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Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2014

Hulda Mjöll Gunnarsdóttir

This chapter examines how structural factors related to gender, managerial level, and economic sector could impact the level of experienced person/role conflict in…

Abstract

This chapter examines how structural factors related to gender, managerial level, and economic sector could impact the level of experienced person/role conflict in management based on a representative survey conducted among managers in Norway. Person/role conflict appears relevant for understanding emotions in organizations and is linked with emotional dissonance and emotional labor through theoretical and empirical considerations. Our findings reveal that the effect of gender remains significant when controlled for economic sector and managerial level. This indicates that experienced person/role conflict can be partially caused by perceived incongruity between internalized and gender role-related expectations as well as managerial role-related expectations.

Details

Emotions and the Organizational Fabric
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-939-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1988

Russell D. Lansbury and Annabelle Quince

Various aspects of managerial and professional employees in Australia are examined in an attempt to establish if the Australian experience is similar to that reported in…

Abstract

Various aspects of managerial and professional employees in Australia are examined in an attempt to establish if the Australian experience is similar to that reported in other countries where “management” appears to have emerged as a third force between the employers and organised labour. It is argued that the new style manager is a younger, more highly educated “professional” but that the managerial function is also changing. A survey, conducted in Australia during 1985 of senior executives and 14 large scale organisations from both the public and private sector, provides the basis for this report of the changing characteristics of managerial and professional employees in Australia. Areas explored include the proportion of managers and professionals as a percentage of the labour force; particular characteristics which are emerging; education levels and qualifications; the process governing the movement of managers within the labour market; the effect of recent legislation on remuneration systems; and the degree of union membership among managers.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1977

John S. Evans

A striking feature of Jaques' work is his “no nonsense” attitude to the “manager‐subordinate” relationship. His blunt account of the origins of this relationship seems at…

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Abstract

A striking feature of Jaques' work is his “no nonsense” attitude to the “manager‐subordinate” relationship. His blunt account of the origins of this relationship seems at first sight to place him in the legalistic “principles of management” camp rather than in the ranks of the subtler “people centred” schools. We shall see before long how misleading such first impressions can be, for Jaques is not making simplistic assumptions about the human psyche. But he certainly sees no point in agonising over the mechanism of association which brings organisations and work‐groups into being when the facts of life are perfectly straightforward and there is no need to be squeamish about them.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 15 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Article
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Ahmed Hassanein, Mahmoud Marzouk and Mohsen Ebied A.Y. Azzam

This paper tests for a positive, a negative and a nonlinear relationship between the share of ownership controlled by firm managers and the management decision to invest…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper tests for a positive, a negative and a nonlinear relationship between the share of ownership controlled by firm managers and the management decision to invest in research and development (R&D). Likewise, it examines whether or not institutional investors induce corporate managers with ownership stakes to spend on R&D.

Design/methodology/approach

It examines a sample of the United Kingdom (UK) Financial Times Stock Exchange (FTSE) all-shares firms over a longitudinal period from 2009 to 2018. The R&D is measured by the natural logarithm of a firm's R&D spending and a firm's R&D expenditure scaled by its total assets at the end of the year. The results are estimated using the year/industry fixed effects as well as the firm fixed effects.

Findings

The results show a positive effect on R&D spending at a lower level of managerial ownership, and a negative impact at a higher managerial ownership level. The findings jointly suggest an inverse U-shaped nonlinear relationship between ownership by firm managers and management decisions on R&D spending. The results also demonstrate that the effect of institutional investors' ownership on R&D spending decisions is observable only at a lower level of managerial ownership and disappears at a higher level.

Practical implications

The results shed the light on the role of managerial ownership in promoting firm innovation. They suggest an optimal level of equity ownership by corporate managers that maximizes R&D spending, implying that firms can effectively manage their R&D spending by restructuring their managerial ownership to maintain an appropriate level of managerial ownership to align managerial interests with shareholder interests by either increasing it to the optimal level or decreasing it when it becomes above this level. The findings also support the limited degree of monitoring and the long-term perspective offered by institutional investors in the UK

Originality/value

The study provides new evidence on the non-monotonic effect of the share of ownership controlled by firm managers on R&D spending decisions. It also expands the growing body of literature and contributes to the debate on the effectiveness of institutional investors in the UK.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Gordon Wills

Posits that every enterprise must institutionalize its workplacelearning systems and opportunities in such a way that it radiates whatit has already achieved and from this…

Abstract

Posits that every enterprise must institutionalize its workplace learning systems and opportunities in such a way that it radiates what it has already achieved and from this moves on to realize its full potential – in short, the enterprise itself is the key. Examines in successive chapters: the individual manager and questioning insights (Q); the major systems which the enterprise uses to capture and structure its learning; a SWOT analysis of the enterprise′s total learning; action learning, its contribution to the achievement of enterprise growth, and the role of programmed knowledge (P); the Enterprise School of Management (ESM) as a phoenix of enlightenment and effectiveness rising from the ashes of traditional, less effective management training initiatives; and, finally, the practical realization of the action learning dream, as evidenced by emerging examples of successful and profitable implementation worldwide. Concludes with a selection of pertinent abstracts.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2000

Rita Mano‐Negrin

Public versus private sector placement and gender‐based effects are examined as the prime generator of wage variations among men and women Israeli managers in Israel. The…

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Abstract

Public versus private sector placement and gender‐based effects are examined as the prime generator of wage variations among men and women Israeli managers in Israel. The macro‐sociological analysis of economic sectors, organizational theory and human capital effects are integrated to predict public/private sector variations in wages, taking account of managerial level and gender effects. Using demographic, human capital characteristics and managerial level position from a representative sample of 778 Israeli public and private sector employees, it is shown that wage variations are generated by initial placement in the public/private sector; higher returns to work hours, education and managerial position in the private sector, and “manhood” which increases returns to wages in both sectors taking account of managerial level variations. These results suggest that public/private sector wage differences are only partially explained by occupational and managerial level variations: taking into account the above variables, gender remains the major determinant of wages for both private and public sector employees.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 23 February 2022

Efstathios Magerakis

This paper examines the role of managerial discretion in the relation between managerial ability on the level of corporate cash.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the role of managerial discretion in the relation between managerial ability on the level of corporate cash.

