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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Dean Porr and Dail Fields

To determine the effect that implicit leadership theories have on the relevance of 360‐degree review techniques used to assess managerial behavior.

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2045

Abstract

Purpose

To determine the effect that implicit leadership theories have on the relevance of 360‐degree review techniques used to assess managerial behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The relationships of subordinate, superior and self ratings of manager leader behaviors with three performance indicators were examined in 60 retail stores located in the USA.

Findings

Nearly, all of the subordinate ratings of manager behaviors were significantly related to performance of internal processes, while nearly all ratings of the same manager provided by superiors were related to performance in store merchandizing.

Research limitations/implications

The performance indicators were derived from company records, independent of influence from the rater groups.

Practical implications

Multi‐source ratings of managerial behaviors may be based on overall work unit performance rather than observation and should be assessed and interpreted cautiously in providing feedback for management development.

Originality/value

The ratings of managerial behaviors may reflect implicit leadership models activated by observation of store performance rather than rater observations of the manager's behaviors.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 21 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Karen L. Xie, Zili Zhang, Ziqiong Zhang, Amrik Singh and Seul Ki Lee

This study aims to measures the effects of managerial response on consumer electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) and hotel performance.

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5457

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to measures the effects of managerial response on consumer electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) and hotel performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 56,284 consumer reviews and 10,793 managerial responses for 1,045 hotels was retrieved from TripAdvisor, along with 30,232 performance records matched to these hotels on a quarterly basis.

Findings

This study finds that managerial response leads to an average increase of 0.235 stars in the TripAdvisor ratings of the sampled hotels, as well as a 17.3 per cent increase in the volume of subsequent consumer eWOM. Moreover, managerial response moderates the influence of ratings and volume of consumer eWOM on hotel performance.

Practical implications

This study offers a practical model that enables hotel managers to orchestrate social media marketing approaches and efforts toward an optimal social media strategy.

Originality/value

This study differs from extant literature that has extensively focused on consumer reviews by providing a new perspective of management intervention in the social media context. By examining the interplay of managerial response and consumer eWOM at the individual hotel level, this study provides empirical evidence of managerial response affecting hotel performance through the increased ratings and volume of consumer eWOM. This study also offers insights into the practical importance of crafting intervention opportunities to cultivate the continued engagement of consumers on social media and increased hotel performance.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 28 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2012

Scott Tonidandel, Phillip W. Braddy and John W. Fleenor

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative importance of four managerial skill dimensions (technical skill, administrative skill, human skill, and citizenship…

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7528

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative importance of four managerial skill dimensions (technical skill, administrative skill, human skill, and citizenship behavior) for predicting managerial effectiveness. In addition, it aims to explore whether the relative importance of these skill dimensions varies as a function of gender or organizational level.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were 733 managers enrolled in a nationally recognized leadership development program. Ratings of managerial skill were obtained from peers using a well‐validated 360‐degree assessment instrument, while manager effectiveness ratings were provided by supervisors. Moderated multiple regression and relative weight analysis were used to test the study's hypotheses.

Findings

Using ratings provided by multiple sources, these results show that all four of the managerial skill dimensions were significantly important predictors of manager effectiveness. Human skills were significantly more important than technical skill and citizenship behavior, while administrative skills were most important overall. Gender was not a significant moderator of the skill‐effectiveness relationship, but organizational level was.

Practical implications

Individuals tasked with selecting, developing, or placing managers should take all four skill dimensions into account. Moreover, special consideration should be given to administrative skill, and this emphasis should increase for managers higher up in the organizational hierarchy.

Originality/value

Although prior research has speculated about the importance of different managerial skills, this study is the first to provide empirical support for this skill typology in predicting actual managerial effectiveness using appropriate statistical analyses for examining the relative importance of these skill dimensions.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Sylvia J. Hysong

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether technical skill provides incremental value over managerial skill in managerial performance for first‐tier managers, and…

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6066

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether technical skill provides incremental value over managerial skill in managerial performance for first‐tier managers, and explore potential mediators of this relationship. Hypotheses: technical skill incrementally predicts managerial performance; referent and expert power mediate this relationship; and inspirational appeals and rational persuasion mediate the relationship between power and managerial performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 107 first‐tier supervisors from local petrochemical and engineering companies completed an online survey about their professional background and managerial skills; subordinates rated supervisors' technical skill, power, and influence tactic habits. Managerial performance was measured as: production output, subordinate job satisfaction, and subordinate ratings.

