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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2009

Enver Özkalp, Zerrin Sungur and Aytül Ayşe Özdemir

The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers' conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers' conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 130 managers' conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory‐II.

Findings

First, integrating and, second, compromising are found to be the most preferred conflict styles of Turkish managers. The other important finding is that preferring obliging styles of conflict management changes according to the status of managers. Obliging is mostly used when the conflict partner has an upper level status.

Research limitations/implications

Additional data from cross‐cultural studies are needed to form a comprehensive understanding of conflict management styles. Also, the number of respondents in the study is not enough to generalize the findings; additional data from different sectors could make the findings more valid.

Practical implications

There seems to be a need for seminars or practice‐oriented workshops on evaluating and understanding the nature of conflict and learning to manage conflict as a beneficial and creative process for the betterment of both individuals in organizations and organizations themselves.

Originality/value

The study provides a revised base for cross‐cultural conflict management studies and also highlights the national dynamics of Turkish managers' relationships, especially for international investors.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Carlos M. Rodríguez

Understanding how managers in position of leadership experience culture is essential to avoid instability and poor performance in international strategic alliances. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding how managers in position of leadership experience culture is essential to avoid instability and poor performance in international strategic alliances. This study tests the proposition that national culture, top management team culture, and manager's personality influence leadership and shapes intercultural fit through the predominant management style in US‐Mexican strategic alliances.

Design/methodology/approach

Strategic leadership and personality theories constitute the framework for this study. Managers from the US‐Mexican strategic alliances which partners hold an equity position were surveyed and provided data to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Findings show that American and Mexican managers construct their own social reality with rules and norms bounded primarily by the existing organizational culture in the alliance. Both managers' management styles are similar and converge into a participative “consultative” style emerging as a “third culture” characterized by task innovation and emotional concern as American managers' input and task support and social relationships as Mexican managers' contribution. This study suggests that if adequately balanced, individualism‐collectivism is a source of intercultural fit while building shared leadership.

Practical implications

Managers of international alliances may reconfigure individual and cultural orientations and styles of alliance partners in the design of management teams to build high levels of social effectiveness. The innovator style of American managers supports the dynamics of change for the alliance to advance while the adaptor style of Mexican managers builds stability, order, and maintains group cohesion and cooperation.

Originality/value

Intercultural fit in international strategic alliances is achieved through designing organizational cultures that incorporate partners' cognitive diversity into the relationship.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

David Lamond

During the twentieth century, much of the discussion about managerial behaviour centred on the difference between management functions and manager roles, with much of the…

Abstract

During the twentieth century, much of the discussion about managerial behaviour centred on the difference between management functions and manager roles, with much of the debate centring on “Who is right, Mintzberg or Fayol?” Reports on a study, involving 523 Australian managers, which suggests both are right – Fayol gave us management as we would like it to be and Mintzberg gave us management as it is. In doing so, promulgates a set of new constructions of managerial behaviour – preferred managerial style (management as we would like it to be) and enacted managerial style (management as it is). Taken together, we now have available to us a more integrated theoretical base for research on management and managerial behaviour, and a measure that can be used to progress the required research.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 24 April 2018

Yong Meng, Haiyun Yu, Zhenzhong Ma and Zhiyong Yang

This study aims to explore the impact of well-educated young Chinese employees’ notions of work on their conflict management styles in the increasingly turbulent workplace…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the impact of well-educated young Chinese employees’ notions of work on their conflict management styles in the increasingly turbulent workplace to help better manage work-related conflict in the time of transition in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from over 400 young Chinese employees. The data were first factor analyzed to explore the underlying dimensions of contemporary work notions in China’s transition period. Hierarchical regression analysis was then conducted to explore the relationship between dimensions of work notions and conflict management styles.

Findings

The results showed that well-educated young Chinese employees’ notions of work consisted of sense of control, fulfilling and rewarding, holistic concerns, personal growth and development and meaningfulness. The results further indicated that young Chinese employees with strong needs to satisfy individual interests in their work tend to use competitive methods to manage work-related conflicts, employees with strong needs to satisfy group interests in their work prefer to use collaborative methods and those who believe in collective efforts in achieving individual goals through group goals’ obtainment are more likely to use collaborative and compromising approaches.

