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Publication date: 8 October 2018

Stephan Leixnering, Andrea Schikowitz, Gerhard Hammerschmid and Renate E. Meyer

Public sector reforms of recent decades in Europe have promoted managerialism and aimed at introducing private sector thinking and practices. However, with regard to…

Abstract

Public sector reforms of recent decades in Europe have promoted managerialism and aimed at introducing private sector thinking and practices. However, with regard to public sector executives’ self-understanding, managerial role identities have not replaced bureaucratic ones; rather, components from both paradigms were combined. In this chapter, we introduce a bi-dimensional identity approach (attitudes and practices) that allows for different combinations and forms of hybridity. Empirically, we explore the role identities of public sector executives across Europe, building on survey data from over 7,000 top public officials in 19 countries (COCOPS survey). We identify country-level profiles, as well as patterns across countries, and find that administrative traditions can account for these profiles and patterns only to a limited extent. Rather, they have to be complemented by factors such as stability of the institutional environment (indicating lower shares of hybrid combinations) or extent of reform pressures (indicating higher shares of hybrid combinations).

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Richard C. Hoffman, Frank M. Shipper, Jeanette A. Davy and Denise M. Rotondo

– The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between managerial skills and effectiveness in a cross-cultural setting to determine their applicability.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between managerial skills and effectiveness in a cross-cultural setting to determine their applicability.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from 7,606 managers in 5 countries from a large multinational firm were analyzed using structural equation modeling to assess all relationships simultaneously and reduce error effects.

Findings

The results support the cross-cultural validity of the model of managerial skills-effectiveness. Few cross-cultural differences were found. Interactive skills had greater positive impact on attitudes than initiating skills. Pressuring skills had a negative impact on attitudes. None of the skill sets were related to job performance.

Research limitations/implications

Using a single firm and industry to control for other cultural levels may limit the generalizability of the results. Only three skill sets were assessed and one coarse-grained measure of culture was used. These factors may account for the few cultural differences observed.

Practical implications

Training programs for managers going overseas should develop both interactive and initiating skills sets, as both had a positive impact on attitudes across cultures.

Originality/value

The model of managerial skills and effectiveness was validated across five cultures. The use of structural equation modeling ensures that the results are not an artifact of the measures and represents a more direct test for cross-cultural differences. Managing successfully across cultures may require fewer unique skills, with more emphasis placed on using basic management skills having positive impact.

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International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2019

Juma Bananuka, Arafat Walugyo Kadaali, Veronica Mukyala, Bruno Muramuzi and Zainab Namusobya

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a study carried out to establish the contribution of audit committee (AC) effectiveness, isomorphic forces and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a study carried out to establish the contribution of audit committee (AC) effectiveness, isomorphic forces and managerial attitude to the adoption of international financial reporting standards (IFRS).

Design/methodology/approach

This study is cross-sectional and correlational. Data were collected through a questionnaire survey of 67 MFIs that are members of the Association of Microfinance Institutions of Uganda (AMFIU).

Findings

Both AC effectiveness, isomorphic forces and managerial attitude significantly contribute to the adoption of IFRS. However, the explanatory power of managerial attitude is subsumed in isomorphic forces and AC effectiveness. Results further indicate that AC effectiveness partially mediates the relationship between isomorphic forces and adoption of IFRS. In terms of control variables, ownership and capital structure are not significant predictors of adoption of IFRS.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the contribution of AC effectiveness, isomorphic forces and managerial attitude to the adoption of IFRS in MFIs using evidence from a developing country on the African scene like Uganda. Further, earlier literature has not tested the mediating effect of AC effectiveness in the relationship between isomorphic forces and the adoption of IFRS which has been reported in this paper.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Yang S. Yang, Thomas J. Kull, Abraham Y. Nahm and Benbo Li

Studies show the benefits of supplier integration, yet negative attitudes toward supplier integration exist that research fails to explain. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies show the benefits of supplier integration, yet negative attitudes toward supplier integration exist that research fails to explain. The purpose of this paper is to investigate managerial attitudes toward supplier integration and how intra-firm processes and culture affect the formation of such attitudes. In particular, the paper aims to examine the differing influences between the USA and China.

