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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2021

Mung Khie Tsen, Manli Gu, Chee Meng Tan and See Kwong Goh

More companies embrace flexible work arrangements (FWA) as one of their employee retention strategies, yet its effectiveness is not consistent. Generally, past researchers…

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Abstract

Purpose

More companies embrace flexible work arrangements (FWA) as one of their employee retention strategies, yet its effectiveness is not consistent. Generally, past researchers use the social exchange theory to explain how FWA lowers turnover intention, while the rest adopts the border theory to justify why FWA can be ineffective. Here, the authors compare the competing theories for the first time to differentiate the theoretical reasoning of three forms of FWA (flex time, flex leave and homeworking). Two mediators (organisational commitment and work−family conflicts) are chosen to represent the mechanism of each theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors employ the latest wave of the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) Work Orientation Module from 2015. Based on nationally representative data from 35 nations and 17,604 participants, the authors employed simple mediation and parallel double-mediation models via bootstrapping procedures to investigate the theoretical reasoning behind each FWA.

Findings

The results indicate that organisational commitment and work−family conflicts as significant mediators in all models, supporting both theories. The authors first tested each mediator in separated models. In models concerning the social exchange theory, all FWA lead to increased organisational commitment before lowering turnover intention, implying the beneficial outcomes of FWA. However, findings also support the border theory's perspective where flex time and homeworking increase turnover intention through heightened work−family conflicts. The parallel double-mediation further suggests that all three FWA forms have their unique theoretical framework, impacting turnover intention differently.

Originality/value

Both the social exchange theory and border theory are well-developed theories but grounded on different theoretical reasoning. This is the first paper that compares both theoretical perspectives in the context of FWA. It offers a new perspective in explaining the inconclusive effectiveness of FWA and provides future researchers a more integrated interpretation and prediction of FWA's impact on turnover intention.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 42 no. 11-12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2022

Manli Gu, Chee Meng Tan, Yee Sen Ho and Li Liu

This study aims to demonstrate how national culture, as measured using the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, moderates the relationship between work–family conflict (WFC…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to demonstrate how national culture, as measured using the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, moderates the relationship between work–family conflict (WFC) and individual-level subjective well-being (SWB).

Design/methodology/approach

Using a two-level hierarchical linear model, this study analysed data from the “Family and Changing Gender Roles IV” survey from the International Social Survey Programme’s (ISSP). A total of 33,044 participants across 41 countries in 2012 were interviewed, but this investigation was limited to 23,277 individuals across 37 countries when all the necessary variables used in this analysis were accounted for. National cultural indicators (the moderators) were measured using Hofstede's cultural dimensions, which are individualism–collectivism, masculinity–femininity, uncertainty avoidance and indulgence–restraint.

Findings

This study presented two main results. Firstly, although family-to-work conflict has an overall negative impact on SWB, this negativity is stronger among participants from individualistic cultures. Secondly, just like family-to-work conflict, work-to-family interference has an adverse impact on workers’ well-being as well, though this effect is more prominent in indulgent cultures.

Originality/value

This paper is novel on two accounts. Firstly, it is one of the few articles that investigates the impact of WFC on SWB using a large multi-country dataset, which allows us to generalize results across multiple cultures. This is unlike many papers in the literature that presented findings from single-country sources, which contextualizes outcomes to a single nation. Secondly, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the article is the first in examining the role played by the Hofstede’s indulgence–restraint dimension in moderating the effect of WFC on SWB.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2021

Manli Gu, John Horng Li Tan, Muslim Amin, Md Imtiaz Mostafiz and Ken Kyid Yeoh

This paper aims to address how national culture moderates the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address how national culture moderates the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine the most recent data collected from the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) in 2015 from a group of 33 countries. Hofstede's cultural model is used to represent and measure national culture.

