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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2020

Flavia Andrew Kiwango, Musa Chacha and Jofrey Raymond

This study aims to update the information on the current status of micronutrient fortification for iron, zinc, folic acid and vitamin A in mandatory fortified food…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to update the information on the current status of micronutrient fortification for iron, zinc, folic acid and vitamin A in mandatory fortified food vehicles such as cooking oil, wheat and maize flours in Tanzania.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was conducted in five regions to analyze the adequacy of micronutrient fortification in mandatory fortified food vehicles. Samples of fortified edible oil (n = 19), wheat flour (n = 12) and maize flour (n = 5) were sampled conveniently from local markets and supermarkets. Samples were analyzed for vitamins (vitamin A and folic acid) and mineral (iron and zinc) content using high-performance liquid chromatography and microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometer, respectively. Compliance acceptable ranges between the minimum and maximum levels for each nutrient were used as a basis for compliance.

Findings

The results showed that 83.3% and 80% of wheat and maize flour samples, respectively, complied with iron fortification standards (p = 0.05). Only 25% of wheat flour samples and 40% of maize flour samples were within the acceptable ranges for zinc fortification (p = 0.05). Nearly 17% and 20% of wheat and maize flour samples, respectively, were within the acceptable ranges for folic acid fortification (p = 0.05). Moreover, about 10.5% of the analyzed cooking oils were adequately fortified with vitamin A (p = 0.05). Except for iron in wheat and maize flours, the levels of other micronutrients in mandatorily fortified foods were out of acceptable ranges.

Originality/value

Mandatory fortification is still far from the established standards, and this calls for a review of the current fortification strategies regarding standards, training, monitoring and enforcement in Tanzania.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Beth Clark, Julie Doyle, Owen Bull, Sophie McClean and Tom Hill

Vitamin D deficiency is a well-recognised public health problem within the UK, with specific population groups more vulnerable to deficiency. Two pilot studies were used…

Abstract

Purpose

Vitamin D deficiency is a well-recognised public health problem within the UK, with specific population groups more vulnerable to deficiency. Two pilot studies were used to explore awareness of vitamin D deficiency and attitudes towards food fortification.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 120 participants from five at-risk groups (South Asians, Blacks, Middle Eastern, Far Eastern and Caucasian older adults over 65 years) plus a group of British Caucasians who do not avoid sun exposure explored awareness of vitamin D, sun exposure knowledge and behaviour and attitudes towards food fortification. The latter group was included to provide a comparison group who were at a reduced risk of deficiency. χ2 was used to test associations between categorical variables and the study groups. The second study used three focus groups and two interviews, conducted on young South Asian females and examined knowledge and awareness of vitamin D and vitamin D-fortified foods.

Findings

A lack of knowledge and misconceptions were highlighted by both studies in relation to at-risk factors, including sunlight exposure (p = 0.037), dietary intakes (p = 0.0174) and darker skin pigmentation (p = 0.023), sources of vitamin D and the health benefits associated with optimal consumption. Attitudes to mandatory fortification of some foods varied significantly (p = 0.004) between the groups with acceptance rates for Blacks (68 per cent), those over 65 years (50 per cent), Middle Eastern (67 per cent) and Far Eastern (73 per cent), whereas the control (71 per cent) showed no acceptance, and South Asians gave a mixed response (48 per cent No). Focus group findings highlighted positive views towards fortification, although this was less for mandatory as opposed to voluntary fortification. Both pilot studies highlight the need for more research into this area, to create more effective public health policies.

Originality/value

The research presents novel insights into a topical area where there is limited research.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

513

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 July 2019

Beth Clark, Tom Hill and Carmen Hubbard

As natural dietary sources of vitamin D are not consumed in sufficient quantities, fortified foods could play a role in maintaining vitamin D sufficiency. With public…

Abstract

Purpose

As natural dietary sources of vitamin D are not consumed in sufficient quantities, fortified foods could play a role in maintaining vitamin D sufficiency. With public consultation, an integral part of designing acceptable fortification strategies, the purpose of this paper is to understand public awareness and perception of vitamin D fortified foods.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-methods approach was taken with two focus groups and 109 surveys conducted using a non-probability sample from North-East England. Thematic analysis of focus group data identified six themes, with factor and cluster analysis identifying seven factors and four clusters, respectively, which highlighted differences in vitamin D knowledge and fortified food perceptions.

