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Article

Antonio J. Verdú‐Jover, José‐María Gómez‐Gras and Francisco J. Lloréns‐Montes

This paper aims to propose a model to assess managerial flexibility and its determinants.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a model to assess managerial flexibility and its determinants.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors perform a literature review to identify the main dimensions of managerial flexibility. Flexibility as a firm capability to co‐align the firm and the business environment permanently is deeply related to the notion of fit. The proposed model integrates different approaches to fit. Based on an empirical, transnational study, the research proposes a model for managerial flexibility.

Findings

Three types of flexibility are measured: managerial flexibility, financial flexibility and metaflexibility. Financial flexibility and metaflexibility determine the degree of managerial flexibility, which in turn has positive implications for performance.

Research limitations/implications

The variables included in the model are not exhaustive. The concept of fit implies a static perspective of flexibility.

Practical implications

The results are useful both for researchers and for practitioners. Researchers can benefit from a review of managerial flexibility and a methodology that combines different approaches to fit: matching, covariation and profile deviation. Practitioners can learn that managerial flexibility, articulated in some managerial practices, has positive effects on performance when they are in line with the requirements of the environment. In order to activate these practices, firms should maintain a commitment to learning capabilities and financial resources.

Originality/value

Three contributions are important for research. First, the paper proposes a model for explaining the nature of managerial flexibility. Second, it shows that flexibility and fit are interrelated concepts and that fit improves the measurability of flexibility. Third, managerial flexibility has positive implications for firm performance.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 108 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article

Antonio J. Verdú and José‐María Gómez‐Gras

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of managerial flexibility and analyse its relationship to the organizational responsiveness of firms. This paper seeks…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of managerial flexibility and analyse its relationship to the organizational responsiveness of firms. This paper seeks to measure responsiveness by determining the fit between contextual and organizational variables.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an empirical approach and data drawn from a wide range of countries and different industries this paper obtains a sufficiently validated multidimensional scale.

Findings

The research proposes a measurement scale of organizational responsiveness through four types of managerial flexibility: internal and external, structural and strategic.

Practical implications

Whereas researchers can benefit from the development of a methodology that integrates different perspectives on fit, practitioners can identify the organizational responsiveness in their organizations.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by proposing a method to identify the organizational responsiveness of firms and developing a measurement scale.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article

Antonio J. Verdú‐Jover, F. Javier Lloréns‐Montes and Víctor J. García‐Morales

The research attempts to evaluate whether services firms form a homogeneous body when applying managerial flexibility as compared to manufacturing firms. The paper…

Abstract

The research attempts to evaluate whether services firms form a homogeneous body when applying managerial flexibility as compared to manufacturing firms. The paper examines the differential effects that exist regarding performance when faced with divergences in the levels of fit between the firm's real flexibility and that required by the environment on a strategic, structural and operational level. The hypotheses are tested using data from 417 European firms. The results show that a good fit between real and required operational flexibility has a more positive influence on business performance in service firms than in the manufacturing sector. Service firms, in the day‐to‐day context should have the capacity to change rapidly when successful operational practices in their adjacent environment change.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article

Umesh Kumar Bamel, Santosh Rangnekar, Peter Stokes and Renu Rastogi

The purpose of this paper is to conduct an investigation into the interaction of three factors: ownership (public and private sector organizations), gender (male and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct an investigation into the interaction of three factors: ownership (public and private sector organizations), gender (male and female), and level of manager (senior, middle, junior) in relation to the concept of effectiveness in the Indian context.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a data set of primary responses from 200 Indian executives. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was employed to retrieve and validate the instrument. Finally, 2×2×3 factorial ANOVA (GLM) was performed.

Findings

First, the study proposes a valid and reliable measure of managerial effectiveness. Second, the interaction pattern of predictor variables in relation to managerial effectiveness provides further insights.

Practical implications

Through its empirical evidence the study offers insight into issues of managerial effectiveness and provides suggestions for managerial action.

Originality/value

The study attempted to gather the views of executives regarding issues of productivity, adaptability and flexibility as constructs of managerial effectiveness. Last, comparative analysis of different categories of managers (based on gender, organizational position, and institutional ownership status) provide an understanding of these issues in the Indian context.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article

H.W. TenDam

Flexibility characteristics of individual managers, management teams and organisational cultures, based on the consultancy experiences of a management psychologist, are…

Abstract

Flexibility characteristics of individual managers, management teams and organisational cultures, based on the consultancy experiences of a management psychologist, are explored. Flexibility is related to different types of challenges, and the contents of a managerial flexibility audit are outlined.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article

Jan M. Smolarski, Neil Wilner and Jose G. Vega

This paper aims to examine the applicability of real options methodology with respect to developing internal transfer pricing mechanisms. A pervasive theme in existing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the applicability of real options methodology with respect to developing internal transfer pricing mechanisms. A pervasive theme in existing models is their inability to handle the dynamic and volatile nature of today’s business environment, as well as their lack of objective managerial flexibility. The authors address these and other issues and develop a transfer pricing mechanism based on Black–Scholes and the binomial options pricing methodology, which is better suited in today’s dynamic business environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a conceptual approach in developing theoretical justifications and show, practically, how a transfer price can be developed using two different real options pricing models.