Findings

One of the most significant findings from the authors’ two-level regression analysis is that having an interesting job contributes more to job satisfaction in individualistic countries than in collectivist countries. The authors also find that the newly introduced cultural dimension indulgence vs restraint has some significant moderating effect on the relationship between job security, salary, the perceived interest of a job and job satisfaction. Job security also seems to contribute less to job satisfaction in societies that are long-term oriented.

Practical implications

This study provides further support for a more careful, nuanced examination of job motivation theories. Multinational companies should understand the needs of their employees and diversify their compensation packages accordingly. More attention should be paid to job design in individualistic or indulgent-oriented countries to create a satisfying job experience.

Originality/value

The authors examine the most recent data from ISSP and extend the literature by incorporating two additional cultural dimensions from Hofstede's model as moderators.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 44 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 December 2021

Manli Gu, Li Liu and Ester Ellen Trees Bolt

Research has shown that autonomy support is a powerful predictor of employee well-being in the West. Despite this importance in the West, the role of autonomy in relation…

Abstract

Purpose

Research has shown that autonomy support is a powerful predictor of employee well-being in the West. Despite this importance in the West, the role of autonomy in relation to employee well-being remains relatively understudied in other contexts, such as Malaysia. This is presumably so due to the assumption that employees in a country of excessive hierarchy, like Malaysia, do not value autonomy. Drawing on self-determination theory (SDT), this paper aims to investigate the relationship between employee perceived autonomy support and well-being in the context of Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose that employee-perceived autonomy support is positively related to employee well-being (measured as work engagement and emotional exhaustion) mediated by basic psychological need satisfaction. The authors also hypothesize that the positive relationship is even stronger when employees are less autonomy-oriented. The authors tested this moderated mediation model using a survey of 125 interns in Malaysia.

Findings

The results provide strong evidence for the mediating role of need satisfaction when intern well-being is measured as work engagement, while the evidence is less conclusive when employee well-being is measured as emotional exhaustion. Moreover, the moderating effect of autonomy orientation is insignificant.

Originality/value

This paper enhances understanding of the cross-culture applicability of SDT and thereby provided a nuanced understanding of the boundary conditions of autonomy support.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Catherine Qian Ying Soh, Sajad Rezaei and Man-Li Gu

The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural relationships between brand consciousness, perceived quality, social influences, traits of vanity, the need for…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural relationships between brand consciousness, perceived quality, social influences, traits of vanity, the need for uniqueness (i.e. antecedents), Generation Y purchase intentions and behaviour (consequences) towards luxury fashion goods.

Design/methodology/approach

An integrative theoretical model is proposed based on social comparison theory, social impact theory, the perceived quality model and theory of uniqueness to predict the antecedents and consequences of Generation Y luxury fashion goods purchase decisions. Using cross-sectional data, a total of 384 sets of valid questionnaires were collected to perform the statistical analysis for the measurement and structural model using the partial least squares path modelling, a variance-based structural equation modelling technique.

Findings

Overall, the structural results imply that the proposed model explains 73.1 and 64 per cent of variances to predict the Generation Y luxury fashion goods purchase decisions. As the several indices for evaluation of goodness of model fit, standardised Root Mean Square Residual, geodesic discrepancy, and unweighted least squares discrepancy show a satisfactory result. The results of two-tailed hypotheses reveal that brand consciousness, perceived quality, social influences, traits of vanity and the need for uniqueness influence Generation Y purchase intention. Moreover, perceived quality and social influences impact purchase behaviour but brand consciousness, traits of vanity and the need for uniqueness do not seem to be significant in explaining the variance in Generation Y purchase behaviour. Furthermore, Generation Y purchase intention is statistically related to purchase behaviour.

Originality/value

There is a lack of empirical evidence and understanding on the influences of consumer purchase intention and behaviour towards luxury fashion goods among the Generation Y. Generation Y is likely to purchase and consume luxury fashion products, and it is important to have a deeper understanding of this market segment.