Findings

Despite identifying sunlight as the main vitamin D source (91 per cent), participants were less aware of the main dietary source (33 per cent), and few could state fortified products (51 per cent). Although attitudes towards fortification were generally favourable (63 per cent agreeing that selected products should be fortified), nearly half (43 per cent) were unsure if more products should be made available. Results suggest that more natural products to complement existing market offerings would be most preferred. Factor and cluster analysis results identified awareness of health benefits and/or dietary sources as essential to have favourable attitudes towards fortified products.

Originality/value

This research adds to the limited literature regarding consumer attitudes towards fortified foods. It highlights a need to improve public awareness and labelling of fortified products to potentially increase fortified food consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Christine G. Kiria Chege, Stella Namazzi, Mercy M. Mutua, Kevin Omondi Onyango and Matthias Jager

Malnutrition remains a big public health issue especially in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to analyze factors that influence consumption of…

Abstract

Purpose

Malnutrition remains a big public health issue especially in developing countries. The purpose of this paper is to analyze factors that influence consumption of nutrient-rich foods among children aged 6–59 months and women of reproductive age (15–49 years) in the urban informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya, and Kampala, Uganda. This study uses multicomposite soft porridge as an example of a nutritious product.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 574 households from urban informal settlements in Kampala and Nairobi. A systematic random sampling approach was used to select respondents, and interviews were conducted on their sociodemographics, porridge consumption and purchase behavior. Probit regression models were used for the analysis.

Findings

Results indicate that households with access to nutrition information are more likely to consume porridge with diversified ingredients, compared to households without nutrition information. Additionally, consumption of fortified porridge flour has a lower probability of consuming porridge flour with diversified ingredients.

Practical implications

The evidence echoes the need for increased dissemination of nutrition information, which will trigger willingness to pay and consumption of nutritious foods. Further, it underpins the need for processor-level interventions to avail these foods at affordable prices for the benefit of low-income consumers.

Originality/value

This is among the first papers assessing factors that influence consumption of nutritious and diversified soft porridge by children aged 6–59 months and women aged 15–49 in the informal settlements of East Africa.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Liran Christine Shan, Aine Regan, Frank J Monahan, Chenguang Li, Celine Murrin, Fiona Lalor, Patrick G. Wall and Aine McConnon

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate consumer attitudes towards and interest in enriching processed meat with healthy ingredients (“functional processed meat”).

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate consumer attitudes towards and interest in enriching processed meat with healthy ingredients (“functional processed meat”).

Design/methodology/approach

Seven focus groups across age and gender were conducted. Discussions were analysed using an inductive thematic approach.

Findings

Strategies that participants felt as important for improving the healthiness of processed meat mainly included the use of better quality meat and less salt, fat, preservatives and other additives. “Functional processed meat” was a new concept for participants. Four themes were constructed to reflect participants’ attitudes towards functional processed meat: opposing views on processed meat as a carrier of healthy ingredients; belief in the health benefits of functional processed meat; perceived value of functional processed meat for different consumer groups; and trust and perceived risk surrounding the functional food concept. A large proportion of the participants were unconvinced about the concept of functional processed meat; however many of the participants expressed an openness to purchase this food product if taste and price remained uncompromised.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size of the current study is small. Complementary quantitative research with a more representative sample should be implemented. Adopting a quantitative approach, the findings from this study should be explored further to investigate their application in a representative sample of the population.

