Search results

1 – 10 of over 61000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Sylvia J. Hysong

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether technical skill provides incremental value over managerial skill in managerial performance for first‐tier managers, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine whether technical skill provides incremental value over managerial skill in managerial performance for first‐tier managers, and explore potential mediators of this relationship. Hypotheses: technical skill incrementally predicts managerial performance; referent and expert power mediate this relationship; and inspirational appeals and rational persuasion mediate the relationship between power and managerial performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 107 first‐tier supervisors from local petrochemical and engineering companies completed an online survey about their professional background and managerial skills; subordinates rated supervisors' technical skill, power, and influence tactic habits. Managerial performance was measured as: production output, subordinate job satisfaction, and subordinate ratings.

Findings

Technical skill incrementally predicted subordinate perceptions of managerial performance over managerial skill. Referent power mediated the relationship between technical skill and both subordinate ratings and job satisfaction; expert power only mediated for job satisfaction. Rational persuasion mediated the relationship between expert power and subordinate ratings of managerial performance.

Research limitations/implications

Clear measurement of multidimensional constructs such as managerial performance and technical skill is essential. Limitations include self‐selection bias and availability of objective technical skill measures. Future research should develop component‐based measures of these constructs.

Practical implications

Technical skill is valuable to managers as a source of credibility and a means to identify with subordinates. Technical skill should not, therefore, be the most important criterion in selecting technical managers.

Originality/value

This study helps technical managers better leverage their technical skills in managerial contexts, and provides new research directions for component‐based performance measurement.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Xiaohong Zhang, Gaowen Tang and Zhaohong Lin

Based on the theory of “optimal contracting approach” and “the managerial power approach”, this paper aims to investigate whether senior executives of listed companies in…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the theory of “optimal contracting approach” and “the managerial power approach”, this paper aims to investigate whether senior executives of listed companies in China make use of their power to gain their own private benefits. The paper also compares compensation contracts between state- and private-owned enterprises to test whether there is a significant difference between senior executives from different ownership types of enterprises in terms of compensation contracts.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper raises four hypotheses based on the theories of “company agency”, “optimal contracting approach” and “managerial power approach”. After that, 5,680 A-share-listed companies of stock market in Shanghai and in Shenzhen Stock Market from 2008 to 2012 were taken as research samples to conduct a series of research analysis, including t-test, reliability analysis and regression analysis, with the help of SPSS 18.0.

Findings

The senior executives of listed companies in China could make use of their power to increase their own salary to gain power pay and, at the same time, company performance, company size and other factors that are important to influence the executive compensation. This paper further argues that senior executives of private-owned listed companies are more likely to use their power to obtain power pay and increase their own compensation. Additionally, the agency costs of Chinese listed companies are negatively related to the performance pay of senior executives, whereas there is no obvious negative correlation with the power pay of senior executives.

Practical implications

This paper takes multiple, in-depth approaches to study the relationship among managerial power, agency cost and executive compensation and to find out the differences in compensation contracts of senior executives between private-owned listed companies and state-owned companies. It also provides necessary suggestions to ensure the interests of stockholders, such as: optimizing the management structure of listed companies; improving the transparence of information disclosure of listed companies; establishing effective mechanism of incentive and constraint; and improving and standardizing the market of professional managers.

Social implications

The compensation contract of senior executives in China is critical to enhance enterprises’ performance, and it will become an important factor that will facilitate the interests of stockholders and management. However, this paper argues that some phenomena of over-payment of senior executives in listed companies cannot be explained by the theory of “optimal contracting approach”, but it is necessary and important to compare the differences of compensation contract of senior executives between private-owned listed companies and state-owned companies. A series of findings are proposed in this paper.

Originality/value

This paper made use of a principal analysis to extract the main factors that could represent the managerial power from different angles. In addition, this paper also compared the differences between compensation contracts of senior executives between private-owned listed companies and state-owned companies. Additionally, in this paper, the compensation of senior executives was divided into “power compensation” and “performance compensation”, which were used to test the relationship with the management cost of companies.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Mohammad Reza Jalilvand and Leila Nasrolahi Vosta

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of five dimensions of power (coercive, expert, legitimate, referent, and reward) on employees’ affective commitment in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of five dimensions of power (coercive, expert, legitimate, referent, and reward) on employees’ affective commitment in the sport organizations using social exchange theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a questionnaire including managerial power and affective commitment measures. A sample of 318 employees from a number of sport organizations operating in the Iran was used. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationship between managerial power and affective commitment.

Findings

There are two major findings in this research. First, the relationships among expert power, legitimate power, reward power, referent power, and affective commitment are positive and significant. Second, the construct of coercive power was not associated with employees’ affective commitment. The findings suggest that managerial power relates with a social exchange relationship where employees exchange positive outcomes including strong affective commitment. When people perceive manager power, they feel more affectively attached to their organizations.