Design/methodology/approach

Conjoining the upper echelons theory's premises and the theoretical framework of cash holdings, we posit that the managerial ability's effect on cash policy varies with managerial discretion using firm-level data. To test the empirical prediction, we employ a linear regression model with fixed effects with a sample of US listed firms from 1980 to 2016.

Findings

The findings reveal that the positive association between the ability of chief executive officers and corporate cash savings is weakened by firm-level managerial discretion. The results are robust to various additional analyses, namely lagged independent variables regression, reduced form regression and granger causality test. Overall, the findings are generally consistent with the cash holding motives yielding transaction and precautionary demand for money. However, our findings also shed light on whether managerial discretion moderates or exacerbates agency problems related to top executives' cash holding policies.

Originality/value

This work's distinct characteristic is the investigation of the joint effect of managerial talent and discretion on a firm's cash holding, which remains unexplored in the literature.

Details

Management Decision, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Thomas N. Garavan, Fergal O'Brien and Deborah O'Hanlon

To investigate the factors predicting the career progression of hotel managers working in international hotel chains in Ireland, Europe and Asia.

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Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the factors predicting the career progression of hotel managers working in international hotel chains in Ireland, Europe and Asia.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a cross‐sectional questionnaire design consisting of 337 respondents. It investigates individual‐ and organisational‐level factors that potentially explain the career progression of hotel managers.

Findings

The study reveals significant differences in managerial progression in the three sub‐samples. A multiplicity of factors explains differences in advancement. These include demographic, human capital, psychological characteristics of the manager and organisational characteristics. The model developed in the paper explained significant variance in three measures of managerial advancement: salary level, number of job moves, and position reached in the hierarchy.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on self‐report data and the response rates are slightly below those reported for behavioural science research. The study does not gather the perceptions of the managers' superiors. The findings indicate that managerial advancement is explained by a complex set of factors, which would benefit from further investigation.

Practical implications

The study findings suggest important practical implications for the provision of training and development, individual and organisational career strategies, the role of networking in advancement and the respective roles of managers and organisations in managing careers.

Originality/value

The paper has a cross‐cultural dimension which to date is largely absent from this area of research.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2016

Hao Liang, Luc Renneboog and Sunny Li Sun

We take a state-stewardship view on corporate governance and executive compensation in economies with strong political involvement, where state-appointed managers act as…

Abstract

Purpose

We take a state-stewardship view on corporate governance and executive compensation in economies with strong political involvement, where state-appointed managers act as responsible “stewards” rather than “agents” of the state.

Methodology/approach

We test this view on China and find that Chinese managers are remunerated not for maximizing equity value but for increasing the value of state-owned assets.

Findings

Managerial compensation depends on political connections and prestige, and on the firms’ contribution to political goals. These effects were attenuated since the market-oriented governance reform.

Research limitations/implications

Economic reform without reforming the human resources policies at the executive level enables the autocratic state to exert political power on corporate decision making, so as to ensure that firms’ business activities fulfill the state’s political objectives.

Practical implications

As a powerful social elite, the state-steward managers in China have the same interests as the state (the government), namely extracting rents that should adhere to the nation (which stands for the society at large or the collective private citizens).

Social implications

As China has been a communist country with a single ruling party for decades, the ideas of socialism still have a strong impact on how companies are run. The legitimacy of the elite’s privileged rights over private sectors is central to our question.

Originality/value

Chinese executive compensation stimulates not only the maximization of shareholder value but also the preservation of the state’s interests.

Details

The Political Economy of Chinese Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-957-2

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Johanna Anzengruber, Martin A. Goetz, Herbert Nold and Marco Woelfle

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the relative importance of task, relations, and change capabilities of managers at low, middle, and top hierarchical levels.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the relative importance of task, relations, and change capabilities of managers at low, middle, and top hierarchical levels.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered from performance reviews and evaluations from human resources personnel for 2,307 managers in one large company in a high-tech industry. Separate regressions for each management level were performed with standardized regression coefficients allowing comparisons across the different regressions.

Findings

Significant differences were observed in the effectiveness of managers using task, relations, and change capabilities. At top management, change-oriented capabilities become 2 to 3 times more important than at the lowest level. Task-oriented capabilities become significantly less important at the top level. Relations-oriented capabilities are important at all levels.

Research limitations/implications

Studies with participants from multiple industries and longitudinal studies could benefit research by further validating the findings and offering new insights on other situational factors, which change over time.

Practical implications

Managers, who have been successful in lower and middle positions, may not necessarily be effective top managers.

Originality/value

Few studies have explored differences in managerial capabilities at different hierarchical levels in organizations. The study offers a clear rationale to consider when conducting any analysis of different levels of management by practitioners or researchers.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

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