Details

Young Consumers, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-3616

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 June 2018

Pei Ying Chua, Sajad Rezaei, Man-Li Gu, YokeMoi Oh and Manimekalai Jambulingam

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of behavioural intention and use behaviour towards social networking apps. Exogenous latent constructs…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of behavioural intention and use behaviour towards social networking apps. Exogenous latent constructs, namely, performance expectancy, effort expectancy and social influence are the key antecedents proposed based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology to predict the usage intention and behaviour of social networking apps (i.e. endogenous latent constructs). Experience as a moderator is the extended construct to explain social networking apps user’s behavioural intention.

Design/methodology/approach

To target young generation (Millennial), a cross-sectional data collection approach was conducted to collect data from the social networking apps users (i.e. Facebook, WhatsApp, WeChat, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, Snapchat and others) whereby a total of 384 valid questionnaires were obtained from six universities in Malaysia. Statistical analysis using partial least squares path modelling approach and a variance-based structural equation modelling (VB-SEM) techniques is performed to analyse the measurement and structural relationship.

Findings

The findings indicate that performance expectancy, effort expectancy and social influence determine behavioural intention, and behavioural intention impacts social networking apps use behaviour. Moreover, the moderation analysis reveals that the relationship between effort expectancy and behavioural intention is moderated by experience, whereas the relationship between social influence and behavioural intention is not moderated by experience.

Originality/value

While the surge of social networking apps has gained tremendous popularity among Millennial as an attractive market segment, previous studies mainly have focussed on intention and behaviour of online users in general. Despite apps and related technologies which have opened a new era of effective communications in marketing, social networking apps usage intention and behaviour focussing on Millennial is not well understood in the current literature. This study contributes and sheds lights on the current issue of social networking apps usage intention and behaviour and looks into a key rising market segment, the Millennial users.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2022

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

Characteristics of their job shape job satisfaction and motivation of employees. However, the impact is not universal and remains subject to cultural variations. Firms that understand cultural nuances and focus on appropriate characteristics within each context become better positioned to enhance both employee and organizational performance.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest , vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Jenny Rendahl, Peter Korp, Marianne Pipping Ekström and Christina Berg

The purpose of this paper is to explore and elucidate adolescents’ reasoning about risks related to food and eating.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and elucidate adolescents’ reasoning about risks related to food and eating.

Design/methodology/approach

Boys and girls aged 15-16 years participated in a focus group interview with role-playing as a stimulus for discussion and reflection. In all, 31 participants took part, divided into five groups. In the role-playing, the participants portrayed agents who they perceived to give messages about food. In the focus group they discussed their experience of carrying out the role-play, and how they usually cope with conflicting messages, preferences and needs regarding food and eating.

Findings

The findings suggested that there were two main themes of risk profiling related to eating. One concerned bodily risk related to the food ingested and included concerns both about not reaching health and performance due to the unfavourable intake of calories, nutrients, additives, bacteria, viruses and parasites, and threats to immediate well-being following consumption. The second main category concerned the risk of being conspicuous, or “sticking out”, which incorporated food-based gender norms and norms related to table manners. In practice, the risk of not displaying an appropriate image of themselves through their food and eating choices was more prominent than risk perceptions related to impacts of food choices on well-being and performance. Difficulties in classifying foods as “good” or “bad” enhanced their uncertainty.

Originality/value

The results suggest that health-promotion activities for young people should focus not only on how to feed their bodies but also on how to avoid feeding their anxieties.

Details

Health Education, vol. 118 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

George K. Chacko

Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today…

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Abstract

Gives an in depth view of the strategies pursued by the world’s leading chief executive officers in an attempt to provide guidance to new chief executives of today. Considers the marketing strategies employed, together with the organizational structures used and looks at the universal concepts that can be applied to any product. Uses anecdotal evidence to formulate a number of theories which can be used to compare your company with the best in the world. Presents initial survival strategies and then looks at ways companies can broaden their boundaries through manipulation and choice. Covers a huge variety of case studies and examples together with a substantial question and answer section.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 11 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Li‐teh Sun

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the…

Abstract

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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