Design/methodology/approach

Using multi-group structural equation modeling, the authors re-analyzed the data collected by Nahm et al. (2004) and Li et al. (2014) comprised of responses from 224 US and 117 Chinese manufacturing managers.

Findings

The study finds that managerial attitudes toward supplier integration depend on the degree to which a collaborative organizational culture and synchronous manufacturing practices exist within a firm. Moreover, in the Chinese context, the influence of a collaborative organizational culture is lower than the influence of synchronous manufacturing practices. The opposite is found in the US context.

Practical implications

The results suggest that overcoming negative attitudes of supplier integration requires more than simply espousing the benefits of supplier integration; looking deeper into an organization’s internal characteristics and situational context is required. In particular, if the country context already emphasizes the collaborative culture, the organization should focus on synchronous manufacturing practices in order to form a positive attitude toward supplier integration.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to examine how managerial attitudes toward supplier integration are formed. The work is novel because the authors suggest that the formation of managerial attitudes toward supplier integration inter-firm management can be affected by intra-firm management in the minds of managers, which are influenced by country contexts.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 37 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Tianjiao Qiu

The purpose of this paper is to advance and investigate empirically how entrepreneurial attitude and normative beliefs influence managerial scanning for competitive…

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5940

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to advance and investigate empirically how entrepreneurial attitude and normative beliefs influence managerial scanning for competitive intelligence and how managerial scanning efforts subsequently impact managerial interpretation of organizations' strengths and weaknesses in the competitive arena.

Design/methodology/approach

A structural equation model was tested with survey data from 309 managers in the USA.

Findings

The results indicate that entrepreneurial attitude orientation and market orientation significantly impact managerial scanning for competitive intelligence, which in turn leads to managerial representations of competitive advantage.

Research limitations/implications

This paper demonstrates that scanning for competitive intelligence is more an entrepreneurial activity than a routine activity for managers, and that managerial scanning efforts can be maximized in highly market‐oriented organizations that value competitive intelligence collection and dissemination. Proactive scanning for competitive intelligence enables managers to develop a fuller picture of the superiority or deficiency of their organizations. Future research needs to address the inherent cyclicity of the managerial sense‐making process.

Originality/value

This paper is the first effort to examine empirically the scanning cycle – that is, the relationships between managerial business motivation, intelligence scanning and sense‐making. It offers strategic guides to both academicians and practitioners on how to achieve a better understanding of the complex and dynamic market through proactive scanning activities.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1989

Janna Woiceshyn

Based on a comparative case study of nine firms in the Canadian graphic arts industry in 1964–86, this paper suggests that managerial conduct plays a significant role in…

Abstract

Based on a comparative case study of nine firms in the Canadian graphic arts industry in 1964–86, this paper suggests that managerial conduct plays a significant role in technological change. There were clear differences in managerial conduct between technological leaders and followers, and managerial conduct was influenced by firm performance, managerial capacities and attitudes and contextual conditions. These four elements, managerial conduct, firm performance, managerial capacities and attitudes, and contextual conditions, constituted feedback cycles of technological change. Firm performance induced managerial conduct that was influenced by managerial capacities and attitudes and by contextual conditions and led to technological change, depending on the intensity and extent of conduct, and technological change further affected firm performance. The paper focuses on managerial work processes as they cause differences in technological change in technological leaders and followers, but other elements of the feedback cycles are considered as well. Technological change has increased productivity growth and standard of living, but technological development also “destroys the economic viability of certain industries, firms, and jobs, as it creates new ones” (Nelson, 1981: 1054). This kind of impact has created a need to predict and control technological change, and thereby to understand the phenomenon better. Despite the fact that technological change takes place in firms (Moss, 1981: 51–53), most of the economics research explains technological development at the aggregate level (see Kamien & Schwartz, 1982 for a review), and the majority of the so called innovation studies concentrate on individual adoption behaviour (see Rogers, 1983 for a review). However, in order to understand the process of technological change, we must go inside the firms where the change takes place. A useful starting point seems to be a comparison between firms that are technological leaders and followers (Schumpeter, 1934; Porter, 1983). This would increase understanding of the factors facilitating and preventing technological change. Technology can be defined as the tangible production process of converting inputs to outputs (Shen, 1981), and it is often embodied in physical capital (Nelson, 1981). Changes in production processes via production equipment are the main concern here. The central question of this paper is: Why do some firms become technological leaders while others are followers? And more specifically: How does managerial conduct differ between technological leaders and followers? The answers were sought through a comparative case study of Canadian graphic arts firms. The results indicate that the crucial factor determining leadership and followership was managerial conduct, shaped by firm performance and by the context of the firm. The role of managerial conduct in technological leadership and followership is focused on in this report.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 9 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