Originality/value

This study represents a first exploratory investigation of consumer views on functional processed meat. It can inform further consumer and market research in relation to the development of “healthier” processed meat.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 118 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 1981

Nathan Fisher

The report recently issued by the Department of Health and Social Security entitled Nutritional Aspects of Bread and Flour should be required reading for all concerned…

Abstract

The report recently issued by the Department of Health and Social Security entitled Nutritional Aspects of Bread and Flour should be required reading for all concerned with the planning of healthy diets. Detailed evidence gathered by the Panel on Bread, Flour and other Cereal Products of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA), concerning the composition, nutritive value and physiological effects of cereal foods is presented and discussed, and the recommendations reached on the basis of that evidence could, if accepted, have considerable effects on the national diet. ‘If accepted’ is stressed because the recommendations have yet to be endorsed, either entirely or in part, by the Minister responsible for food, after consultation with his advisers and other interested bodies including the milling and baking industries. The necessary legislation would then have to be drafted, circulated for comment, and laid before Parliament for approval. Some delay is therefore inevitable before modifications of the legislation establishing the composition of bread and flour become effective.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 81 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Anne Sibbel

With the global community increasingly dependent on the food industry for the supply of one of the most basic of human needs, there is an imperative to consider how it can…

2106

Abstract

Purpose

With the global community increasingly dependent on the food industry for the supply of one of the most basic of human needs, there is an imperative to consider how it can contribute to improving public nutrition into the future. This paper aims to present some ways that food companies can review policy and practice to meet this responsibility in the 21st century.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a review of relevant literature published between the 1980s through to 2010, changing attitudes and practices in the food manufacturing sector are outlined. These are analysed in the light of coinciding trends in consumer expectations and behaviour, and the development of new technologies for food production and information transfer.

Findings

Widespread concern about the environment, increasing technological innovation, growing knowledge of diet‐health relationships and changing patterns of diet‐related disease risks are redefining responsibilities across the food industry. Food companies have been criticised for some negative effects on health, in particular, for contributing to obesogenic environments in many countries. Collaborating with all stakeholders will determine the way for the manufacturing sector to make positive contributions to public nutrition in the future.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the discourse necessary to identify the emerging responsibilities, set targets, develop strategies and share the tasks to be undertaken in working towards building a health protective food supply.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1982

Ivan M. Sharman

This is the first of a short series of articles on the B vitamins. In this issue the discovery of these vitamins is described, together with a more detailed description of…

Abstract

This is the first of a short series of articles on the B vitamins. In this issue the discovery of these vitamins is described, together with a more detailed description of vitamin B1.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 82 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2022

Vijay Ganji, Tahra ElObeid, Zumin Shi, Hiba Bawadi, Abdelhamid Kerkadi, Noor Moussa, Hoda Ali and Alshaimaa Sobeih

Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among young Qatari women is ∼85%. The purpose of the study was to develop a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and to assess the…

Abstract

Purpose

Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among young Qatari women is ∼85%. The purpose of the study was to develop a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and to assess the degree of agreement between food vitamin D intakes derived from FFQ and 24-h food recall (24HFR) in young Qatari women.

Design/methodology/approach

A vitamin D-centric, 40-item FFQ was developed based on foods consumed in Qatar. In total, 36 Qatari women provided food intakes using FFQ and 24HFR. Vitamin D contents of foods reported in FFQ and 24HFR were computed. Spearman rank correlation was used to evaluate the relation between vitamin D intakes of FFQ and 24HFR. Bland–Altman (BA) plot and quartile comparisons were performed to determine the degree of agreement between food intakes of FFQ and 24HFR.

Findings

Median intakes of vitamin D from FFQ were significantly higher compared to the vitamin D content from 24HFR (213 IU vs 126 IU; p < 0.008). Vitamin D intakes were lower with 24HFR when compared with the intakes of FFQ. There was no significant relationship between food vitamin D intake from FFQ and 24HFR (Spearman rho = 0.16; p < 0.35). In cross classification, ∼64% were assigned to the same or adjacent quartiles. As per BA plot, more than 95% food intakes were within the limits of agreement (LOA) (BA index, 2.8%).

Originality/value

There was a moderate agreement between vitamin D intakes and FFQ and 24HFR. 24HFR should be used with caution in assessing the habitual food vitamin D intake because of limited sources of the vitamer in Qatari cuisine. The FFQ is suitable for estimating the food vitamin D intake in young Qatari women.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

1 – 10 of 61