Findings

The authors find that real options transfer price mechanism (real options framework [ROF]) can effectively deal with many of the issues that permeate a modern organization with complex multi-dimensional operations. The authors argue that uncertainty and behavioral issues commonly associated with setting transfer prices are better handled using a transfer pricing mechanism that preserves flexibility at the business unit level, the managerial level and the firm level. The approach allows for different managerial styles in both centralized and decentralized sub-units within the same organization. The authors argue that an open multi-dimensional framework using real options is suitable under conditions of uncertainty and managerial opportunism.

Practical implications

ROF-based transfer pricing may be significant in that firms can use it as a tool to manage an organization by setting the prices centrally and at the same time allowing managers to select the transfer price that best suits their specific situation and operating conditions. This may result in a more efficient and more profitable organization.

Originality/value

The contribution of the paper is the melding of the ROF from the finance literature with the accounting problem of setting a transfer price for items lacking a competitive market price. The authors also contribute to existing research by explicitly developing a framework that values managerial flexibility, takes into account uncertainty and considers the behavioral aspects of the transfer pricing process. The authors establish the conditions under which a generic real options model is a feasible alternative in determining a transfer price.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article

Ralf Müller and Miia Martinsuo

– The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of relational norms on project success in different project governance contexts.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of relational norms on project success in different project governance contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

A worldwide web-based questionnaire yielded 200 responses. Results from regression analyses supported the hypothesis that relational norms impact project success. Hierarchical regression analyses showed the moderating effect of governance and control on the relationship between relational norms and project success.

Findings

Relational norms in the buyer-supplier relationship are positively associated with project success. This relationship is moderated by the strictness of project governance, especially the level of flexibility left to the project manager. Lower levels of managerial flexibility are detrimental to project success in cases of weak relational norms and supportive of project success in cases of high relational norms.

Research limitations/implications

Academic implications stem from the indication that control has a low influence on the relationship between relational norms and project success, but that the level of managerial flexibility ultimately influences the choice of relational norms needed for a project to be successful.

Practical implications

Clear organizational structures and methodologies are supportive of project success in cases of good relational norms. Therefore, project management training should focus on the relationship building capabilities of project managers, to leverage investments in existing methods and organizational structures.

Originality/value

The paper extends the insights of the importance of soft aspects in managing projects across organizational borders and different governance structures.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article

R.S.M. Lau

In this empirical study of 382 US computer and electronics companies, the relationship between manufacturing flexibility and its five infrastructural scales was examined…

Abstract

In this empirical study of 382 US computer and electronics companies, the relationship between manufacturing flexibility and its five infrastructural scales was examined. These infrastructural scales include workforce autonomy, communication, inter‐departmental relationships, supplier flexibility and technology. The results suggested that all infrastructural scales, except workforce autonomy, have a direct and positive effect on a firm’s manufacturing flexibility. Discussion and managerial implications of the results were also presented in this paper.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article

Michael C. Ehrhardt and James M. Reeve

Traditional approaches to capital budgeting may be inadequate in today's complex business environment. This paper identifies problems with a narrow approach to capital…

Abstract

Traditional approaches to capital budgeting may be inadequate in today's complex business environment. This paper identifies problems with a narrow approach to capital budgeting and suggests several improvements. In particular, an example illustrates an option‐based approach to valuing managerial flexibility.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article

Kari Nyland, Charlotte Morland and John Burns

The purpose of this paper is to explore two hospital departments, one of which is laterally dependent on the other to function, but which are subject to distinct vertical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore two hospital departments, one of which is laterally dependent on the other to function, but which are subject to distinct vertical managerial controls. This complexity in vertical–lateral relations generates tension amongst the hospital’s senior managers and a perception of coordination difficulties. However, this paper shows how the interplay between managerial and non-managerial controls, plus important employee “work”, moderates tension and facilitates day-to-day lateral coordination at the patient-facing level.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a case-study, relying mostly on the findings of semi-structured interviews. Theoretically, the paper draws from previous insights on inter-organisational relations (but informing the focus on intra-organisational coordination) and an “institutional work” perspective.

Findings

Consistent with much extant literature, this paper reveals how non-managerial controls help to moderate tensions that could emerge from the coercive use of managerial controls. However, the authors also show a maintained influence and flexibility in the managerial controls at patient-facing levels, as new circumstances unfold.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this paper could generalise neither all laterally dependent spaces in hospitals nor patterns across different hospitals. The authors recommend future research into the dynamics and interaction of managerial and non-managerial controls in other complex settings, plus focus on the purposeful work of influential agents.

Originality/value

The paper has two primary contributions: extending our knowledge of the interplay between managerial and non-managerial controls inside complex organisations, where non-managerial controls reinforce rather than displace managerial controls, and highlighting that it is seldom just controls per se which “matter”, but also agents’ purposeful actions that facilitate coordination in complex organisations.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

Keywords

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