E. Frank Harrison and Monique A. Pelletier

Presents and compares two contrasting managerial attitudes towards strategic decisions. The first attitude is called maximizing behaviour, and it is founded on a set of…

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3625

Abstract

Presents and compares two contrasting managerial attitudes towards strategic decisions. The first attitude is called maximizing behaviour, and it is founded on a set of assumptions that are unattainable in real‐world decision making. The use of this attitude invariably results in a failed strategic decision. The second managerial attitude is called satisficing behaviour, and its use is demonstrably conducive to strategic decision success. Applications of real‐world successful and failed strategic decisions tend to confirm the case for satisficing behaviour in quest of successful strategic outcomes.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

E. Frank Harrison and Monique A. Pelletier

Strategic decisions represent the most important product of managerial endeavors; and strategic choice is the most critical variable in strategic management. This article…

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4733

Abstract

Strategic decisions represent the most important product of managerial endeavors; and strategic choice is the most critical variable in strategic management. This article advances a set of foundations in which the effectiveness of a total organization may be ascertained from the effectiveness of the strategic decisions made by its senior executives. A categorization of strategic decision effectiveness is presented that is derived from managerial attitudes toward a given strategic choice and the process from which it originates.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

Richard E. Kopelman, David J. Prottas and David W. Falk

This paper aims to discuss the historical importance and current relevance of Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y, and to suggest that the paucity of related empirical…

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11146

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the historical importance and current relevance of Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y, and to suggest that the paucity of related empirical research is, in part, attributable to the lack of validated measures. The present research seeks to describe the development and construct validation of a measure pertinent to Theory X/Y behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys completed by 512 working adults provide the present data. A total of 26 initial Theory X/Y behavior items are reduced to 13 through factor analysis. Convergent and discriminant validities are examined through correlational and regression analyses with measures of proximal, distal, and unrelated constructs. Test re‐test reliability is assessed using longitudinal panel data from a subset of respondents.

Findings

The results provide evidence of the construct validity of the new measure.

Research limitations/implications

Respondents are relatively young and drawn from one region of the USA. Future research should collect multi‐source and multi‐level data.

Practical implications

The 13‐item scale may be useful as a diagnostic tool for individual and organizational development.

Originality/value

This paper represents the first research endeavor that focuses on construct‐validating a measure of managerial X/Y behaviors, as distinct from attitudes. The scale can be used in substantive research, including a more robust test of McGregor's theorizing.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1995

E. Frank Harrison and Monique A. Pelletier

Conceptualizes a paradigm for strategic decision success that isbased on a formal, managerial decision‐making process, advanced as partof a set of managerial attitudes

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2973

Abstract

Conceptualizes a paradigm for strategic decision success that is based on a formal, managerial decision‐making process, advanced as part of a set of managerial attitudes towards the process and towards the decision itself. The resultant typology of strategic decisions is related to four sets of real‐world applications to validate the paradigm and to confirm the hypothesis that a formal managerial decision‐making process is conducive to strategic decision success. Concludes that an attainable objective set in an open, decision‐making process and pursued through a judgemental process in quest of a satisficing outcome is more likely to succeed.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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