The aim of this paper is to experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of the state-of-the-art printed Arabic text recognition systems to determine open areas for future improvements. In addition, this paper proposes a standard protocol with a set of metrics for measuring the effectiveness of Arabic optical character recognition (OCR) systems to assist researchers in comparing different Arabic OCR approaches.
This paper describes an experiment to automatically evaluate four well-known Arabic OCR systems using a set of performance metrics. The evaluation experiment is conducted on a publicly available printed Arabic dataset comprising 240 text images with a variety of resolution levels, font types, font styles and font sizes.
The experimental results show that the field of character recognition for printed Arabic still requires further research to reach an efficient text recognition method for Arabic script.
To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first work that provides a comprehensive automated evaluation of Arabic OCR systems with respect to the characteristics of Arabic script and, in addition, proposes an evaluation methodology that can be used as a benchmark by researchers and therefore will contribute significantly to the enhancement of the field of Arabic script recognition.
Despite the widespread use of mobile government (m-government) services in developed countries, the adoption and acceptance of m-government services among citizens in…
Despite the widespread use of mobile government (m-government) services in developed countries, the adoption and acceptance of m-government services among citizens in developing countries is relatively low. The purpose of this study is to explore the most critical determinants of acceptance and use of m-government services in a developing country context.
The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) extended with perceived mobility and mobile communication services (MCS) was used as the theoretical framework. Data was collected from 216 m-government users across Bangladesh and analyzed in two stages. First, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to identify significant determinants affecting users' acceptance of m-government services. In the second stage, a neural network model was used to validate SEM results and determine the relative importance of the determinants of acceptance of m-government services.
The results show that facilitating conditions and performance expectancy are the two important precedents of behavioral intention to use m-government services, and performance expectancy mediates the relationship between MCS, mobility and the intention to use m-government services.
Academically, this study extended and validated the underlying concept of UTAUT to capture the adoption behavior of individuals in a different cultural context. In particular, MCS might be the most critical antecedent towards mobile application studies. From a practical perspective, this study may provide valuable guidelines to government policymakers and system developers towards the development and effective implementation of m-government systems.
This study has contributed to the existing, but limited, literature on m-government service adoption in the context of a developing country. The predictive modeling approach is an innovative approach in the field of technology adoption.