Originality/value

This study provides a new perspective to manage work-related conflict in the Chinese context. The findings of this study are able to help enrich conflict management theories in China and suggest insightful conflict resolution approaches to work-related conflicts in China’s changing environment. This study also helps bridge the research gap between work notions and conflict management styles. The results of this study can greatly facilitate Chinese companies’ endeavors toward crafting a more innovative workforce and help improve employee performance in China’s transition to industrialization.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2001

Sarah Burke and Karen M. Collins

The results of this study suggest that self‐reported leadership styles of female accountants differ somewhat from the leadership styles reported by male accountants…

Abstract

The results of this study suggest that self‐reported leadership styles of female accountants differ somewhat from the leadership styles reported by male accountants. Females are more likely than males to indicate that they use an interactive style of management called transformational leadership. This leadership style was found to be correlated with several management skills associated with success. Female accountants reported somewhat higher perceived effectiveness on two of these management skills: coaching and developing and communicating. The findings also suggest that female accountants receive more developmental opportunities than do their male colleagues.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2010

Zhenzhong Ma, Ahmet Erkus and Akif Tabak

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of collectivism on conflict management styles in Turkey and to help conflict management researchers and practitioners…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of collectivism on conflict management styles in Turkey and to help conflict management researchers and practitioners better understand conflict and conflict management in an international context.

Design/methodology/approach

Self‐administered questionnaires with the ROCI scale were used in this study. Data were collected by surveying 244 managerial employees from both public and private organizations. Factor analysis and regression analysis were then used to explore the relationships between conflict management styles and different aspects of collectivism. Differences in demographic factors were also discussed.

Findings

This study shows Turkish people are more likely to use collaborating style, instead of compromising or avoiding as expected from a collectivistic culture. Further, different aspects of collectivism have different effects on Turkish conflict management styles: the importance of competitive success leads to preferences for competing style; the value of working alone leads to less collaboration; the norms of subordination of personal needs to group interest are positively related to more collaborating and accommodating; and the beliefs of the effects of personal pursuit on group productivity are positively related to more compromising.

Originality/value

While Turkey has become more important in world markets, very few studies have been conducted to explore Turkish conflict management styles. This paper examines the ranking of preferences in conflict management methods in Turkey, as well as the impact of collectivism on different conflict management styles, which extends the understanding of cross‐cultural differences in conflict management.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Umit S. Bititci, Kepa Mendibil, Sai Nudurupati, Patrizia Garengo and Trevor Turner

This research paper aims to model the dynamic relationship between performance measurement, management styles and organisational culture, in order to develop a better…

Abstract

Purpose

This research paper aims to model the dynamic relationship between performance measurement, management styles and organisational culture, in order to develop a better understanding of the causal linkages between these three areas.

Design/methodology/approach

The related literature on performance measurement, management control systems and management information systems, in the context of organisational culture, is examined and a framework for mapping the interplay of the three areas is developed. The research is based around five case studies where performance measurement systems were implemented in action research programmes, using identical implementation methods, by the same research team. The use of the performance measurement systems was then observed over a period of time in relation to the implementation lifecycle, changes to management style and organisational structure over time. The dynamic relationships were then mapped using the framework developed. Patterns were observed, which led to new insights.

Findings

Organisational culture and management style seem to be interdependent throughout the lifecycle of the performance measurement system. That is, management styles need to evolve as the maturity of the performance measurement system and the organisational culture evolve. A successfully implemented and used performance measurement system, through cultural change, leads to a more participative and consultative management style. Similarly, the correct use of performance measurement systems can encourage an achievement culture to emerge. All five cases suggested that an authoritative management style was essential at the start but this would change with the emerging culture.

Research limitations/implications

The research results are limited to five socially constructed case studies. Whilst these findings remain valid, they cannot be used for universal generalisations. In terms of modelling the organisational culture, the research focuses on the organisation as a whole and does not take into account the possible existence of sub‐cultures within the organisation.

Practical implications

A better understanding of management styles and organisational culture will allow practitioners to better assess the organisations' readiness to implement performance measurement systems. Similarly, the results provide guidance towards the management styles that would be appropriate when implementing performance measurement systems in different cultural settings.