Research limitations/implications

Sampling was one of the limitations identified in this study. The fact that convenience sampling was used meant that results were not immediately transferable to the general working population. In addition, the sample subjects in this study were mostly employees who worked in the sport sector of Iran. Future research could look into extending the study population to include collect input from other types of organization. If samples were drawn from a wider range of demographics, then the results become more meaningful.

Practical implications

Power generally refers to the ability, capacity or potential to get others do something, to command, to influence, to determine, or to control the behaviors, intentions, decisions, or actions of others in the pursuit of one’s own goals or interests despite resistance, as well as to induce changes. By utilizing expert power, reward power, legitimate power, and referent power, managers can promote affective organizational commitment and, thus, individual and organizational performance. It is likely that this occurs because people react reciprocally toward an organization that satisfies their needs, makes them feel that they are valued as human beings and that they deserve respectful treatment, and allows them to experience senses of purpose, self-determination, enjoyment, and belonging.

Originality/value

The fact that power can be used as an effective tool to coordinate and manage others appears to be largely ignored in the literature. The paper contributes by filling a gap in the organization and management literature, in which empirical studies on managerial power as an antecedent of affective organizational commitment have been scarce until now.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2003

Gunn Elisabeth Birkelund and Toril Sandnes

A number of studies show that women are underrepresented in positions of power and authority in the labour markets of Western societies. Comparative studies within this…

Abstract

A number of studies show that women are underrepresented in positions of power and authority in the labour markets of Western societies. Comparative studies within this field are few, and based on data from the 1980s, showing larger gender differences in workplace authority in the Scandinavian countries than in English-speaking countries (especially the U.S.). In this paper we use data from the International Social Survey Programme 1997 to describe and compare the gender gap in managerial positions within the labour markets in the U.S. and Norway. We include a perspective on differences in managerial and national cultures in order to interpret our findings. The American society has been characterized as individualistic and contract-based with a strong market orientation and work ethics. Compared with this, the Norwegian culture is less individualistic and less market oriented, and more inclined to emphasize a norm about a balanced life between work, family and leisure. These cultural differences may help us understand why the gender policy in these countries historically have had divergent foci: The Americans have implemented a powerful policy of equal opportunities within the labour market, regarding family issues as private matters. The Norwegians have a long-term political goal of gender equality in all areas of the society, comprising work-family linkages with a strong emphasis on arrangements allowing family members (in particular women) to combine work and family life. However, it seems fair to say that Norway has been less successful in implementing a powerful policy of equal opportunities within the labour market, in particular within the private sector. The paper discusses some possible implications of the differences between the U.S. and Norway, with regard to women’s access to managerial power positions.

Details

Comparative Studies of Culture and Power
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-885-9

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2010

Gerwin Van der Laan

Previous empirical research interprets results from pay‐performance studies in the light of either agency theory or managerial power theory. This paper aims to directly…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous empirical research interprets results from pay‐performance studies in the light of either agency theory or managerial power theory. This paper aims to directly estimate the relationship between CEO power, and compensation structure, level, and performance‐sensitivity. In doing so, it seeks to test the crucial assumption in managerial power theory according to which more powerful CEOs are able to enjoy higher and less performance‐sensitive compensation.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses are tested on a detailed dataset, covering compensation for CEOs in virtually all Dutch stock‐listed companies, for the period 2002‐2006. The paper tests whether the findings are robust against different lag structures and firm size classes.

Findings

In general, most of the multi‐dimensional measures of power do not appear to have a strong effect on compensation, with one exception: non‐Dutch CEOs receive more variable compensation, and receive higher and less performance‐sensitive pay than their Dutch colleagues.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the extant CEO compensation literature, which to date relies on interpretations of findings in pay‐for‐performance studies to argue for either agency or managerial power theory. The direct test of the relationship between power and compensation emphasises the importance of one dimension of a multidimensional power construct. As strong effects of performance of compensation are not found either, the paper suggests that the bipolar debate be extended to include other explanations of compensation arrangements.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

César Camisón

This paper specifies how to construct and validate an instrument based on multi‐item scales for the cataloguing and measurement of managerial and organizational…

Abstract

This paper specifies how to construct and validate an instrument based on multi‐item scales for the cataloguing and measurement of managerial and organizational capabilities on the basis of management perceptions. The construction and reduction of the scales have been reinforced by the Delphi and retesting techniques. The use of this methodology was illustrated in a sample of Spanish industrial firms. The paper enhances the value of the instruments for a resource‐based view with regard to the faithful and rigorous measurement of its key concept, distinctive competences. The scales created provide consistent empirical evidence to remove doubts surrounding managerial self‐evaluation, including those arising from problems of self‐esteem and reinforcement effects. In addition, the paper provides empirical evidence to support the predictive ability of distinctive competences on current and long‐term performance variability.

