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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2020

Manuel Alonso Dos Santos, Manuel J. Sánchez-Franco and Vicente Prado Gascó

The objective is to examine the influence of articulation on the effectiveness of sports sponsorship.

Abstract

Purpose

The objective is to examine the influence of articulation on the effectiveness of sports sponsorship.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses an experimental design with the following factors: articulation (articulated vs unarticulated), congruence (congruent and incongruent) and sporting discipline (tennis, F1 and sailing).

Findings

Even though the academic literature argues that articulation improves the indicators of performance, the authors have been unable to demonstrate that articulated sports posters have an influence on visual attention, congruence or recall. The results show that articulation diverts visual attention from the brand to the text, diminishing recall.

Originality/value

This is the first manuscript to use neurophysiological measures of the articulation effect. This is also the first manuscript that examines the differences in attention between articulated sponsorships based on their congruence.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2021

Manuel Alonso Dos Santos, Maria Huertas-Serrano, Manuel J. Sánchez-Franco and Eduardo I. Torres-Moraga

The academic literature debates the desirability of sponsoring alcohol products at sporting events, a discussion that increases as major sporting events approach. This…

Abstract

Purpose

The academic literature debates the desirability of sponsoring alcohol products at sporting events, a discussion that increases as major sporting events approach. This study aims to examine the influence that sponsorship of an alcoholic product such as beer has on the sports spectator, and the level of efficacy with respect to congruent, alcohol, and incongruent sponsorship.

Design/methodology/approach

The experiment was performed on 180 subjects considering three variables 3 × 3 × 2 (congruency type vs alcohol; sport discipline; placement). The experiment consisted of exposure to sponsored sports posters. Visual attention was recorded through eye tracking and then a self-reported questionnaire.

Findings

Through an experiment using eye tracking the results showed that the recall variable is higher among alcohol sponsorships and incongruent sponsorship, but it cannot be concluded either that the intention to buy or the attitude toward the brand differ among the sponsorships analyzed.

Practical implications

Alcohol brand is perceived as an incongruous brand in the context of sports sponsorship. Congruent sponsors attract more attention and recall, but no differences in terms of intention to buy. If purchase intent and consumption does not increase, perhaps sports sponsorship by alcohol brands should be reconsidered.

Originality/value

This research makes at least three relevant contributions to the scientific literature. (1) It examines the response to sponsorship in the media of the sports poster. (2) It analyses the consumer's response using neurophysiological means and provides new indicators in this area and (3) It compares performance indicators such as purchase intent, recall and brand attitude for alcoholic and non-alcoholic brand sponsors. These contributions could introduce new information about sponsorship performance.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Manuel Alonso Dos Santos, Orlando Llanos Contreras, Ferran Calabuig Moreno and Jose Augusto Felicio

This paper investigates the influence of firms' communication in terms of family firm identity and country-of-origin on consumer response.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the influence of firms' communication in terms of family firm identity and country-of-origin on consumer response.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-supplied online experiment in Chile and Spain is employed using as dependent variables brand trust and intention to buy. The experiment includes the following factors: family firm identity (family vs non-family), country of origin (national vs foreign) and as a manipulation check (type of product: hedonic vs utilitarian).

Findings

The results indicate that communicating the family firm identity increases brand trust and purchase intention. Consumers show higher scores on trust and purchase intention when exposed to national country of origin products. The effect of the variability on the dependent variables is greater when the family firm identity is communicated. Trust and purchase intention are different in Chilean and Spanish consumers when the family firm identity is combined with a national country of origin cue.

Originality/value

This article contributes to family business theory by exploring how to capitalize on the family firm identity component in brand communication. It also contributes to the theory of corporate brand identity by proposing a communication model oriented toward consumer behavior. It also examines firms' communication (family firm identity and country-of-origin) on consumer.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2019

Manuel Alonso Dos Santos, Ferran Calabuig Moreno and Josep Crespo-Hervás

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of congruence (perceived and effective) and the level of visual attention towards sponsors on recall and purchase…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of congruence (perceived and effective) and the level of visual attention towards sponsors on recall and purchase intention in sports sponsorship by applying neurophysiological measures.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is part of neuromarketing research applied to sports. The experiment entails eye tracking with 111 men and 129 women (n=24) with 24 sports posters of three different disciplines (sailing, tennis and F1), varying the congruence, the number of sponsors and the position (2×2×2). The data are analyzed via analysis of covariance and regression using ordinary least squares.