Originality/value

The framework for modelling the dynamic relationship between performance measurement, management style and organisational culture, together with the findings, should provide useful insights and methods for future researchers in this area.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 26 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1980

John Wellens

Management style is associated with McGregor and his Theory X‐Theory Y, which he introduced in 1960. Comparatively little change in ideas about preferred styles took place…

Abstract

Management style is associated with McGregor and his Theory X‐Theory Y, which he introduced in 1960. Comparatively little change in ideas about preferred styles took place throughout the sixties and seventies, once McGregor had established his approach, until around 1976 or so when social scientists began to look more closely into Japan's successful formula. As a result, one group of investigators claim to have identified an A style which grows out of American culture and a J style which grows out of the Japanese. These differ fundamentally in essential details and one new approach is to seek a hybrid style, known by the investigators as the Z style, which incorporates the best of both cultures. The terms A, J and Z, though not yet in wide usage, are beginning to creep into the literature and might eventually find their way into the manager's vocabulary, but in any case, the review of these new styles makes a valuable contribution to the study of management style. As seminar material this article is important in that it relates management style to the socio‐political environment.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2020

Walter Vesperi, Marzia Ventura and Concetta Lucia Cristofaro

The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first objective is to outline the main theoretical framework on the conflict style phenomenon; the second purpose is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. The first objective is to outline the main theoretical framework on the conflict style phenomenon; the second purpose is to understand the conflict style in a sample of Medical Health Manager.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors based this research on qualitative-quantitative analysis. This study starts with a survey questionnaire as a method to collect quantitative data. Therefore, the authors conducted a survey on the style of conflict management of hospital managers with subordinates. A modified version of the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II (ROCI II) (Rahim, 1983) – Module B is used. This instrument is composed of 28 entries.

Findings

The results of this study offer a double perspective. From a theoretical point of view, the results highlight the main theoretical references related to conflict management. In particular, the main currents of study and the results of empirical evidence have been identified within organizational theory. The empirical part of this study, instead, offers a survey, carried out through the administration of the ROCI II – module B questionnaire.

Originality/value

This paper offers interesting food for thought on conflict management. In particular, it offers theoretical references on the subject and on the validation of the ROCI II - Form B model, in health organizations.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2020

Gianluca Oricchio, Stefania Zanda, Gian Luca Gregori and Luca Marinelli

The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss a model to evaluate the top management quality and its impact on the default probability/survival probability of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss a model to evaluate the top management quality and its impact on the default probability/survival probability of companies operating in the Italian food and beverage industry. The focus is on SMEs and private companies (ie. companies with no external or public rating). The general aim of this paper is to initiate a new field of research enjoying the fast and growing number of information underlying the development of the private lending market (both banking channel and private debt channel) and the recent developments in assessing the managerial styles of leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used in the research is a mixed method based on quantitative and qualitative analysis. The authors have followed the sequential mixed methods design (Creswell and Plano Clark, 2007; Almalki, 2016) belonging to a practice perspective (Tashakkori and Creswell, 2007). The two components (quantitative and qualitative) are integrated in the combined approach: a final proposed evaluation model is explained and discussed.

Findings

According to the experience (and private market best practice) the leadership style has a material impact on the survival probability of a company (and, on the contrary, on the default probability of a company). In other words, the leadership style – other variables be equal – can provide significant information to investors about the future evolution of the financial performance and related credit risk. In the paper, the authors provide a useful model (and tool) in order to capture the above mentioned relationship to support investment decisions in food and beverage industry.

Research limitations/implications

While a positive relationship between a participative style of leadership and the financial performance is widely accepted in the literature; there is no published research on the relationship between managerial styles of leadership and default probability/survival probability. There are several workstreams to be performed in future research in order (1) to provide more business evidence and (2) to extent the analysis to further industries (other than food and beverage). The first step is to collect more data and company information on managerial styles of leadership and to start to track, to measure and monitor the evolution of the credit risk over time in each of the four clusters identified in the combined model.

Practical implications

The practical implication is to provide a methodological contribution to develop an evaluation model of top management quality to be used for the certification of the quality system. The proposed evaluation model is intended to support both (1) the ISO quality management system certifiers and (2) financial analysts and auditors in order to assess the going concern and the business sustainability and (3) the credit risk assessment and evolution in investment decisions.

Social implications

The authors believe that a more deep understanding on the effectiveness of managerial styles of leadership on credit risk can improve the credit and investment allocation and to enhance the borrowing capabilities of the food and beverage industry (with relevant implications on number of employees and size of new investments).

Originality/value

This is the first applied research on the link between the default probability/company survival probability and the quality of management in the Italian food and beverage industry.

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