Findings

Technical skill incrementally predicted subordinate perceptions of managerial performance over managerial skill. Referent power mediated the relationship between technical skill and both subordinate ratings and job satisfaction; expert power only mediated for job satisfaction. Rational persuasion mediated the relationship between expert power and subordinate ratings of managerial performance.

Research limitations/implications

Clear measurement of multidimensional constructs such as managerial performance and technical skill is essential. Limitations include self‐selection bias and availability of objective technical skill measures. Future research should develop component‐based measures of these constructs.

Practical implications

Technical skill is valuable to managers as a source of credibility and a means to identify with subordinates. Technical skill should not, therefore, be the most important criterion in selecting technical managers.

Originality/value

This study helps technical managers better leverage their technical skills in managerial contexts, and provides new research directions for component‐based performance measurement.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Jeremy Michael Clark, Louis N. Quast, Soebin Jang, Joseph Wohkittel, Bruce Center, Katherine Edwards and Witsinee Bovornusvakool

The purpose of this study is to explore patterns of importance ratings of managerial competencies in 22 countries in different regions around the globe, to guide…

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3172

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore patterns of importance ratings of managerial competencies in 22 countries in different regions around the globe, to guide specificity in assessing and developing managers in multiple geographies. Additionally, this study examined the utility of clustering countries based on shared culture, as defined by House et al. (2004), to determine whether such clustering aids in interpreting and acting on any differences identified.

Design/methodology/approach

The PROFILOR® for Managers contains 135 behavioral items, grouped into 24 competency scales. The instrument was developed from a review of the management and psychology literatures, exhaustive analysis of a large database (Sevy et al., 1985), job analysis questionnaires and interviews of hundreds of managers representing many functional areas and most major industries.

Findings

Results suggest that clustering countries together for the purpose of providing prescriptive guidance for the development of individuals planning expatriate assignments does not clarify such guidance; in fact, it masks unique differences in competency priorities as measured on a country-by-country basis.

Research limitations/implications

The participants for this study come from mid- to large-size organizations in 22 countries around the world. The organizations represented sought out management consulting services from a large, highly respected private-sector consultancy. As such, these findings are likely to be generalizable to managers from similar organizations. No attempt has been made to generalize these findings to entrepreneurial start-ups, small local organizations or organizations not inclined to seek Western-style management consulting services.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to examine the effectiveness of the GLOBE clusters as they relate to managerial competencies in multicultural workforces.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1999

Stéphane Brutus, John W. Fleenor and Cynthia D. McCauley

Recent investigations on multi‐source feedback have focused on rating congruence. The extent to which self ratings are in agreement with the ratings of others has been…

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1245

Abstract

Recent investigations on multi‐source feedback have focused on rating congruence. The extent to which self ratings are in agreement with the ratings of others has been linked to various individual outcomes such as derailment, likelihood of promotion and overall managerial effectiveness. This study takes this line of investigation one step further and investigates possible determinants of rating congruence. Using a series of regression analyses, various demographic and personality variables are shown to predict the extent to which self ratings converge with the ratings of supervisors, peers, and subordinates. Moreover, some of these predictors were found to be specific to congruence within specific rating dyads (e.g. self‐supervisor). The implications of these findings are discussed.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Andre Bonfrer, Don Peters and Peter Mazany

An exploratory study examines the relationships between particular managerial practices and qualities of soft intelligence information provided by the sales forces of…

Abstract

An exploratory study examines the relationships between particular managerial practices and qualities of soft intelligence information provided by the sales forces of firms responding to a mail survey. The hypotheses explored were formulated from a review of the literature and anecdotal data. Among the findings are positive associations between managerial practices designed to improve the information provided by the salesforce ‐ such as training, involvement in decision making, recognition and performance evaluation ‐ and various dimensions of the information gleaned from the salesforce. This paper recommends the use of the salesforce as a source of marketing information, and identifies key managerial practices which may be used to improve the flow of information from the salesforce to the organisation's information system.