Findings

Brand recall is influenced by the number of sponsors present on the poster and by the time of fixation. Effective and perceived congruence covariance the purchase intention, but the full time of fixation on the sponsor does not. The latter only, purchase intention indirectly.

Practical implications

The results enable managers to implement better poster designs and sponsors to have objective measures of sponsorship.

Originality/value

There are few studies that analyze print media in sponsorship using neurophysiological techniques. This research is a pioneer in considering attention to sports posters to examine recall and purchase intention.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Manuel Alonso Dos Santos, Ferran Calabuig Moreno, Vicente Prado Gascó and Jonathan Cuevas Lizama

The aim of this study is to examine the influence of perceived sponsorship leverage on perceived product quality and the image transfer model, under moderation by fan involvement.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to examine the influence of perceived sponsorship leverage on perceived product quality and the image transfer model, under moderation by fan involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-report online survey was carried out after the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia. Responses were received from 422 individuals in 21 countries. The leverage scale was validated using exploratory factor analysis. Then, partial least squares–structural equation modeling was employed to examine the validity and reliability of the scales and test the structural model. Finally, multigroup analysis was used to examine how involvement moderates the influence of leverage.

Findings

Attitudes toward sponsorship and purchase intention are influenced by the perceived leverage and quality of the product. The multigroup analysis shows that perceived leverage does not influence the attitudes of individuals with low involvement. The influence of perceived leverage on perceived product quality is greater in individuals with high involvement.

Research limitations/implications

Sponsors should use collateral marketing strategies to target specific segments of individuals with high and low involvement separately. Showcasing the sponsoring products of brands renowned for their high quality could positively influence the results of sponsorship.

Originality/value

This article contributes to the sponsorship literature by exploring how sponsors can capitalize on collateral marketing actions. It also contributes to the theory of image transfer by exploring how perceived product quality can influence the effectiveness of sponsorship.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2018

Manuel Alonso Dos Santos, Francisco Rejón Guardia and Ferran Calabuig Moreno

The purpose of this paper is to assess the influences and efficiency of a sports sponsorship in an online brand community.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the influences and efficiency of a sports sponsorship in an online brand community.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted through interviews with 609 social network users of a Spanish first league soccer team. The partial least squares (PLS) methodology was applied with a posteriori segmentation (PLS prediction-oriented segmentation (POS)).

Findings

The attitude toward the sponsor helps to assess the efficiency of sponsorships between companies. This variable is particularly relevant for evaluating sponsorship efficiency in online brand communities. Improving trust and assessing the sense of membership directly improves attitudes toward the team and the sponsored brands. The attitude toward the sponsor has a direct and positive impact on the purchase intentions. The use of a posteriori segmentation with the PLS–POS technique helps discriminate between groups.

Research limitations/implications

Among the limitations encountered, further study would require using a sample of various sports disciplines and cultures.

Practical implications

Specific actions and communication strategies are defined for each segment and in general to adapt communication strategies that improve identification with virtual brand communities. The study has revealed involvement-related differences resulting from the impact that engagement with the sponsored team may have on the assessed relationships.

Originality/value

The study of the effects of sponsorship and the use of a posteriori variables user segmentation in an online brand community are used.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 118 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Manuel Alonso Dos Santos and Ferran Calabuig Moreno

The purpose of this paper is to represent a pilot study which aims to explore the attention to sponsorship variable by assessing the level of congruence linked to both the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to represent a pilot study which aims to explore the attention to sponsorship variable by assessing the level of congruence linked to both the sponsor and the sponsored entity (sponsee).

Design/methodology/approach

This research performed an experiment involving three different sporting activities where the level of congruence was perceived in a different way according to the different attributes of sponsorship message. Electroencephalograms were employed in order to measure reaction times when recognizing and identifying the level of congruence of sponsorship messages. The rate of successful understanding and identification of these sponsorship messages was also measured with this tool.

Findings

Incongruent, misfit messages are processed and encoded with a higher level of attention as opposed to the information which is reliable and consistent with prior expectations (congruent pairings). This means that subjects find fit, congruent messages more difficult to identify; in this case the information is poorly encoded and often misunderstood. In relation to attention congruity, this research found no differences across the different sporting activities which were examined.

Practical implications

This research proves that neuroscientific methods can be useful to assess the performance of sponsorship as an alternative to traditional techniques. In addition, this research contributes to the existing debate in the literature regarding the disagreeing results on the actual effectiveness of sponsoring congruent perceived events involving congruent perceived sports teams.