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2003

René Olie and Ad van Iterson

Since the mid-1980s, much research attention has been devoted to top management teams and their impact on the strategic behavior and performance of firms. In particular…

Abstract

Since the mid-1980s, much research attention has been devoted to top management teams and their impact on the strategic behavior and performance of firms. In particular, this research has focused on the role of top managers’ background, values, and experiences in explaining the choices they make. So far, this research has largely failed to address the national context in which top management teams are formed and operate. Empirical studies have typically involved top management teams of U.S. firms. Other studies are rare, and when they exist, they usually do not take the national context into account. This paper explores the impact of national context characterized by society-specific value systems and institutions, on the composition, organization, and functioning of top management. We address three topics in particular: (1) national variations in the structure and practices of top management and their implications for managerial choices; (2) national governance systems that define and constrain the tasks and functioning of top management teams; and (3) national institutions that help to define managerial selection, promotion, and career patterns.

Details

Managing Multinationals in a Knowledge Economy: Economics, Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-050-0

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 July 2008

Ronit Yitshaki

The aim of this paper is to examine the inherent and actual conflicts between venture capitalists (VCs) and entrepreneurs, as well as the possible resolutions of these conflicts.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine the inherent and actual conflicts between venture capitalists (VCs) and entrepreneurs, as well as the possible resolutions of these conflicts.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on 42 semi‐structured interviews conducted with Israeli VCs and entrepreneurs (14 VCs and 28 entrepreneurs). In addition, quantitative data were collected about VCs' scope of involvement and their perceived portfolio performance.

Findings

It was found that conflict is inherent in VCs and entrepreneurs' relations as both parties have different conceptions of the venture and the contractual arrangements. Actual conflicts were found to be associated with VCs' level of involvement and perceived performance. The findings indicate that VCs' strategic involvement is associated with cognitive conflicts and collaboration, whereas VCs' managerial involvement is associated with managerial replacement and affective conflicts. The findings provide an insight into the dynamic nature of conflicts between VCs and entrepreneurs, suggesting that affective conflicts may sometimes evolve into cognitive mode, as managerial replacement enables both parties to restructure their relations.

Research limitation/implications

The findings call for further examination of interorganizational conflicts involving asymmetry of power and resource dependence. In addition, the findings also call for deeper examination of how coordination mechanisms of interorganizational relations come to be a source of conflict and how such conflicts may vary in different contexts.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper suggest that both VCs and entrepreneurs should establish conflict management mechanisms, such as similar conceptions and a shared vision, to ensure better cooperation.

Originality/value

This paper provides an in‐depth insight into the embeddedness of conflicts in VCs and entrepreneurs' relations. The finding of this study contribute to theory building of VCs and entrepreneurs' conflicts suggesting that VCs' cooperation depends on both parties' ability to resolve inherent and actual conflicts.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Ying Zhang and Edward Oczkowski

The expansion of the phenomenon of two-way flow expatriation due to the accelerated process of globalization has resulted in an increasing need for a better understanding…

Abstract

Purpose

The expansion of the phenomenon of two-way flow expatriation due to the accelerated process of globalization has resulted in an increasing need for a better understanding of cross-cultural transitions. Given the absence of convincing a priori theoretical explanations, as part of an inductive discovery process, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between cultural intelligence (CQ), job position, and cross-cultural adjustment (CCA) for expatriates.

Design/methodology/approach

Explicit consideration is given to uncovering the potential importance of cultural distance asymmetry (CDA) effects. Structural equation modelling techniques are employed to analyse survey data from a two-flow sample of expatriates between Australia and China.

Findings

Results indicate that motivational CQ has a statistically significant effect on CCA. CDA is found to moderate the relationship between job positions and expatriate adjustment, such that the relationship depends on the direction of cultural flow between more and less authoritarian cultural contexts.

Originality/value

These findings discover and highlight the potential importance of identifying the direction of cultural flows of expatriation in understanding successful expatriates’ CCA.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

Helga Drummond

Power is generally regarded as the key to managerial achievement,if only in enabling users to get things done. Posits powerlessness as amajor source of managerial

Abstract

Power is generally regarded as the key to managerial achievement, if only in enabling users to get things done. Posits powerlessness as a major source of managerial inefficiency, resulting in wasted time, needless conflict, stress, anger and frustration. Examines power and explains how you can develop your power base.

Details

Management Development Review, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0962-2519

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 61000