marketing strategies for the betterment of performance in the agro-food manufacturing sector.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

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