Originality/value

This paper is pioneering in the measurement of sponsorship performance through the use of electroencephalograms. Also, the level of attention is considered as a performance indicator.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2019

David Parra Camacho, Manuel Alonso Dos Santos and Daniel Duclos Bastias

The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the influence of enthusiasm, fair social distribution of costs and benefits and the quality of the information…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the influence of enthusiasm, fair social distribution of costs and benefits and the quality of the information received through the media in the support for holding sporting events and in future intentions of the Football Copa America held in Chile.

Design/methodology/approach

Through partial least squares structural equation modelling, two samples from two host cities (Concepción=373; Viña del Mar=267) are analysed.

Findings

Enthusiasm, the perception of the fair distribution and the quality of the information positively influence the support for sporting events and the future intentions. In the same way, the quality of the information positively influences enthusiasm and fair social distribution. Significant changes were observed between the two cities in the relationships between the quality of the information and the variables of future intentions and enthusiasm and between this variable and those of support and the future intentions of the residents.

Research limitations/implications

The convenience sampling limits the extrapolation of the results.

Practical implications

An adequate management of the quality of the information, social justice and enthusiasm can contribute to forming a social representation of the event that determines the backing or the behaviour of the citizens.

Social implications

Examination of the negative perceptions that cause bad feeling amongst the population receives a mega-event.

Originality/value

The contribution of theoretical evidence about possible data can determine the social backing and the behaviour of the residents in welcoming a major sporting event.

Objetivo

Comparar y comprobar la influencia del entusiasmo, la distribución social justa de los beneficios y costes y la calidad de la información recibida a través de los medios de comunicación en el respaldo a la celebración de los eventos deportivos y en las intenciones futuras de los residentes de la Copa América de Fútbol (CAF) celebrada en Chile.

Diseño/Metodología/Enfoque

A través de PLS-SEM se analizan dos muestras de dos ciudades anfitrionas (Concepción=373; Viña del Mar=267).

Resultados

El entusiasmo, la percepción sobre la distribución social justa y la calidad de la información influyen positivamente en el apoyo a los eventos deportivos y en las intenciones futuras. Asimismo, la calidad de información influye positivamente en el entusiasmo y la distribución social justa. Se observaron cambios significativos entre las dos ciudades en las relaciones entre la calidad de información y las variables de intenciones futuras y entusiasmo y entre esta variable y las de apoyo y las intenciones futuras de los residentes.

Limitaciones de la investigación/implicaciones

El muestreo de conveniencia limita la extrapolación de los resultados.

Implicaciones prácticas

Una adecuada gestión de la calidad de la información, la justicia social y el entusiasmo puede contribuir a formar una representación social del evento que determine el respaldo o el comportamiento de los ciudadanos.

Implicaciones sociales

Examinar las percepciones negativas que causan malestar entre la población que recibe un mega-evento.

Originalidad/valor

Aporta evidencias teóricas sobre posibles datos que pueden determinar el respaldo social y el comportamiento de los residentes en la acogida de un gran evento deportivo.

Abstract

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Gonzalo Valdés, Jonathan Astorga, Rodrigo Fuentes-Solís and Manuel Alonso Dos Santos

The goal of this research is to evaluate obstacles to innovation according to the perception of firms in the Chilean food sector, and to assess the relationships of these…

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this research is to evaluate obstacles to innovation according to the perception of firms in the Chilean food sector, and to assess the relationships of these obstacles with innovation spending and willingness to innovate.

Design/methodology/approach

We analyzed data from the Chilean National Innovation Survey (Encuesta Nacional de Innovación) of 2017 and 2019, which were administered by the Ministry of Economy and the National Institute of Statistics. This survey is designed to be nationally representative. The methods we employed to analyze the data include linear regression, probit and logit models and factor analysis.

Findings

We found that obstacles to innovation can be grouped into five types, namely: cost-based, knowledge-related, market problems, lack of necessity for innovations and regulatory. Cost was positively, and significantly, associated with innovation (expenditures and willingness to innovate). We argue that this is because as firms engage in innovation, they become aware of the associated costs. Also, knowledge obstacles and lack of necessity were negatively associated with innovation. This may mean that as firms engage in innovation, they are able to overcome said obstacles; which speaks well of their innovation ecosystem.

Originality/value

We develop the argument that survey-based studies of obstacles are amenable to a perception-based interpretation of obstacles, because most surveys tend to collect firms' perceptions. Consequently, we provide perception-based explanations for our findings. Additionally, most empirical studies of obstacles in the food sector are of a qualitative nature. Our work supplements this literature with a quantitative analysis that can expand our understanding of innovation in the food industry.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

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