Details

Asia Pacific International Journal of Marketing, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7517

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Natalia Ermasova, Olumide Ijose and Sergey Ermasov

The purpose of this paper is to explore empirically the linkages among level of economic, managerial, financial, criminal risks and patent activity in Russia. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore empirically the linkages among level of economic, managerial, financial, criminal risks and patent activity in Russia. This paper examines the relationship between the economic, managerial, financial and criminal regional risks ratings, on the one hand, and patent activity, as measured by regional patent applications for inventions, on the other.

Design/methodology/approach

A random effect model was performed for a data sample of 83 regions, covering the period 2006-2010 in Russia.

Findings

The empirical results show that increased levels of regional economic risks are significantly associated with decrease in patent activity in Russia.

Originality/value

This study fills a gap within the literature and offers a unique analysis of regional risks and their impact on patent activity. The empirical results showed that economic risk ratings have had considerable negative impact on the patent activities on regional level in Russia.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Romie F. Littrell, E. Serra Yurtkoru, Handan Kepir Sinangil, Beril Durmuş, Alev Katrinli, Remziye Gulem Atabay, Gonca Günay and Burcu Güneri Çangarli

In this study the authors endeavour to further develop and validate the Behavioural and Contingency theory of leadership.

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1604

Abstract

Purpose

In this study the authors endeavour to further develop and validate the Behavioural and Contingency theory of leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

In a field survey research study, the authors collect, analyse, compare, and discuss explicit leader behaviour preferences of employed businesspeople in Istanbul and Izmir, Turkey, rating their “ideal managerial leader” and their actual organisational manager.

Findings

In Istanbul and Izmir businesspeople tend to prefer leaders who focus on managing the business system over other considerations such as relationship management; task orientation is more important than relationship orientation. In the business environment, there appear to be little or no differences in preferences relating to gender; men and women have nearly identical preferences; age has some influence; generally, older businesspeople tend to have higher preference scores for a managerial leader who clearly defines his or her own role, and lets followers know what is expected, and pushes them to work harder and exceed past performance. Subordinates neither received nor expected Paternal leader behaviour. They expected and did receive moderately Authoritarian leader behaviour.

Originality/value

The large majority of studies of leadership focus on implicit leadership theory, describing characteristics and traits of leaders. This study employs explicit leader behaviour theory and operationalisations to identify subordinates’ ideal leader behaviour compared to actual organisational manager behaviour in Turkey.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2018

Izabela I. Szymanska and Beth A. Rubin

This research aims to investigate the differences in evaluations of job performance between male and female managers by those managers’ immediate bosses and peers.

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2608

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to investigate the differences in evaluations of job performance between male and female managers by those managers’ immediate bosses and peers.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on gender structure theory, along with ideas about status characteristics, the authors use hierarchical regression to test the hypotheses that male and female bosses and peers deferentially evaluate the male and female manager’s global job performance. The authors hypothesize significant two-way interactions (gender of the manager by gender of evaluator) in predicting a manager’s job performance.

Findings

The results suggest that while male peers rate female managers’ job performance significantly lower than that of male managers, female peers do not discriminate between genders in their performance evaluations. Also, managers’ bosses were found not to discriminate between genders of their subordinates.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study have to do primarily with the data. While the data are rich on some dimensions, they are weak on others, especially with regard to the detail about the jobs the respondents did, detailed level of familiarity with the evaluated managers, as well as racial background. The data also do not provide information on the different facets of job performance, the evaluation of which could potentially be impacted by managerial gender; this study is focused exclusively on global job performance.

Practical implications

The authors discuss various theoretical explanations of this pattern of results, as well as its possible influence on female managers’ careers. Although the effect size of the negative bias that male peers exhibit toward female managers is relatively small, it may be argued that lower performance assessments can accumulate over years in multiple job evaluations, negatively affecting the career of female leaders.

Originality/value

The evaluations supplied by different organizational members gain importance with the increased use of 360-degree feedback instruments not just for developmental but also for the job performance appraisal purposes. While the job evaluations of managers’ bosses have been investigated in the past with regard to the possible gender bias, this study provides the first known to the authors’, evidence. Also, this study points to a direct bias in performance assessments, rather than a potentially more subtle, non-performance-based bias that affects the disparities in wages and promotions of female managers. Thus, this study helps to fill a significant gap in the literature on organizations and it may have practical implications for the advancement of female managers. In addition to this contribution, this study also provides data that may be useful in resolving the ongoing debate whether female bosses act more as cogs in the machine or as change agents in organizations.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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